kurukshetr

kurukshetr
shahar
samay mandal: IST (UTC+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raajya Haryana
jila kurukshetr
mahaapaur
saansad shri naveen jindal
janasankhya
ghanatv
9,65,781 (2001 tak )
kshetrafal 1,530 km² (591 sq mi)
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: kurukshetra.nic.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 29°a57′a57″aN 76°a50′a13″aE / 29.965717°aN 76.837006°aE / 29.965717; 76.837006

kurukshetr( , angreji: Kurukshetra)Haryana raajya ka ek pramukh jila aur usaka mukhyaalaya hai. yeh Haryana ke uttar mein sthit hai tatha ambaala, yamuna nagar, karanaal aur kaithal se ghira hua hai tatha Delhi aur amrutasar ko jodne vaale raashtreeya raajamaarg aur relamaarg par sthit hai. iska shahari ilaaka ek anya etihaasik sthal thaanesar se mila hua hai. yeh ek mahatvapoorn hindu teerthasthal hai. maana jaata hai ki yaheen mahaabhaarat ki ladaai hui thi aur Bhagwan Krishna ne arjun ko geeta ka upadesh yaheen jyotisr naamak sthaan par diya tha. yeh kshetr baasamati chaaval ke utpaadan ke liye bhi prasiddh hai.

anukram

naamakaran

kaha jaata hai ki yahaaain sthit vishaal taalaab ka nirmaan mahaakaavya mahaabhaarat mein varnit kauravon aur paandavon ke poorvaj raaja kuru ne karavaaya tha. kurukshetr naam 'kuru ke kshetr' ka prateek hai.

itihaas

mukhya ullekh : kurukshetr yuddh

kurukshetr ka ilaaka Bhaarat mein aaryon ke aaranbhik daur mein basane (lagbhag 1500 E. poo.) ka kshetr raha hai aur yeh mahaabhaarat ki pauraanik kathaaon se juda hai. iska varnan bhagavadgeeta ke pehle shlok mein milta hai. isliye is kshetr ko dharm kshetr kaha gaya hai. thaanesar nagar raaja harsh ki rajdhani (606-647) tha, san 1011 E. mein ise Mehmood gajnavi ne tahas-nahas kar diya.[1]

aarambhik roop mein kurukshetr brahma ki yajnyaiya vedi kaha jaata tha, aage chalakar ise samantapanyachak kaha gaya, jabki parashuraam ne apne pita ki hatya ke pratishodh mein kshatriyon ke rakt se paaainch kund bana daale, jo pitron ke aasheervachanon se kaalaantar mein paaainch pavitra jalaashayon mein parivrtit ho gaye. aage chalakar yeh bhoomi kurukshetr ke naam se prasiddh hui jab ki sanvaran ke putr raaja kuru ne sone ke hal se saat kos ki bhoomi jot daali.[2]

mahaabhaarat kurukshetr mein yuddh ke chitran se sanvandhit ek paandulipi

kurukshetr braahmanakaal mein vaidik sanskruti ka kendra tha aur vahaaain vistaar ke saath yagya avashya sampaadit hote rahe honge. isi se ise dharmakshetr kaha gaya aur devon ko devakeerti isi se praapt hui ki unhonne dharm (yagya, tap aadi) ka paalan kiya tha aur kurukshetr mein satron ka sampaadan kiya tha. kuchh braahman-granthon mein aaya hai ki bahlik praatipeeya naamak ek kauravya raaja tha. taittireeya braahman[3]mein aaya hai ki kuru-paanchaal shishir-kaal mein poorv ki or gaye, pashchim mein ve greeshm ritu mein gaye jo sabse buri ritu hai. aitareya braahman ka ullekh ati mahattvapoorn hai. sarasvati ne kavash muni ki raksha ki thi aur jahaaain vah daudti hui gayi use parisrak kaha gaya.[4]ek anya sthaan par aitareya braahman[5]mein aaya hai ki uske kaal mein kurukshetr mein 'nyagrodh' ko 'nyubj' kaha jaata tha. aitareya braahman ne kuruon evam panchaalon ke deshon ka ullekh vash-usheenaron ke deshon ke saath kiya hai.[6]taittireeya aaranyak[7]mein gaatha aayi hai ki devon ne ek satr kiya aur uske liye kurukshetr vedi ke roop mein tha.[8] us vedi ke dakshin or khaandav tha, uttari bhaag toorghn tha, prushth bhaag pareen tha aur maru (registaan) utkar (kooda vaal gaddha) tha. isse prakat hota hai ki khaandav, toorghn evam pareen kurukshetr ke seema-bhaag the aur maru janapad kurukshetr se kuchh door tha. avashvalaayan[9], laatyaayan[10]evam kaatyaayan[11]ke shrautasootr taandya braahman evam anya braahmanon ka anusaran karte hain aur kai aise teerthon ka varnan karte hain jahaaain saarasvat satron ka sampaadan hua tha, yatha plaksh prastravarn (jahaaain se sarasvati niklati hai), sarasvati ka vaitandhav-hrad; kurukshetr mein pareen ka sthal, kaarapachav desh mein bahti yamuna evam triplakshaavaharan ka desh.

