kumhaar

अपनी कृतियों के साथ एक कुम्हार

kumhaar mitti ke bartan banaane vaale ko kehte hain.[1]

kumhaar jaati sapoorn Bhaarat me hindu va muslim dharm sampradaayo me paayi jaati hai.[1] kshetreeya va up-sampradaayo ke aadhaar par kumhaaron ko anya pichhda varg[2] tatha anusoochit jaati[2] ke roop me vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. [3][4] saath hi, vartamaan me bhaarateeya sansad me yeh prastaav pragati par hai jinke aadhaar par kumhaaron ko Bihar praant me anusoochit jaati va odeesa me anusoochit jan jaati ki maanyata dena prastaavit hai.[5]

anukram

shaabdik arth

kumhaar shabd ka janm sanskrut bhaasha ke "kunbhakaTr" shabd se hua hai, jiska arth hai-"mitti ke bartan banaane wala" .[6] dravidh bhaashaao me bhi kunbhakaar shabd ka yahi arth hai. "bhaande" shabd ka prayog bhi kumhaar jaati ke sambodhan hetu kiya jaata hai, jo ki kumhaar shabd ka samaanaarthi hai. bhaande ka shaabdik arth hai-bartan. amrutasar ke kumhaaron ko "kulaal" ya "kalaal" kaha jaata hai , yeh shabd yajurved me kumhaar varg ke liye prayukt huye hai.[1]

utpatti ki kaalpanik katha

vaidik Bhagwan prajaapati ke naam ka upayog karte huye hindu kumhaaron ka ek varg khud ko prajaapati kehta hai. kehte hai ki Bhagwan prajaapati ne hi sampoorn brahmaand ki rachana ki thi. [1]

kumhaaron me prachalit ek dantakatha ke anusaar

ek baar brahma ji ne apne putron ko ganne vitrit kiye. sabhi putron ne apne hisse ka ganna kha liye, kintu apne kaarya me vyast hone ke kaaran kumhaar ne mitti ke dher ke paas ganne ko rakh diya jo ki mitti ke sampark me hone ke kaaran paudhe ke roop me viksit ho gaya. kuchh din baad jab brahma ji ne apne putron se ganne maange to koi nahi ganne lauta nahi saka, parantu kumhaar ne brahma ji ko poora ganne ka paudha bheint kar diya. kumhaar ke kaam ke prati nishtha dekh brahma ji ne use prajaapati naam se puraskrut kiya.[1]


parantu kuchh logo ka mat hai ki kumhaaron ke paaramparik mitti se bartan banaane ki rachanaatmak kala ko sammaan dene hetu unhe prajaapati kaha gaya.[7]

vargeekaran

kumhaaron ko mukhyataya hindu va muslim saanskrutik samudaayo me vargeekrut kiya gaya hai.[1] hinduo me kumhaaron va anya kalaakaar jatiyon ko nisandeh shoodr varg me rakha gaya hai. saath hi kumhaaron ko do vargo- shuddh kumhaar va ashuddh kumhaar vargo me vibhaajit kiya jaata hai.[8]

kumhaaron ke kai samooh hai, jaise ki - gujaraati kumhaar, raana kumhaar, laad, telangi ityaadi. yeh vibhinn naam bhaasha ya saanskrutik kshetro par aadhaarit naam hai or in sabhi ko sammilit roop se kumhaar jaati kaha jaata hai.[9]

Bhaarat me vyaapti

chamba (Himachal)

chamba ke kumhaar ghade, suraahi, bartan, anaaj sangraahak, manoranjan ke liye khilaune ityaadi banaane me nipun hote hai. kuchh bartano par chitran kaarya bhi kiya jaata hai.[7]

maharaashtr

sataara, kolhaapur, saangali, sholaapur tatha Pune kshetro me kumhaar paaye jaate hai. ve aapas me maraathi bhaasha bolte hai parantu baahari logo se maraathi or hindi donon bhaashaao me baat karte hain. patra vyavahaar me ve devanaagari lipi ka prayog karte hai.[2] yahaaain kuchh gair maraathi kumhaar bhi hai jo moortiya or bartan banaat hai.[1]kumhaar hindu varn vyavastha me vishvaas karte hai or khud ko nimnatam shoodr varn me maanate hai.[2]

madhya pradesh

yaha hathareti or chakaareti kumhaar paaye jaate hai. bartan banaane ke liye chaak ko haath se ghumaane ke kaaran inhe hathareti kaha jaata hai. kumhaaron ko gola bhi kehte hai.[10]

