kukuramutta (kavak)

kukuramutta

kukuramutta (masharoom) ek prakaar ka kavak hai, jo barasaat ke dinon mein sade-gale kaarbanik padaarth par anaayaas hi dikhne lagta hai. ise ya khumb, 'khunbi' ya masharoom bhi kehte hain. yeh ek mrutopajeevi jeev hai jo harit lavak ke abhaav ke kaaran apna bhojan swayam sanshleshit naheen kar sakta hai. iska shareer thailasanuma hota hai jisko jad, tana aur patti mein naheen baaainta ja sakta hai. khaane yogya kukuramutton ko khunbi kaha jaata hai.

'kukuramutta' do shabdon kukur (kutta) aur mutta (mootratyaag) ke mel se bana hai, yaani yeh kutton ke mootratyaag ke parinaamasvaroop utpann hota hai. aisi maanyata Bhaarat ke kuchh ilaakon mein prachalit hai, kintu yeh bilkul galat dhaarana hai.

anukram

anukool taapamaan

masharoom ki vibhinn prajaatiyon ko ugaane hetu taapamaan aavashyakta nimnalikhit hai.

kuchh pramukh khaadya masharoom ke liya anukool taapamaan
kramaank masharoom ke vaigyaanik naam prachalit naam anukoolatam taapamaan, beej failaav hetu (celcius) anukoolatam taapamaan, falan hetu (celcius)
1 egeriks baaisaporas shvet batan masharoom 22-25 14-18
2 egeriks baaitaurakis greeshmakaaleen shvet batan masharoom 28-30 25
3 orikuleriya prajaati black iyar masharoom 20-34 12-30
4 lenteenula idods shitaake masharoom 22-27 15-20
5 ploorotas irinjaai Kabul dheengari 18-22 14-18
6 ploorotas fleviletas dheengari masharoom 25-30 22-26
7 ploorotas florida dheengari masharoom 25-30 18-22
8 ploorotas sajor-kaajoo dheengari masharoom 25-32 22-26
9 vaulveriyela vaulvesiya paraali masharoom 32-34 28-32
10 kailosaaibi indika doodhiya masharoom 25-30 30-35

uparyukt saarani mein diye gaye vibhinn prakaar ki masharoom prajaatiyon ki vaanaspatik vruddhi (beej failaav) va falanakaaya (falan) avastha ke liye anukool taapamaanon ko dekhne se yeh spasht ho jaata hai ki masharoom ko krushi fasalon ki bhaanti ferabadal kar chakron mein ugaaya ja sakta hai. jaise maidaani bhaagon va kam uainchaai par sthit pahaadi bhaagon mein sharad ritu mein shvet batan masharoom, greeshm ritu mein greeshmakaaleen shvet batan masharoom va dheengari tatha varsha ritu mein paraali masharoom va doodhiya masharoom.

Bhaarat ke maidaani bhaagon mein shvet batan masharoom ko sharad ritu mein November se February tak, greeshmakaaleen shvet batan masharoom ko sitmbar se November va February se April tak, kaale kanachapade masharoom ko February se April tak, dheengari masharoom ko sitmbar se May tak, paraali masharoom ko July se sitmbar tak tatha doodhiya masharoom ko February se April va July se sitmbar tak ugaaya ja sakta hai.

madhyam unchaai par sthit pahaadi sthaanon mein shvet batan masharoom ko sitmbar se March tak, greeshmakaaleen shvet batan masharoom ko July se August tak va March se May tak, shitaake masharoom ko October se February tak, dhingari masharoom ko poore varsh bhar, kaale kanachapade masharoom ko March se May tak tatha doodhiya masharoom ko April se June tak ugaaya ja sakta hai.

adhik unchaai par sthit pahaadi kshetron mein shvet batan masharoom ko March se November tak, dhingari masharoom ko May se August tak tatha shitaake masharoom ko December se April tak ugaaya ja sakta hai.