yeh jnyaaatavya hai ki yadyapi vanaparv ne 83vein adhyaaya mein sarasvati tat par evam kurukshetr mein katipya teerthon ka ullekh kiya hai, kintu braahmanon evam shrautasootron mein ullikhit teerthon se unka mel naheen khaata, keval 'vinshan'[12]evam 'sarak'[13]ke vishay mein aisa naheen kaha ja sakta. isse yeh prakat hota hai ki vanaparv ka sarasvati evam kurukshetr se sanbandhit ullekh shrautasootron ke ullekh se kai shataabdiyon ke pashchaat ka hai. naaradeeya puraan[14]ne kurukshetr ke lagbhag 100 teerthon ke naam diye hain. inka vivran dena yahaaain sambhav naheen hai, kintu kuchh ke vishay mein kuchh kehna aavashyak hai. pehla teerth hai brahmasar jahaaain raaja kuru sannyaasi ke roop mein rahate the.[15]ainshyent jiyaagraafi aav indiya[16]mein aaya hai ki yeh sar 3546 foot (poorv se pashchim) lamba evam uttar se dakshin 1900 foot chauda tha.

bhoogol

kurukshetr jila ek maidaani kshetr hai, jiske 88 pratishat hisse par kheti ki jaati hai aur adhikaansh kshetr par do fasalein ugaai jaati hai. lagbhag samoocha krushi kshetr nalakoopon dvaara sinchit hai. krushi mein chaaval aur gehoon ki pradhaanata hai. anya fasalon mein ganna, tilhan aur aaloo shaamil hai. lagbhag sabhi gaaainv sadkon se jude hain. kurukshetr nagar mein hathakaragha, cheeni, krushi upakaran, paani ke upakaran aur khaadya utpaad se jude udyog avasthit hai.

pauraanik mahatva

mahaabhaarat yuddh ki jhaanki, kaansya rath Bhagwan Krishna aur arjun

kurukshetr ka pauraanik mahattv adhik maana jaata hai. iska rigved aur yajurved mein anek sthaano par varnan kiya gaya hai. yahaaain ki pauraanik nadi sarasvati ka bhi atyant mahattv hai. iske atirikt anek puraanon, smrutiyon aur maharshi vedavyaas rachit mahaabhaarat mein iska vistrut varnan kiya gaya hain. vishesh tathya yeh hai ki kurukshetr ki pauraanik seema 48 kos ki maani gayi hai jismein kurukshetr ke atirikt kaithal, karanaal, Panipat aur jeend ka kshetr sammilit hain.[17]

