kutta

kutta
shvaan, kukkur
jeevaashm kaal: 0.015–0 million varsh
PreЄ
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O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
plestoseen – vartamaan
पीले लैब्रेडॉर रिट्रीवर श्वान का चित्र, जो वर्तमान की बहुप्रचलित प्रजातियों में से एक हैकुत्तों की अन्य चित्र
peele laibredaur ritreevar shvaan ka chitr, jo vartamaan ki bahuprachalit prajaatiyon mein se ek hai
kutton ki anya chitr
sanrakshan sthiti
Domesticated
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
adhijgat: evkaaryota
jagat: pashu
upajagat: evmetaajoaa
sangh: kasheruki
upasangh: vertebraata
varg: stanapaayi
up-varg: therya
gan: kaarneevora
upagan: kaaneeformya
kul: kaaneedai
upakul: kaaneenai
traaib: kaaneenai[1]
prajaati: kaanees
jaati: si loopoos
upajaati: C. l. familiaris
tripd naam
Canis lupus familiaris
paryaaya
  • Canis familiaris
  • Canis familiaris domesticus

kutta ya shvaan bhediya prajaati ki ek upaprajaati hai. yeh manushya ke paalatoo pashuon mein se ek mahattvapoorn praani hai. inke dvaara tantrika tantr ko prabhaavit karne waali ek bhayankar beemaari rebeej hoti hai. iski maada ko kutiya aur shaavak ko pilla kehte hain.

anukram

utpatti aur vikaas

kutte 11-16,000 saal pehle pashchimi Europe mein bhediya ko paalatoo banaane se shuroo hue the. yeh samay jab maanav shikaari the ke dauraan ka hai.[2] ho sakta hai ki aadya-kutte praarambhik maanav dvaara shikaar ke baad chhod diye gaye shavon ka laabh lete the, saath hi shikaar ko pakadne mein sahaayata pradaan karte the aur bade shikaariyon se raksha pradaan karte the.

manushyon ke saath bhoomika

praarambhik maanav ke liye kutton ka moolya, kutton ko duniya bhar ke sanskrutiyon mein sarvavyaapi banaane me sahaayak tha. maanav samaaj par kutton prabhaav se kutton ko upanaam "aadmi ka sabse achha dost" mila.[3][4][5][6][7][8]

praarambhik bhoomika

bhediyon aur unke kutte vanshaj, maanav shiviron ke paas rahane se unka mahattvapoorn laabh praapt hoga jaise- adhik suraksha, adhik vishvasaneeya bhojan srot aur adhik mauka prajanan karne ka.[9] saath hi manushya ko bhi apne shiviron ke paas rahane vaale kutton se bhaari laabh praapt hua hoga.[10] kutte barbaad khaane ki safaai karte the aur ve shikaariyon ya ajanabiyon ki upasthiti ke baare mein shivir ko satark kar dete hoge.[10] maanavavijnyaaani yeh vishvaas karte hain ki praarambhik maanav ko shikaar me kutto ki samvedansheel soonghane ki shakti ka mahatvapoorn laabh mila hoga.[10][11] aapasi sahaastitv se praarambhik maanav aur aadya-kutton ki jeevit rahane ki sambhaavana bahut badhi. saaiberiya se utpravaasi sambhaavana saathi ke roop mein kutton ke saath bering jalasandhi ko paar kiye hoge.[12] mool ameriki aadivaaseeyo me kutton ka mahatva adhik tha, ve vajan le jaane ke liye unhein istemaal kiya karte the.[13][14]

paalatoo jaanavar ke roop

kutton ko paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein rakhane ka ek lamba itihaas hai.[15] puraatattvavetta ko isaraail me khudaai ke dauraan ek bujurg maanav aur ek chaar se paanch maheene ki umr ke pille ke avashesh ek saath dafan mile.[16] shuroo mein kutton ko ghar ki raksha ke liye paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein rakha jaata tha.[15][17]

lekin dheere-dheere samay ke saath kutte, maanav jeevan aur parivaar ka hissa ban gaye.[18][19][20] kutte TV par aadarsh paalatoo jaanavar ke roop mein dikhaaye gaye aur kai lokapriya TV sho kiye gaye jinme kutton ko naayak ke roop mein dikhaaya gaya.[21][22] 2009-2010 mein raashtreeya paalatoo jaanavar ke maalik ke sarvekshan ke anusaar keval sanyukt raajya America mein 7,75,00,000 logo ke paas paalatoo kutte hai.[23]

