kuramaali bhaasha

kuramaali
kurmaali,
panchaparaganiya
bolne ka sthaan: Bhaarat, Bangladesh
suruvaat: 1997
prayog kshetr: Jharkhand aur aaspaas ke raajya
maatrubhaashaaprayogakarta: 310,000
bhaasha parivaar:
hind-Europeeya
bhaasha code:
aaiesao 639-3 inmein se ek:
kyw – Kurmali
tdb – Panchpargania

kuramaali bhaasha jhaarakhand ki ek pramukh bhaasha hai. yeh ek antar-praanteeya bhaasha hai. iska vistaar kshetr "udeeshya shikhar, Nagpur, aadha-aadhi Khadagpur" lokokti se gyaat hota hai. kuramaali ke kshetr raajanitik maanachitr dvaara pariseemit naheen kiya ja sakta. yeh keval chhotaanaagapur mein hi naheen, balki udeesa mein kyonjhar, bonai, baamada, mayuraganj, sundaragadh, pashchim Bengal ke antargat puruliya, midnaapur, bankura, maalada, dinaajapur ke seemaavarti ilaakon, jo Bihar se sate hain, evam chhotaanaagapur ke raaainchi, hajaareebaag, girideeh, dhanabaad, sinhabhoom, evam, Bihar ke Bhaagalpur ilaake va santhaalaparagane mein bhi boli jaati hai. yeh bhaasha keval kurmiyo tak hi simit naheen, balki inke saath nivaas karne vaale anya jaatiyon ke bhaav-viniym ka bhi saadhan hai. yeh mukhyat: devanaagari lipi mein likhi jaati hai, parantu iske saahitya baangla aur udiya mein bhi upalabdh hai.

anukram

kuramaali bhaasha aur saahitya

kuramaali bhaasha ka naamakaran chhotaanaagapur ki anya bhaashaaon- mundaari, santaali, ho, khadiya ki bhaatin kurami jaati ke naam par hua hai. yeh 'kurm' shabd mein 'aali' pratyaya lagaakar bana hai. kuramaali baangla, odisi aur asamiya ki bhaanti maagadhi apabhransh prasut hai aur inhi ki tarah ek nishchit bhaasha hai. bihaari varg ki bhaashaaoain se iska prayaapt saamya parilkshit hota hai. iname anek samaanataaon ke baavajood kuramaali ki apni niji visheshataayein hain jo anya maagadhi-prasoot bhaashaao se pruthak karti hai. kuramaali ki dhvanigt visheshataayein, muhaavare, lokoktiyaaain, sur, taal, laya, vividh geet iske paarthakya ke aadhaarbhoot kaaran hain. ismein lok-geeton, lok-kathaaon, lokoktiyon aur paheliyon ki sankhya bahul hain. kuramaali lokasaahitya mein lokageeton ke baad lok-kathaaon, paheliyon, aur lokoktiyon ka sthaan hai. in lokageeton, lok-kathaaon evam lokoktiyon mein kuramaali jeevan ki chhaap spasht parilkshit hoti hai. in vidhaaon ki vividh rachanaaon se gyaat hota hai ki kuramaali saahitya jitna samrudh hai, bhaav- saundarya ki drushti se bhi utana hi utkrusht.

kuramaali saahitya va vikaas yaatra

adhyayan-adhyaapan ki drushti se kuramaali lokasaahitya ko teen kaalon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai.

  • 1. aadikaal (asmaraneeya kaal se san 1750 E. tak),
  • 2. madhya kaal (san 1750-1950 E. tak),
  • 3. aadhunik yug (san 1950 se abatak)

aadikaal

iske antargat kuramaali ke lok-geeton- dhap, biha, damakach, sarahul, natuaa, vandana, karam, edheiya, udhava, kuaanreejhupaan, dhaabaka, maharaai, ityaadi lok-kathaaye, lokoktiyaaain, aur paheliyaaain hain, jinke rachayita agyaat hain.

