kumaaril bhatt

kumaaril bhatt (lagbhag 650 E) meemaansa darshan ke do pradhaan sanpradaayon mein se ek bhaatt sanpradaaya ke sansthaapak the. unhone bauddh dharm ko Bhaarat se samool ukhaadne ke liye bauddhik digvijya ka divya abhiyaan chalaaya. kumaaril bhatth ne jo aadhaar taiyaar kiya usi par aadi shankaraachaarya vishaal bhavan uthaaya.

anukram

parichay

kumaaril bhatt asamanivaasi braahman the aur pehle bauddh the kintu baad mein dharmaparivrtan dvaara hindu dharm mein unhonne pravesh kiya. taaraanaath unhein dakshin Bhaarat ka nivaasi bataate hain. unke kaal ke vishay mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai. kintu saamaanya roop se unka samay isa ki saataveen shataabdi mein rakha ja sakta hai. ve shankaaraachaarya se pehle hue. ve vaachaspati mishr (850 E.) ke bhi poorvavarti hain aur mandan mishr unke anuyaayi hain. kumaaril bhavabhooti (620 E.-680 E.) ke guru the. kumaaril ka yash harsh ke antim kaal mein achhi tarah fail chuka tha.

rachanaaeain

kumaaril ne shaabar bhaashya par teen prasiddh vruttigranth likhe.

  • (1) shlokavaartik - yeh pratham adhyaaya ke pratham paad ki vyaakhya hai.
  • (2) tantravaartik - ismein pehle adhyaaya ke doosare paad se lekar teesare adhyaayon ki sankshipt vyaakhya ki gayi hai.
  • (3) tupteeka - ismein antim nau adhyaayon ki sankshipt vyaakhya ki gayi hai. shlokavaartik tatha tantravaartik mein kumaaril ke asaadhaaran paanditya tatha pratibha ka parichay milta hai.

kumaaril bhatt ka darshan

kumaaril ke darshan ka teen mukhya bhaagon mein adhyayan kiya ja sakta hai- jnyaaanameemaansa, tatvameemaansa aur aachaarameemaansa. gyaan ke svaroop tatha uske saadhanon ka kumaaril ne vistaar se vivechan kiya hai. gyaan ke vishay mein pehla prashn hai ki yathaarth gyaan athva prama ka svaroop kya hai. meemaansa ke anusaar pehle se agyaat tatha satya vastu ke gyaan ko prama kehte hain. is gyaan ka kisi anya gyaan dvaara baadh athva niraakaran naheen hota aur yeh gyaan nirdosh kaaranon se utpann hota hai. jis saadhan dvaara prama athva yathaarth gyaan ki praapti hoti hai use pramaan kehte hain. kumaaril ke mat se pramaan chhah prakaar ke hain - pratyaksh, anumaan, upamaan, shabd, arthaapatti aur anupalabdhi. advait vedaant bhi upayukt chhah pramaanon ko sveekaar karta hai. meemaansa gyaan ko svat:praamaanya maanati hai. kumaaril ke anusaar gyaan ki praamaanikta athva satyata ki prateeti uske utpann hone ke saath hoti hai. jis samay kisi vastu ka gyaan hota hai usi samay usaki satyata ka bhi gyaan ho jaata hai. usaki satyata siddh karne ke liye kisi anya pramaanon ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. kintu gyaan ki asatyata athva apramaanikta ka bodh tab hota hai jab usaka baad mein vastu ke vaastavik svaroop se virodh dikhaai padta hai ya usako utpann karanevaale kaaranon ke doshon ka gyaan ho jaata hai. at: meemaansa gyaan ke vishay mein svat:praamaanyavaad ko maanati hai. meemaansa ke anusaar gyaan ka praamaanya svat: aur apramaanya parat: hota hai. kumaaril aur prabhaakar donon hi is mat ka pratipaadan karte hain.

ve baahya vastuon ke astitv ko sveekaar karte hain. sansaar ko ve advait vedaant athva mahaayaan bauddh darshan ki tarah mithya naheen maanate. sansaar satya hai. sansaar ka tatha padaarthon ka man se svatantr astitv hai. unke mat se padaarth paaainch prakaar ke hain : dravya, gun, karm, saamaanya tatha abhaav. inko ve do bhaagon mein vibhaajit karte hain : bhaav aur abhaav. pratham chaar bhaav padaarth kahalaate hain. abhaav ko vaisheshikon ki tarah unhonne chaar prakaar ka maana hai : praagabhaav, pradhvansaabhaav, atyantaabhaav tatha anyonyaabhaav.

dravya vah hai jismein gun rahate hain. kumaaril ke anusaar yeh gyaarah prakaar ka hai : pruthvi, jal, vaayu, aakaash, aatma, man, maal, dik, andhakaar aur shabd. inmein pratham nau dravya vaisheshik darshan se hi liye gaye hain. kumaaril ne andhakaar tatha shabd ko bhi dravya ki hi maanyata di hai.

