kshaareeya paarthiv dhaatu

kshaareeya paarthiv dhaatueain (alkaline earth metals) aavart saarani ke samooh-2 mein sthit raasaayanik tattvon vah samooh hai jismein beriliym (Be), maigneshiym (Mg), kailshiym (Ca), straunshiym (Sr), beriym (Ba) evam rediym (Ra) hain.

parichay evam itihaas

praarambh mein rasaayanajnya un padaarthon ko mruda kehte the jo adhaatueain theen aur jinpar atyadhik taap ka koi prabhaav naheen padta tha. inmein kuchh padaarthon (jaise choona) ke gun kshaaron ke gunon se bahut milte julate the. isse unhonne use 'kshaareeya mruda' naam diya. kshaareeya mruda mein choona, straunshiya aur baaraaita 1807 E. tak raasaayanik tatv samajhe jaate the. hamfri devi ne pehle pahal pramaanit kiya ki ye vastut: kailasiym, straunshiym aur beriym dhaatuon ke aaksaaid hain.

ye dhaatueain asanyukt dasha mein naheen pai jaati. inke do prakaar ke aaksaaid bante hain. ek saamaanya aaksaaid, jo ushmaakshepan ke saath jal mein ghulate hain aur doosare peraaksaaid, jo jal mein ghulakar haaidraaksaaid [R (OH)2] banaate hain aur vaayu mein khula rakhane se kaarban daai aaksaaid ka avashoshan karte hain. dhaatuon ke donon hi aaksaaid samaakshaareeya hote hain aur amlon mein sheegra ghulakar tadanukool lavan banaate hain. tatvon ke paramaanubhaar ki vruddhi se haaidraaksaaidon ki vileyata badhti jaati hain, par salfeton ki vileyata ghatati jaati hai.

ye dhaatueain vaayu mein khuli rahane se jald upachayit ho jaati hai. inke lavan achhe manibh (kristal) banaate hain. kloraaid aur naaitret jal mein sheegra ghul jaate hain, par kaarbonet, faasfet aur salfet k m ghulate athva ghulate hi naheen.

inhein bhi dekhein

the va b
aavart saarani
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Pnicto­agens Chal­aco­agens Halo­agens Noble gases
Period

1

1:
2:
He:
2
3:
Li:
4:
Be:
5:
B:
6:
C:
7:
N:
8:
O:
9:
F:
10:
Ne:
3
11:
Na:
12:
Mg:
13:
Al:
14:
Si:
15:
P:
16:
S:
17:
Cl:
18:
Ar:
4
19:
K:
20:
Ca:
21:
Sc:
22:
Ti:
23:
V:
24:
Cr:
25:
Mn:
26:
Fe:
27:
Co:
28:
Ni:
29:
Cu:
30:
Zn:
31:
Ga:
32:
Ge:
33:
As:
34:
Se:
35:
Br:
36:
Kr:
5
37:
38:
Sr:
39:
Y:
40:
Zr:
41:
Nb:
42:
Mo:
43:
Tc:
44:
Ru:
45:
Rh:
46:
Pd:
47:
Ag:
48:
Cd:
49:
In:
50:
Sn:
51:
Sb:
52:
Te:
53:
I:
54:
Xe:
6
55:
Cs:
56:
Ba:
*
72:
Hf:
73:
Ta:
74:
W:
75:
Re:
76:
Os:
77:
Ir:
78:
Pt:
79:
Au:
80:
81:
Tl:
82:
Pb:
83:
Bi:
84:
Po:
85:
At:
86:
Rn:
7
87:
Fr:
88:
Ra:
**
104:
Rf:
105:
Db:
106:
Sg:
107:
Bh:
108:
Hs:
109:
Mt:
110:
Ds:
111:
Rg:
112:
Cn:
113:
Uut:
114:
Fl:
115:
Uup:
116:
Lv:
117:
Uus:
118:
Uuo:
* Lantha­anides
57:
La:
58:
Ce:
59:
Pr:
60:
Nd:
61:
Pm:
62:
Sm:
63:
Eu:
64:
Gd:
65:
Tb:
66:
Dy:
67:
Ho:
68:
Er:
69:
Tm:
70:
Yb:
71:
Lu:
** Acti­anides
89:
Ac:
90:
Th:
91:
Pa:
92:
U:
93:
Np:
94:
Pu:
95:
Am:
96:
Cm:
97:
Bk:
98:
Cf:
99:
Es:
100:
Fm:
101:
Md:
102:
No:
103:
Lr:
Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °aC and 1 atm): black=Solid green=Liquid red=Gas grey=Unknown
Border shows natural occurrence of the element: Primordial From decay Synthetic
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Inner transition metal Transition metal Poor metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas
Lan­athanide Actinide