madhyakaal

madhyakaal mein kuramaali ke janakaviyon mein vinnd Singh, gaurangiya, barajuraam, narottama, peetaambar, deena, udaya, khep, bogha, raamakrusht, trilokya naath mandal, haandeeraam, deema, jaga, haladhara ko rakha gaya hai.

aadhunik kaal

is kaal ke prasiddh kaviyon mein srushtidhr, mahipaal, bhavapreeta, maheem, shreekaant, kaasheenaath, haraadhan, laakhikaant, keshavachandr, Mansingh, anant keshariyaar, suneel, jagannaath, raameshvar ityaadi hain. chooainki kuramaali ek antarapraanteeya bhaasha hai, at: aadhunik kaal mein devanaagari, baingala, aur udiya lipi mein saahitya ka bharpoor vikaas hua hai.

yon to kuramaali shisht saahitya ka praarambh kuramaali ke madhya kaal se man jaata hai, parantu iska utkrusht kaal san 1900 E. se hi hai. sarvapratham griyrsan mahodaya ne san 1903 E. mein “abhaarat ka bhaasha sarvekshana” mein kuramaali bhaasha ke vyaakaranik visheshataaon ka vistrut evam vaigyaanik vivechan prastut kiya. san 1921 mein sv. niranjan mahato ne geet-sangrah “anethaapaalaa”, san 1970 mein shri budhu mahato ne “akaram-geet” prakaashit karaai. san 1953 mein shri raajeindr prasaad mahato ne svarachit pustak “akapila mangala” prakaashit karaai. isi varsh shri chakravarti devaki nandan prasaad ki do pustakein “an dhare aaainkhi jal aaainkhi paate” tatha “akete akuha bhaasha, kete uttala aasaa” prakaashit huin. san 1956 ke aas-paas sv. raja upendr naath Singh ne vinandan aadi kaviyon vinandan Singh aur gaurangiya ke geeton ka sangrah kar “aaadi jhoomar sangeeta” aur aur “ataal-manjaree” naamak do pustakein prakaashit karaayi. san 1958 mein da. vishvanaath prasaad evam shri sudhaakar jha shaastri ne “alingvistik sarve of maanabhoon end dhalabhooma” mein kuramaali bhaasha ke geeton ke saath-saath vyaakaranik visheshataaon par prakaash daala. iske poorv san 1957-58 mein apne laghu shodh prabandh ke liye “achhotaanaagapur ke kuramaali lokageeton ka adhyayana” mein lagbhag 300 geeton ka sankalan prastut kiya. fir inhone hi san 1962 mein “akuramaali boli: ek bhaasha taatvik adhyayana” namak shodh-patra likhkar pi.H.di. ki upaadhi li. san 1975 E. ke baad se abatak anekaanek gadhya-padya kaavya-grantho ka prakaashan ho chooka hai.
1982 E. ke pashchaat kuramaali kuramaali saahitya vishay-vastu ki drushti se ek naya mod le raha hai. jise ham kuramaali ke aadhunik saahitya hi kah sakte hain. kuramaali lok saahitya ke sangrah aur aadhunik vyaakhya ke sambandh mein kai lekhak aur kaviyon ne mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya hai jinme sarvashri H. N.Singh, shashibhooshan mahato, da. parameshvari pr. mahato, vrundaavan mahato, da.santosh kumaari jain, da. nandakishor Singh, shyaam sundar mahato, aadi pramukh hain.

kuramaali saahitya ke prakaar

saadhaaranat: kuramaali saahitya ko do bhaagon mein vibhkt kiya ja sakta hai:- (k) kuramaali lok saahitya aur (kh) kuramaali shisht saahitya.

lok saahitya

lok saahitya mein un saahityon ko rakhate hain, jinke udgam, kaal-nirdhaaran, ya lekhak sambandhi koi nishchit anumaan lagaana sambhav nahi hai. yeh saahitya un kurmi sabhyata ke us viksit paramparaagat gyaan aur saahitya ka sankalan hota hai jo ki peedhi-dar-peedhi sadiyon se lok-katha, lok-geet, aadi mein abatak kuramaali-bhaashi logo ko viraasat mein mili hai. kuramaali lok-saahitya ki jo saamagriyaaain milti hain, unhein ham mote taur par paanch vargon mein rakh sakte hain:-