gunon ke vishay mein bhi kumaaril par vaisheshik ka paryaapt prabhaav prateet hota hai. prashastapaad ki tarah ve bhi 24 gun maanate hain. ye hain roop, ras, gandh, sparsh, sankhya, parimaan, pruthaktv, sanyog, vibhaag, paratv, aparatv, gurutv, dravatv, sneh, gyaan, ichha, dvesh, prayatn, sukh, dukh, sanskaar, dhvani, praakatya aur shakti. gunon ki is soochi mein unhonne prashastavaad ke shabd ke sthaan par dhvani tatha dharm aur adharm ke sthaan par praakatya aur shakti rakha hai. karm ko bhi vaisheshik ki tarah ve paaainch prakaar ka maanate hain : unkshepan, apakshepan, aakunchan, prasaaran aur gaman. prabhaakar ke anusaar karm anumaan ka vishay hai kintu kumaaril ka mat hai ki iska pratyaksh hota hai. saamaanya ko prabhaakar tatha kumaaril donon satya maanate hain. unke anusaar iska indriyon se saakshaat grahan hota hai. is vishay mein inka bauddhon se poorn virodh hai kyonki ve saamaanya ki satta sveekaar naheen karte.

kumaaril sansaar ki utpatti tatha pralaya naheen maanate. sansaar mein vastueain utpann tatha nasht hoti rahati hai. jeevon ke janm maran ka pravaad chalta rahata hai kintu samagr sansaar ki na to utpatti hi hoti hai, na vinaash. nyaaya ki tarah kumaaril ishvar ko jagat ka kaaran naheen maanate. anek tarkon dvaara unhonne yeh siddh karne ka prayatn kiya hai ki ishvar ko jagat ka kaaran maanana yuktisangat naheen hai.

kumaaril ke anusaar aatma ek nitya dravya hai. vah vibhu athva vyaapak hai. vah karta tatha karm-fal-bhokta donon hi hai. aatma shareer, indriya, man tatha buddhi se bhinn hai. vah vijnyaaanon ki santaan maatr naheen hai. kumaaril ne bauddhon ke anaatmavaad tatha vijnyaaanasantaan ke siddhaant ka anek prabal tarkon dvaara khandan kiya hai. unke anusaar nitya aatma ke astvi ki anubhooti tatha smaran aadi kriyaaon ki vyaakhya naheen ki ja sakti. aatma parinaami tatha nitya hai. aatma anshat: jad tatha anshat: chetan hai. chidansh se aatma vastuon ka gyaan praapt karta hai : achidansh se vah gyaan, sukh, dukh, ichha, prayatn aadi ke roop mein aupaadhik gun hai jo vishesh paristhiti, jaise indriya ka vishay se sanyog, hone par utpann hota hai. sushupti tatha moksh ki avastha mein aatma mein chetna naheen rahati. kumaaril ke mat se aatma jnyaaata tatha gyaan ka vishay, donon hi hai. ved ke vaakya ki mai aatma athva brahm hooain, aatma ko jaano is mat ki pushti karte hain.

meemaansa darshan ka pradhaan uddeshya dharm ka niroopan karna hai. jaimini ke anusaar dharm ka lakshan hai chodana arthaat kriya ka pravarttak vachan athva ved ka vidhivaakya. meemaansakon ke anusaar ved ka mukhya taatparya kriyaaparak athva vidhivaakyon ka pratipaadan karna hai. ved mein pratipaadit karm teen prakaar ke hain : kaamya, pratishiddh tatha nitya naimittik. kumaaril ke anusaar kaamya karm kisi kaamna ki siddhi ke liye kiye jaate hain, jaise svarg ki ichha karne wala vyakti yagya kare. pratishiddh karm ve hai jinka vedon mein nishedh maana gaya hai. nitya karm ve hai jinka pratidin karna aavashyak maana gaya hai, jaise sandhyaavandan aadi. naimittik karm vishesh avsaron par kiye jaate hai, jaise shraaddh. manushya ko apne kiye achhe bure karmo ka fal avashya praapt hota hai. vartamaan mein kiye hue yajnyaaadi karmon ka fal bhavishya athva janmaantar mein kaise praapt hota hai? ise samajhaane ke meemaansak apoorv ki kalpana karte hai. kumaaril ke anusaar apoorv ek adrushya shakti hai jo kisi kaarya ko karne se utpann hoti hai. apoorv ke hi kaaran aatma ko apne karmon ke anuroop fal ki praapti hoti hai. isse karm aur fal ke beech apoorv ek adrushya kadi hai.

kumaaril ke anusaar vedaant ka adhyayan evam chintan mokshapraapti mein sahaayak hota hai. moksh ki avastha aatma ka shareer, indriya, buddhi tatha sansaar ki in vastuon se sambandh sada ke liye samaapt ho jaata hai. aatma dukh se poorn roop se mukt ho jaata hai. us avastha mein sukh ki bhi koi anubhooti naheen rahati. yeh poorn svatantrata tatha shaanti ki avastha hai. moksh praapt karne ke liye manushya ko kaamya aur nishiddh karmon ka tyaag karna chaahiye. kintu nitya naimittik karmo ka sanpaadan nitya karte rahana aavashyak hai. vedavihit karmon ka anushthaan moksh ka saadhak hai.


sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain