kshippranodan

kshippranodan (Jet Propulsion) ek prakaar ki pratikriya pranodan hai arthaat‌ ismein pratikriya ki shakti ko kaam mein laaya jaata hai. nyootan ke teen prasiddh niyamon mein se ek yeh hai ki har kaarya ki pratikriya hoti hai. jaise mej ke oopar yadi koi bhaar diya gaya hai, to yeh bhaar mej ko neeche ki or dabaane ka kaarya kar raha hai aur kyonki mej is bhaar ko utha rahi hai, isliye mej ka dabaav oopar ki or hai jiske kaaran bhaar utha hua hai. isi oopari dabaav ko pratikriya kaha jaata hai aur jahaaain bhi koi kaarya ho raha ho, pratikriya ka kisi na kisi roop mein hona aavashyak hai. jab koi bandook chalaai jaati hai to peechhe ki or dhakka lagta hai. yadi is bandook ke peechhe koi geind rakh di jaae to is dhakke ke kaaran geind uchhalakar bahut door ja sakti hai. pratyek machine mein kriya ki shakti ko hi kaam mein laaya jaata hai aur pratikriya ko sahan karne ka prabandh kiya jaata hai, jaise bandook mein goli ko chalaaya jaata hai aur uske kaaran dhakke ko sahan kiya jaata hai. parantu kshippranodan mein isi pratikriya se vah kaam liya jaata hai jo achhi masheenein bhi naheen kar sakateen.

har prakaar ki motor gaadiyon, havaai tatha paani ke jahaajon ke chalaane mein pistan injanon ka upayog hota chala aaya hai. din prati din in injanon mein nai nai khoj hoti rahi aur inse adhik se adhik shakti praapt hone lagi. in masheenon ki aur adhik teevr chaal ki maaaingon ne in injanon ke aakalpan ko yahaaain pahuainch diya ki ab inki aur unnati sambhav naheen. saath hi saath is unnati ke kaaran inki masheenein itni ulajh gain ki inki suvidha se banaana aur upayog karna kathin ho gaya. isliye gas tarabaain ka upayog hua, jiske kaaran havaai tatha paani ke jahaajon ki gati atyadhik badh saki. ab kshippranodan ko do prakaar se liya ja sakta hai, ek to gas tarabaain ke saath aur doosra keval kship ka hi upayog.

yadi is gas ke baahar nikalne ka chhed chhota ho to yeh jor ke saath baahar niklegi, jisse gaadi ko dhakka lagega aur vah aage ki or chalne lagegi. jaise jaise gas jor se baahar niklegi vaise vaise gaadi ki chaal bhi badhti jaayagi. yadi gaadi halaki hai aur inmein gharshan naheen hota. to iski chaal adhik tej hogi. is gaadi ke is prakaar chalne ka kaaran yaha kaha jaata hai ki yeh gas chhed se baahar niklati hai to baahar ki hava se takaraati hai aur isi kaaran gaadi aage badh jaati hai, parantu vastusthiti yeh naheen hai. yadi ise bina hava ke sthaan par chalaaya jaaya to iski chaal aur bhi teevr hogi. isliye yeh keval pratikriya hi hai isko chalaati hai. is prakaar peechhe niklanevaali kship ke dabaav ke hi kaaran yeh shakti praapt hoti hai.

jahaaain adhik chaal ki aavashyakta hui vahaaain kshippranodan ka upayog kiya gaya. vastut: kshippranodan ka vyavahaar vaheen par safal hoga jahaaain adhik gati ki aavashyakta ho. yuddhakaal mein samay ki bachat ke liye kship havaai jahaaj ki unnati hui aur udnevaale bamagolon mein iska upayog hua. bhoomi par chalanevaali masheenon mein gharshan adhik hota hai. aur ve teevr gati se naheen chalaai ja sakateen. at: unamein kshippranodan laabhakar siddh naheen hua. kshippranodan ki vaastavik unnati havaai tatha paani ke jahaajon mein hui. is prakaar ke havaai jahaajon ke halake injanon aur teevr chaal ne samay ko itna ghata diya hai ki sansaar ke ek kone se doosare kone mein bahut thode samay mein hi pahuaincha ja sakta hai.

kshippranodan ke liye sabhi prakaar ke injanon ke nimitt ek hi niyam hain. sab engine baahar ki hava ko apne bheetar kheenchate hain aur iske bheetar hava tatha irdhann mil jaate hai, jahaaain donon jalakar failate hai. is failaav ke kaaran machine ko dhakka lagta hai. jalne ke samay irdhann aur hava ki nishpati adhik hoti hai aur jab machine chal padti hai to hava ka mishran adhik ho jaata hai. hava tatha inrdhan ke jalne se jo gas taiyaar hoti hai usako adhik gati di jaati hai. gas ko adhik gati usi samay mil sakti hai jab use theek prakaar se failane ka avsar diya jaae. parantu is failaav mein gas ki daab ghat jaayagi, kyonki gas ko usi hava mein chhodna hai jahaaain se hava ko irdhann ke saath milaane ke liye bheetar kheencha gaya tha. isliye daab ke ghatne se poori shakti praapt na hogi. jab tak gas ke peechhe poori daab naheen hogi, pranodan samarth na hoga. at: gas ke peechhe poori daab praapt karne ke liye sanpeedak machine ki vyavastha ki jaati hai. is sanpeedak ko chalaane ke liye gas tarabaain lagaaya jaata hai. hava ko sanpeedak baahar se kheenchakar tarabaain ki or poore bal kesaath feinkata hai. tarabaain tatha sanpeedak ke beech irdhann ko isi hava mein mila diya jaata hai aur is mishran ko jalne ka avsar diya jaata hai. iske jalne se aayatan tatha taap ek hi daab par badhte hain. yeh shakti itni hoti hai ki isse tarabaain bhi chalaaya ja sake aur kship ke liye bhi ismein poori gatij oorja (kinetic energy) rah jaae.

sanpeedak hava ko kheenchakar dahan kothariyon ko deta hai, jahaaain irdhann pehle se jalata hua milta hai aur yeh gas adhik taap par tarabaain ko jaati hai. tarabaain is gas se chalta hai aur yeh tarabaain sanpeedak ko bhi chalaata hai. tarabaain se nikalkar yeh gas kship ki bhaaainti failati hui adhik daab par baahar niklati hai. chalne ke samay yeh tarabaain doosare injanon se kam irdhann leta hai, parantu gati badh jaane par yeh sab injanon se kam irdhann leta hai. ooainchaai par pahuainchakar to yeh aur bhi kam irdhann kharch karta hai.

is tarabaain se chalanevaale havaai jahaaj ki gati aavashyakataanusaar naheen hoti. samay ki bachat aur lambi yaatraaon ke liye aavashyak hai ki havaai jahaaj ka vajan kam ho aur gati adhik. yadi havaai jahaaj mein keval kshippranodan hi ho, jismein tarabaain ka upayog na ho to aisa ho sakta hai. iski machine mein bahut se kal purajon ki aavashyakta naheen hoti.

is machine ke keval teen bhaag hai. pehla bhaag aage ka hai jisme hava ke liye kapaat hain aur irdhann ki nali hai jiske dvaara panp se irdhann bheetar feinka jaata hai. in kapaaton ke samay par khulne se hava bheetar jaati hai. yeh kapaat us samay band hote hain jab irdhann aur hava jalakar gas ban jaati hai. irdhann ke jalne par dhadaaka hota hai aur gas baahar ki or bhaagati hai. doosra bhaag dahan kothari ka hai aur teesara bhaag engine ke peechhe ki naali ka hai, jiski lanbaai engine ki shakti ke anusaar rakhi jaati hai. jab isko chalaana hota hai to ismein sabse pehle irdhann chhidka jaata hai aur aag laga di jaati hai. is samay hava ke kapaat khul jaate hain aur hava bheetar aakar irdhann ke saath mil jaati hai. milaavat theek prakaar se ki jaati hai. irdhann aur hava ka mishran lagbhag 2 mileeseinkad mein jal jaata hai aur iska taap 250 sein. aur daab 100 pratishat badh jaati hai. ab yeh gas naali ki or jaati hai to naali mein jaane se pehle yeh failati hai. jab yeh naali mein jaati hai to naali ka vyaas chhota hone ke kaaran iska taap 9000 sein. aur daab ghatkar 95 pratishat ho jaati hai. kothari se baahar nikalne tak ka samay 8 mileesekeind ho sakta hai. is prakaar irdhann aur hava ke mishran se utpann dhadaaka ek doosare ke pashchaat‌ jaldi jaldi hoti hai. isi dhadaake ke bal par aur gas ke teevr gati se baahar nikalne ke kaaran pranodan ke liye machine milti hai. irdhann ko pehle bijli se jalaaya jaata hai, kintu machine ke chalne par dahan kothari itni tap jaati hai ki irdhann apne aap hi jal jaata hai. irdhann ki naali ki lanbaai itni rakhi jaati hai ki hava ke kapaat khulne se pehle hi jali hui gas baahar nikal jaae. is prakaar ki masheenon ka upayog aapse aap chalanevaale bamagolon mein kiya gaya tha aur ab havaai jahaajon mein kiya jaata hai, parantu isak o chalaane ke liye lambe sthaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur chalne ke samay iski gati adhik honi chaahiye.

pehle yeh vichaar tha ki pistan engine ke sthaan par kshippranodan ka vyavahaar karne par bahut jyaada kal purajon ki aavashyakta naheen hogi, parantu aisa naheen hua. kshippranodan ke upayog ke saath hi yeh pata chala ki keval indhan ke pumpon ko badi saavadhaani se banaana hai aur irdhann tatha hava ka niyantran theek rakhana nitaant aavashyak hain.

maan lein gas nikalne ka parimaan m prati second hai aur iski gati g hai. machine ko chalaanevaali shakti m x g hui. yadi gas ke baahar nikalne ke sthaan ka kshetrafal ksh hai to is sthaan par do daabein hongi, ek to baahar niklanevaali gas ki daab jo ni1 hai aur doosari is sthaan par hava ki daab, jo, maan lein, ni2 hai. ye donon daabein ek doosare ke viruddh hongi. isliye is sthaan par daab hogi ksh (ni1-ni2) jo m x g ke saath kaam karegi. isliye pranodan ki poori shakti =m x g+ksh (ni1-ni2) hogi.

yadi gas baahar niklanevaali chhed ko aisa banaaya jaae ki gas failakar daab ni2 tak aa jaae to ni1= ni2, isliye shakti =m x g. yahi pranodaya ka sameerakan kaha jaata hai.

kaaryaanupaat =2VxN/V2+N2

pranodan ka kaaryaanupaat nimnaankit sameekaran se dikhaaya ja sakta hai.

jahaaain g (V) kship ki gati hai aur r (N) machine ke chalne ki gati. yeh kaaryaanupaat mahattam hoga yadi g=r, arthaat‌ machine ki chaal yadi kship ki chaal ke baraabar ho.

inhein bhi dekhein