  • 1. kuramaali-lokageet,
  • 2. kuramaali lok-kathaaen,
  • 3. kuramaali lok-naatya,
  • 4. kuramaali-kahaavatein, aur
  • 5. kuramaali-paheliyaan.

kuramaali lok-geet

kuramaali mein lokageeton ki sankhya bahul hai. aaj bhi ye geet lok-mukh mein jeevit hai. geet atyant saras aur marmasparshi hai. kuramaali geeton ki parampara ati praacheen hai. koi bhi anushthaan geet evam nrutya ke bina sampann naheen hota. adhikaansh geet nrutyageet hain. raag ke dvaara hi geeton ke paarthakya aur vaishishtya ko samjha ja sakta hai. kuramaali jeevan ke harek pahaloo, vividh drushtikon aur bahuaayaami vichaar-dhaaraaon ko kuramaali lokageet sansparsh karta hai. kuramaali lok-geeton ki pramukh visheshata yeh hai ki adhikaansh geet prashnottar ke roop mein hain. chhand-vidhaan ke niyam se purnat: mukt hai. iske apne chhand hain jo geya hain. geeton ke le dvaara hi shaileegat tatv ko pahachaana ja sakta hai. kaheen-kaheen svat: alankaaro ka prayog hua hai. kuramaali lokageeton ko kai vargon mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai. jaise (k) sanskaar-geet, (kh) ritu-geet, (g) devi-devataaon ke geet, (gh) shram-geet, (d) khel-geet, (ch) jaati-geet, (chh) prabandh geet aadi . kuramaali ke pramukh lokageet hain: udhava, dhap, biha, damakach, sarahul, natuaa, daaidadhara, jaava-karam, edheiya, daabaka, bandana, kuvaanri- jhupaan aadi. saadhaaranat: kuramaali ke lok-geeton mein prakruti ka chitran prayaapt maatra mein milta hai. karam geeton mein ankurodaya, punarvivaah, krushi-karm, haasya-vyangya, jeevan-yaapan ki paddhiti ka ullekh milta hai. vivaah geeton mein kuramaali sanskruti, saamaajik vyavahaar, Khan-paan, dainik karm, rahan-sahan ki chhaap parilkshit hoti hai. kuramaali samaaj mein kanya ka mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. jis prakaar van ki shobha pushp hai, usi prakaar ghar ki shobha kanya hoti hai. kuramaali ke kuvaanri jhupaan geeton mein jaadoo-tona, tantr-mantr evam andh-vishvaas ka varnan milta hai. daaidadhara, dhap aadi geeton mein uchch koti ka daarshanik bhaav jhalakata hai. vaheen damakach geeton mein bhaav-saundarya ke saath-saath haasya ka poot bhi milta hai.

kuramaali lok-kathaaye

kuramaali mein lok-kathaaon ka vishaal bhandaar milta hai. saadhaaranat: lok-kathaao ka mukhya uddeshya manoranjan karna hi raha hai, parantu ye ek poorn viksit bhaasha se kam shikshaaprad, daarshanik bhaav se ot-prot hain. log raat ko ghar mein khaliyaan ke kumba ya dhandhaura ke chaaro or jaade ki lambi raat kaatne ke liye kahaaniyaan kehte hain. kuramaali lok-kathaao mein alaukik aur asambhav baato ki bharamaar rahati hai. ek ullekhaneeya baat yeh hai ki jo lok-kathaayein America, Europe evam hamaare desh ke anya lok-bhaashaao mein prachalit hai, thoda-bahut antar ke saath kuramaali mein bhi upalabdh hai. kuramaali ke lok-kathaaon ko mukhya roop se teen vargon mein baanta ja sakta hai: 1. dhaarmik lok-kathaaen- yatha 'karma-dharma', teen thakuraain, aar-ni-raham, aadi. 2. shiksha-prad lok-kathaaen- yatha buddhik-daam, raaikas-aar-amari, garakhiya-aar-Rajkumari, atukaara-raaja, moonga-moti, karam-kaapaad, aadi. 3. manoranjan pradhaan lok-kathaaen- yatha baauna, baada-siyaar, puitu-budha, siyaarek-chaauchhaali, beniya-aar-charavaaha aadi