khumbi ke baare mein praay: poochhe jaane vaale prashn

Agaricus bisporus : vishv mein sarvaadhik utpaadit evam sarvaadhik lokapriya masharoom
  • kya masharoom maidaani kshetron mein ugaai ja sakti hai?
ji haan, masharoom kaheen bhi paida ki ja sakti hai basharte vahaan ka taapamaan tatha aardrata jaroorat ke anusaar ho.
  • masharoom ke liye kaun si jalavaayu upayukt hai?
masharoom ek indor fasal hai. fasal ke falanakaaya ke samay taapamaan 14-18° celcius va aardrata 85 pratishat rakhi jaati hai.
  • masharoom ki kheti ke liye kaun se poshaadhaar ki aavashyakta hoti hai?
gehooain/puaal ki toodi/murgi ki beeth/gehooain ki chaikar, yooriya tatha jipsam ka mishran taiyaar karke taiyaar khaad par masharoom ugaai jaati hai. khumb ka beej (spain) gehooain ke daanon se taiyaar kiya jaata hai.
  • masharoom ki kheti ke liye kaun si saamaanya aavashyakta padti hai?
masharoom ek indor fasal hone ke kaaran iske liye niyantrit taapamaan aur aardrata ki aavashyata padti hai. (taapamaan 14-18° celcius va aardrata 85 pratishat rakhi jaati hai.)
  • kya masharoom shaakaahaari athva maansaahaari?
masharoom shaakaahaari hai.
  • masharoom khaane ke kya-kya laabh hain?
masharoom paushtik hote hain, proteen se bharpoor hote hain, resha va folik esid saamagri hoti hai jo aamtaur par sabjiyon va ameeno esid mein naheen hoti va manushya ke khaane yogya ann mein anupasthit rahati hai.
  • masharoom ki baajaar kshamata kya hai?
masharoom ab kaafi lokapriya ho gaye hain va ab iski baajaar sambhaavnaaen badh gayi hai. shvet batan khumb taaje va dibbaaband athva iske soop aur aachaar ityaadi utpaad taiyaar kar beche ja sakte hain. dheengari masharoom sookhaakar bhi beche ja sakte hain.
  • main masharoom mein makkhiyon se kaise chhutakaara pa sakta hooain?
aap screening jaal darvaaje aur krutrim saans ke saath naayalon athva lohe ki jaali (35 se 40 aakaar ki jaali), peele rang ka prakaash va milaatheen athva deevaaron par saaiparamethareen ki spray se makkhiyon chhutakaara pa sakte hain.
  • main masharoom ugaane ke liye kahaan se prashikshan praapt kar sakta hooain?
aap khumb utpaadan takaneeki prashikshan khumb anusandhaan nideshaalaya, chambaaghaat, solan (Himachal pradesh) - 173213 athva desh ke vibhinn raajyon ke krushi vishvavidyaalayon se praapt kar sakte hain.
  • masharoom ke kaun-kaun se utpaad taiyaar kiye ja sakte hain?
aap masharoom se aachaar, soop paaudar, keindi, biskut, badiya, murabba ityaadi utpaad taiyaar kar sakte hain.
  • kya sarkaar masharoom utpaadan ikaai lagaane ke liye vitteeya sahaayata/subsidy pradaan karti hai?
nabaard, raashtreeya baagavaani board aur bank masharoom utpaadan ikaai, spaaain utpaadan ikaai aur khaad banaane ki ikaai lagaane ke liye rin pradaan karte hain.
  • khaane ki masharoom kitne prakaar ki hoti hai?
shvet batan khumb, dheengari khumb, kaala chanapada masharoom, stroferiya khumb, dudhiya masharoom, shitaake ityaadi kuchh khaane ki masharoomein hain jo ki krutrim roop se ugaai ja sakti hai. khaane waali guchhi masharoom Himachal pradesh, Jammu va Kashmir tatha uttaraakhand ke ooainchein pahaadon se ekatrit ki jaati hai.
  • kya masharoom mein beemaariyaan lagti hain?
ji haan, masharoom mein vibhinn prakaar ki beemaariyaan lagti hai. masharoom ki kuchh mukhya beemaariyaan geela bulabula, shushk bulabula, kob beb va mold (hara, peela, bhoora) hai.[1]

vibhinn prakaar ke khumbiyon ki chhabiyaaain

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

  • khaadya khumb
  • puaal masharoom
  • shvet batan khumb

baahya kadiyaaain

sookhi huyi khunbiyaan