inhein bhi dekhein: kutton ki naslon ki soochi
Border Collie liver portrait.jpg


sandarbh

  1. Macdonald, David; Claudio Sillero-Zubiri (2004). The Biology and Conservation of Wild Canids. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 45–46. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0198515561.
  2. Freedman, Adam H.; Gronau, Ilan; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ortega-Del Vecchyo, Diego; Han, Eunjung; Silva, Pedro M.; Galaverni, Marco; Fan, Zhenxin evam anya (16 January 2014). "Genome Sequencing Highlights Genes Under Selection and the Dynamic Early History of Dogs". PLOS Genetics (PLOS Org) 10 (1): e1004016. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004016. PMC 3894170. PMID 24453982. http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1004016. abhigman tithi: November 7, 2014.
  3. Derr, Mark. "How Dog's Evolved Into "Our Best Friend"". NPR. http://www.npr.org/2011/11/08/142100653/how-dogs-evolved-into-our-best-friends. abhigman tithi: 10 October 2013.
  4. Paton, Bernadette (2013). "The dog: man's best friend?(The use of mans best friend has usually been about dogs. They are hard working and reliable mammals).". Oxford English Dictionary. http://public.oed.com/aspects-of-english/word-stories/dog/. abhigman tithi: July 5, 2013.
  5. Martin, Gary. "Man's Best Friend." The Phrase Finder. N.p., n.d. Web. 13 July 2013. <http://www.phrases.org.uk/meanings/mans-best-friend.html>.
  6. Van Winkle, C.S., ed. Vol. 4. New York: C.S. Van Winkle, 1821. 123. The New-York Literary Journal, and Belles-lettres Repository, Volume 4. University of Minnesota. Web. 13 July 2013. <http://books.google.com/books?id=raceAQAAMAAJ&pg=PA124&lpg=PA124&dq=faithful+dog>.
  7. Coren, Stanley (2009-10-21). ""A Man's Best Friend is his Dog": The Senator, the Dog, and the Trial". Psychology Today. http://www.psychologytoday.com/blog/canine-corner/200910/man-s-best-friend-is-his-dog-the-senator-the-dog-and-the-trial. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-27.
  8. The Trial of Old Drum – New York Times Television Review – June 9, 2000
  9. Groves, Colin (1999). "The Advantages and Disadvantages of Being Domesticated". Perspectives in Human Biology 4: 1–12. ISSN 1038-5762.
  10. a aa i Tacon, Paul; Pardoe, Colin (2002). "Dogs make us human". Nature Australia 27 (4): 52–61.
  11. Ruusila, Vesa; Pesonen, Mauri (2004). "Interspecific cooperation in human (Homo sapiens) hunting: the benefits of a barking dog (Canis familiaris)". Annales Zoologici Fennici 41 (4): 545–9. http://www.sekj.org/PDF/anzf41/anzf41-545.pdf.
  12. A History of Dogs in the Early Americas, Marion Schwartz, 1998, 260 p., ISBN 978-0-300-07519-9, Yale University Press
  13. "The University of Maine - UMaine News - UMaine Student Finds Oldest Known Domesticated Dog in Americas". Umaine.edu. 11 January 2011. http://umaine.edu/news/blog/2011/01/11/umaine-student-finds-oldest-known-domesticated-dog-in-americas/. abhigman tithi: 4 July 2013.
  14. Derr, Mark (2004). A dogs history of America. North Point Press. p.12
  15. a aa Derr, Mark (1997). Dog's Best Friend. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-226-14280-9.
  16. Clutton-Brock, Juliet (1995), "Origins of the dog: domestication and early history", in Serpell, James, The domestic dog: its evolution, behaviour and interactions with people, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-521-41529-2
  17. Franklin, A (2006). "Be[a]ware of the Dog: a post-humanist approach to housing". Housing Theory and Society 23 (3): 137–156. doi:10.1080/14036090600813760. ISSN 1403-6096.
  18. Katz, Jon (2003). The New Work of Dogs. New York: Villard Books. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-375-76055-5.
  19. Haraway, Donna (2003). The Companion Species manifesto: Dogs, People and Significant Otherness. Chicago: Prickly Paradigm Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-9717575-8-5.
  20. Power, Emma (2008). "Furry Families: Making a Human-Dog Family through Home". Social and Cultural Geography 9 (5): 535–555. doi:10.1080/14649360802217790.
  21. Bradshaw, John; Blackwell, Emily J.; Casey, Rachel A. (2009). "Dominance in domestic dogs: useful construct or bad habit?". Journal of Veterinary Behavior (Elsevier) 4 (3): 135–144. doi:10.1016/j.jveb.2008.08.004. Archived from the original on 27 August 2010. http://www.webcitation.org/5sIbRXtwx.
  22. Tannen, Deborah (2004). "Talking the Dog: Framing Pets as Interactional Resources in Family Discourse". Research on Language and Social Interaction 37 (4): 399–420. doi:10.1207/s15327973rlsi3704_1. ISSN 1532-7973.
  23. "U.S. Pet Ownership Statistics". http://www.humanesociety.org/issues/pet_overpopulation/facts/pet_ownership_statistics.html. abhigman tithi: 24 June 2010.