is prakaar ham is nishkarsh mein aate hain ki kuramaali lokageeton mein jeevan ke vibhinn pahaluon ka yathaarth aur sajeev chitran hua hai.

kuramaali lok-naatya

hamaare desh mein lok-naatya ki parampara bahut praacheen hai. yadyapi lok-naatyo mein naatak ke sabhi tatv naheen milte hai, fir bhi naatak ke kuchh na kuchh tatv to avashya hi milte hain. vastut: saahityik naatak ke neev ye lok-naatya hi hain, ismein koi sandeh naheen kuramaali ke pramukh lok-naatya hain:- i. chhau nrutya ii. natuaa nrutya iii. damakach aur iv. machhaani.

i. chhau nrutya:- is nrutya mein nartak apne munh par mukhauta dhaaran karta hai aur apne ang-pratyang ke haav-bhaav dvaara bhaavo ko abhivyakt karta hai. katha-vastoo ke roop mein pehle geet gaya jaata hai. geet ke dvaara hi drushya bhi badla jaata hai. yeh mausami nrutya hai. parantu, apni prachur lokapriyta ke kaaran ab yeh nrutya deshi akhaade se nikalkar antarraashtreeya rangamanch par aa gaya hai.

ii. natuaa nrutya:- yeh kuramaali ka bahut puraana nrutya hai. geeton ke dvara kathaavastu ka parichay diya jaata. yeh veer ras ka nrutya hai. nartak apne shareer ko rangeen feeton se susajjit karta hai aur apne haatho mein dhaal aur talavaar lekar nrutya karta hai. usaki bhangima yuddh ki stithi ki hoti hai. is nrutya ko dekh koi aparichit darshak raajasthaani raajapooton ke nrutyon se tulana kar sakta hai.

iii. damakach:- yeh vivaah ke avsar par hone wala nrutya hai. jab var vivaah karne ke liye chala jaata hai to striyaaain mardon ke poshaak pahanakar nrutya karti hain. kabhi-kabhi ve vivaah ka abhinay bhi karti to kabhi-kabhi kisi anya kathaavastu ko lekar abhinay karti hain. geet prashnottar ke roop mein hote hain, jise ham kathop-kathan shaili kah sakte hain.

iv machhaani:- lok nrutya mein stri-purush donon hi bhaag lete hain. geeton ke dvaara ek dusare ko prashn karte hain. geet hi iski kathaavastu hai. beech-beech mein gadhya-shaili ka prayog hota hai. is nrutya mein drushya bhi badalate hain. kathaavastu vyangyaatmak shaili mein hoti hai.

kuramaali kahaavatein (lokoktiyaaain)

kisi bhi bhaasha ka saahitya us samaaj ka darpan hota hai. lok-kahaavatein aur lok-lokoktiyaaain us samaaj, jaati ke aachaar-vichaar, reeti-rivaaj, jeevan-darshan, haas-parihaas, jeevan-paddhati, vyavasaaya aadi ki abhivyakti va digdarshit hoti hai. jhaarakhand ke kurmiyon ka mukhya pesha krushi hai. kuramaali-lokoktiyon mein krushi ka sambandh spasht jhalakata hai. in lokoktiyon mein mukhyat: achhi fasal hone ke sanket, vinaash ke kaaran, avsar tatha stithi ka digdarshan hota hai. in sab ke atirikt ismein haasya, vyangya, lalakaar, chetaavani, soochana, sooktiyon ke dvaara goodh baaton ki shiksha di jaati hai. kuramaali lokoktiyon mein aachaar-vichaar, reeti-rivaaj, aarthik, dhaarmik, raajanitik, saanskrutik jeevan ki abhivyanjana milti hai.