Rajasthan

Rajasthan me kumhaaron (prajaapatiyon) ke 6 up samooh hai-maathera, kumaavat, kheteri, maravaara, timriya, aur maavaliya. sanjaaik varn kram me inka sthaan uchch jaatiyo va harijno ke madhya ka hai. ve jaatigt antarvivaahi va gotr vaahirvivaahi hote hai.[6]

odeesha va Bengal

Bengal me kunahaar ek suddh jaati hai. odisa ke jagannathiya kumhaar jo ki jagannaath mandir me chaaval ke liye bartan pradaan karte hai, unhe samaaj me madhya Bhaarat ke kumhaaron ki tulana me shreshth maana jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

uttar pradesh va Bihar

uttar pradesh va Bihar me jaati vargikran samaan hai. samaaj me kanaujiya kumhaaron ka sammaan hota hai tatha unhe pandit kaha jaata hai, kintu ve asli braahmano se bhinn hai. maagheeya kumhaaron ko kanaujiya kumhaaron se neecha maana jaata hai tatha tukarana ya gadhere kumhaaron ko achhoot varg me sammilit kiya jaata hai.[11]

sandarbh

  1. a aa i E u oo A Saraswati, Baidyanath (1979). Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization. Abhinav Publications. pp. 46–47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-81-7017-091-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=aqrB_Nzr5QcC&pg=PA46. abhigman tithi: 6 April 2013.
  2. a aa i E Khan, I. A. (2004). "Kumbhar/Kumhar". In Bhanu, B. V.. People of India: Maharashtra, Part 2. Popular Prakashan. pp. 1175–1176. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-8-17991-101-3. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=BsBEgVa804IC&pg=PA1175.
  3. Natrajan, Balmurli (2011). The Culturalization of Caste in India: Identity and Inequality in a Multicultural Age. Routledge. pp. 2.1. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1-13664-756-7. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=9mapAgAAQBAJ&pg=PT67.
  4. Deptt of social justice and empowerment. "Scheduled Caste Welfare - List of Scheduled Castes". GOI. Min of social justice and empowerment. pp. social justice and empowerment. http://socialjustice.nic.in/sclist.php. abhigman tithi: 19 June 2015.
  5. Shri JAGDISH THAKOR, YOGI ADITYANATH, KHAGEN DAS & KIRODI LAL (2012). "Castes under proposal for inclusion in SC/ST Category". UNSTARRED QUESTION NO 651 by Shri JAGDISH THAKOR, YOGI ADITYANATH, KHAGEN DAS & KIRODI LAL. GCONNECT.IN. http://www.gconnect.in/orders-in-brief/reservation/castes-under-proposal-for-inclusion-in-scst-category.html. abhigman tithi: 19 June 2015.
  6. a aa Mandal, S. K. (1998). "Kumhar/Kumbhar". In Singh, Kumar Suresh. People of India: Rajasthan. Popular Prakashan. pp. 565–566. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-8-17154-769-2. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=vm_KCE4XXPMC&pg=PA565.
  7. a aa Bhāaratī, Ke. Āara (2001). Chamba Himalaya: Amazing Land, Unique Culture. Indus Publishing. pa॰ 178. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-8-17387-125-2. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=VO9cP6LYR8wC&pg=PA178.
  8. Saraswati, Baidyanath (1979). Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization. Abhinav Publications. pa॰ 48. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-81-7017-091-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=aqrB_Nzr5QcC&pg=PA48. abhigman tithi: 6 April 2013.
  9. Vidyarthi, Lalita Prasad (1976). Rise of Anthropology in India. Concept Publishing Company. pa॰ 293. https://books.google.co.in/books?id=gLAFhJ1cev4C&pg=PA293.
  10. "The Kumhars of Gwalior". Archived from gvaaliyr ke prajaapati the original] on 2010-03-23. https://web.archive.org/web/20100323001836/http://tdil.mit.gov.in/CoilNet/IGNCA/mrnslp04.htm.
  11. Saraswati, Baidyanath (1979). Pottery-Making Cultures And Indian Civilization. Abhinav Publications. pp. 49–50. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-81-7017-091-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=aqrB_Nzr5QcC&pg=PA49. abhigman tithi: 6 April 2013.