iska rigved aur yajurved me anek sthaano par varnan kiya gaya hai. yahaan ki pauraanik nadi sarasvati ka bhi atyant mahatva hai. sarasvati ek pauraanik nadi jiski charcha vedon mein bhi hai. iske atirikt anek puraano, smrutiyon aur maharshi ved vyaas rachit mahaabhaarat mein iska vistrut varnan kiya gaya hain. vishesh tathya yeh hai ki kurukshetr ki pauraaneek seema 48 kos ki maani gayi hai. van parv mein aaya hai ki kurukshetr ke sabhi log paapamukt ho jaate hain aur vah bhi jo sada aisa kehta hai- 'main kurukshetr ko jaaooainga aur vahaaain rahooainga.' is vishv mein isse badhkar koi anya puneet sthal naheen hai. yahaaain tak ki yahaaain ki udi hui dhooli ke kan paapi ko param pad dete hain.' yahaaain tak ki ganga ki bhi tulana kurukshetr se ki gayi hai. naaradeeya puraan mein aaya hai ki grahon, nakshatron evam taaraaganon ko kaalagati se (aakaash se) neeche gir padne ka bhaya hai, kintu ve, jo kurukshetr mein marate hain pun: pruthvi par naheen girte, arthaat ve pun: janm naheen lete.

kurukshetr ambaala se 25 meal poorv mein hai. yeh ek ati puneet sthal hai. iska itihaas puraatan gaathaaon mein sama-sa gaya hai. rigved[18]mein trasadasyu ke putr kurushravan ka ullekh hua hai. 'kurushravan' ka shaabdik arth hai 'kuru ki bhoomi mein suna gaya ya prasiddh.' atharvaved[19]mein ek kauravya pati (sambhavat: raaja) ki charcha hui hai, jisne apni patni se baatcheet ki hai. braahman-granthon ke kaal mein kurukshetr ati prasiddh teerth-sthal kaha gaya hai. shatapath braahman[20]mein ullikhit ek gaatha se pata chalta hai ki devon ne kurukshetr mein ek yagya kiya tha jismein unhonne donon ashvinon ko pehle yagya-bhaag se vanchit kar diya tha. maitraayani sanhita[21]evam taittireeya braahman[22]ka kathan hai ki devon ne kurukshetr mein satr ka sampaadan kiya tha. in uktiyon mein antarhit bhaavana yeh hai ki braahman-kaal mein vaidik log yagya-sampaadan ko ati mahattv dete the, jaisa ki rigved[23]mein aaya hai- 'yajnyaeya yajnyaamayajant devaastaani dharmaani prathamaanyasan.'

pauraanik katha

kuroo ne jis kshetr ko baar-baar jota tha, usaka naam kurookshetr pada. kehte hain ki jab kuroo bahut manoyog se is kshetr ki jutaai kar rahe the tab indr ne unase jaakar is parishram ka kaaran poochha. kuroo ne kaha-'jo bhi vyakti yahaaain maara jaayega, vah punya lok mein jaayega.' indr unka parihaas karte hue svargalok chale gaye. aisa anek baar hua. indr ne devataaon ko bhi batalaaya. devataaon ne indr se kaha-'yadi sambhav ho to kuroo ko apne anukool kar lo anyatha yadi log vahaan yagya karke hamaara bhaag diye bina svargalok chale gaye to hamaara bhaag nasht ho jaayega.' tab indr ne pun: kuroo ke paas jaakar kaha-'nareshvar, tum vyarth hi kasht kar rahe ho. yadi koi bhi pashu, pakshi ya manushya niraahaar rahakar athva yuddh karke yahaaain maara jaayega to svarg ka bhaagi hoga.' kuroo ne yeh baat maan li. yahi sthaan samant-panchak athva prajaapati ki uttaravedi kahalaata hai.

bheeshm kund

kurukshetr ke pramukh teerth sthaan

kurukshetr ki paavan dharati par shri sthaaneshvar mahaadev mandir sthit hai. lok manyata hai ki mahaabhaarat ke yuddh se poorv Bhagwan shri Krishna ne arjun samet yaha Bhagwan Shiv ki upaasana kar ashirvaad praapt kiya tha. is teerth ki visheshata yeh bhi hai ki yaha mandir va gurudvara ek hi divaar se lagte hai. yaha par hajaaro deshi videshi paryatak darshan hetu aate hain.[24]

aavaagaman

kurukshetr jainkshan railway station
  • sadak maarg: yeh raashtreeya raajamaarg 1 par sthit hai. Haryana roadways aur anya raajya nigmon ki bason se kurukshetr pahuncha ja sakta hain. yeh Delhi, Chandigarh aur anya mahatvapoorn sthaanon se sadak maarg se poori tarah juda hua hai.
  • havaai maarg: kurukshetr ke kareeb havaai addon mein Delhi aur Chandigarh hain, jahaan kurukshetr ke liye taxi aur bas seva upalabdh hai. karanaal me naya havaai adda prastaavit hai.
  • rel maarg : kurukshetr mein railway jankshan hai, jo desh ke sabhi mahatvapoorn kasbon aur shaharon ke saath-saath seedha Delhi se juda hai. yahaaain shataabdi express rukati hai.