1. dharm sambandhi - yatha “ajo kare puin, se hei dheepa suina”.
2. niti sambandhi _ yatha “aheinth mudiya, bede edeeyaa”.
3. krushi sambandhi - yatha “aaame baam, teinteriye taana”.
4. pushti sambandhi - yatha “aek bahuin thaakur, dui bahuin kukur, teen bahuin dekhe bhakaar-bhukura”.
5. shiksha sambandhi - yatha “anadi dhaarak chaas, michhaaya kar aasaghu, sal chat nahaai pare”.
6. aalochna sambandhi - yatha “asumek dhan saaitaane khaaya, baanche se adaalat jaae.”.
7. soochana sambandhi - yatha “asaavanek gaachhi aar baachhi, danguaa jenik ghaar aar daamada garuk haara”.
8. arth sambandhi - yatha “amaachhek maayek putek sak, aadha saaainp aadha bak..” .
9. vyangya - yatha “akan vihaain dui gade aarata.”.
10. sanskruti - yatha “ahaandi kinthin thanki ke aar keniaai, karateen dekhi ke...”.
11. jaati sambandhi - yatha “abaans bane dom kaana, ghaasi khaaje kumani, aar chaasa khaaje deemani..”

paheliyaaain:-

kuramaali lok-bhaasha mein paheliyon ka prachur bhandaar hai. graameen janta krushi kaarya se mukt hokar saayan-kaal mein gaaainv ke kisi saamudaayik jagah par ikaththa hote hain, bujurg apne gyaan aur anubhav ko baaaintate hain. saath hi bachcho, va navayuvakon se vibhinn prakaar ki paheliyaaain poochh kar ek-doosare ka manoranjan karte hain. isse na keval logon ka manoranjan yavan gyaan-vardhan hota hai balki bachchon ke tark-kshamata ke saath svasth maanasik vikaas hota hai. kuramaali bhaasha ke kuchh pramukh paheliyaaain aur unka hindi anuvaad:-
1. dungari uparein pilei gaachh bin baataanse hilei gaachh - (uttar: nej, poonchh).
2. luck-luck daandi chak-chak paat, khaaitake madhuras ulageit ke kapaas - (uttar: aankhoo baadi, gudbaadi).
3. uluk ghada dhuluk chaanpe, kaath khaaike sindoor haage- (uttar: aaig ).
4. sir re sitka bhuiyein pataka - (uttar: singhan, neta ).
5. doodaku oopar bhootaku naachei - (uttar: teingala, budiya, taanga).
6. doobi-doobi jaai poonchhe chaara khaai - (uttar: sui )

shisht saahitya

madhya-kaal (san 1750-1850) se shisht saahitya ka pradurbhav maana ja sakta hai. san 1485 E. ke aas-paas chaitanya mahaaprabhu ke padaarpan jhaarakhand pradesh mein hone -se vaishnav-bhaavana ka prachaar-prasaar hua. tatkaaleen kaviyon ne raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat se katha-vastu lekar geeton ki rachana ki. Ram-Krishna ko apna naayak maankar unki leelaaon ko lalit-padon mein rachakar geeton ka roop diya.

madhya kaal ke kuramaali lokakaviyon mein barajoo Ram, narottama, gaurangiya, duryodhan, peetaambar, dina, raamakrushna, vinnd Singh aadi pramukh the. is yug ke kaviyon ki rachanaaon mein alankaar, tuk aur chhand ka bhi sachet prayog hua hai.

sandarbh

  • kuramaali saahitya: vividh sandarbh, lekhak da. H.N. Singh, prakaashak- kuramaali bhaasha parishd, raaainchi
  • kuramaali lok geet: saahityik evam saanskrutik adhyayan, da. santosh kumaari jain .
  • kudamaali ful-far aar bhaad-aar, kala sanskruti vikaas kendra, aasanataaliya, chakradharapur.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kuramaali lokageet