anya jaankaari

kurukshetr sthit shekh chilli ka makabara
  • jalavaayu - yahaaain ki jalavaayu July aur August mein baarish ke saath (1 degree celcius ke neeche tak) aur bahut garmi mein garm (47 degree celcius ke oopar tak) pahuainch jaati hai, jabki sardiyon mein kaafi thand padti hai.
  • pravesh - kurukshetr achhi tarah se raashtreeya raajamaarg ek se juda hua hai aur sadak, rel tatha vaayu dvaara yahaaain sahajata se pahuncha ja sakta hai.
  • raashtrakavi raamadhaari Singh dinkar ke dvaara kurukshetr ki etihaasikta ko lekar mahaabhaarat ke shaanti parv par aadhaarit ek mahaakaavya ki rachana ki gayi hai.[25] yeh us samay likha gaya tha, jab dviteeya vishv yuddh ki yaadein kavi ke man mein taaja thi.[25]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. kurukshetr ka itihaas
  2. aadyaisha brahmano vedistato raamahruda: smruta:. kuruna ch yat: krushtan kurukshetran tat: smrutam. vaaman puraan (22.59-60). vaaman puraan (22.18-20) ke anusaar brahma ki paaainch vediyaaain ye hain-
    • samantapanyachak (uttara),
    • prayaag (madhyama),
    • gayaashir (poorva),
    • virja (dakshina) evam
    • pushkar (prateechi).
    'syamantapanchak' shabd bhi aaya hai. (vaaman puraan 22.20 evam padm puraan 4.17.7) vishnu puraan (vishnu puraan, 4.19.74-77) ke mat se kuru ki vanshaavaleeyon hai- 'ajameedh-riksh-sanvaran-kuru' evam 'ya idan dharmakshetran chakaar'.
  3. taittireeya braahman, 18.4.1
  4. aitareya braahman 8.1 ya 2.19
  5. aitareya braahman, 35. 4=7. 30
  6. aitareya braahman, 38.3=8.14
  7. taittireeya aaranyak, 5.1.1
  8. deva vai satramaasat. ... teshaan kurukshetre vediraaseet. tasyai khaandavo dakshinaardh aaseet. toordhnamuttaraardh:. pareenajjadhanaardh:. marav utkar:. taittireeya aaranyak (taittireeya aaranyak 5.1.1) kya 'toorghn' 'strughn' ka praacheen roop hai? 'strughn' ya aadhunik 'sudh' jo praacheen yamuna par hai, thaaneshvar se 40 meal evam sahaaranapur se uttar-pashchim 10 meal par hai.
  9. avashvalaayan, 12.6
  10. laatyaayan, 10.15
  11. kaatyaayan, 24.6.5
  12. vanaparv 83.11
  13. jo aitareya braahman ka sambhavat: parisrak hai
  14. uttar, adhyaaya 65
  15. vanaparv 83. 85, vaaman puraan 49. 38-41, naaradeeya puraan, uttar 65.95
  16. pru0 334-335
  17. Bhaarat gyaan kosh, khand-1, papyular prakaashan Mumbai, prushth sankhya-395, I S bi N 81-7154-993-4
  18. rigved 10.33.4
  19. atharvaved 20.127.8
  20. shatapath braahman 4.1.5.13
  21. maitraayani sanhita 2.1.4, 'deva vai satramaasatr kurukshetre
  22. taittireeya braahman 5.1.1, 'deva vai satramaasat teshaan kurukshetran vediraaseet'
  23. rigved, 10.90.16
  24. Shalihotra tirtha, Sarsa
  25. a aa das, shishir Kumar (1995). bhaarateeya saahitya ka itihaas. saahitya academy. pp. 908. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-81-7201-798-9.

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