kshaar dhaatu

aavart saarani ke tattv lithiym (Li), sodiym (Na), potaishiym (K), rubidiym (Rb), seejiym (Cs) aur fraansiym (Fr) ke samooh ko kshaar dhaatueain (Alkali metals) kehte hain. yeh samooh aavart saarani ke S-block mein sthit hai.[1] kshaar dhaatueain samaan gun waali hain. ve sabhi mulaayam, chamakadaar tatha maanak taap tatha daab par uchch abhikriyaasheel hoti hain tatha komalata ke kaaran ek chaakoo se aasaani se kaati ja sakti hain.[2] choonki ye sheegra abhikriya karne vaale hain, at: vaayu tatha inke beech ki raasaayanik abhikriya ko rokane hetu inhein tel aadi mein sangrahit rakhana chaahiye.[3] yeh gair mukt tatv ke roop mein praakrutik roop se lavan mein paae jaate hain. sabhi khoje gaye kshaar dhaatueain apni maatra ke kram mein prakruti mein paae jaate hain jinmein kramavaar sodiym jo sabse aam hain, tatha iske baad potaishiym, lithiym, rubidiym, sijiym tatha antim fraansiym, fraansiym apne uchch rediyodharmita ke kaaran sabse durlabh hai.[4]

anukram

vyutpatti

kshaar dhaatuon ke haaidroksaaid ko jab paani mein bhang kiya jaata hai tab ve bhi atyant taakatavar kshaar hote hain.[5]

khoj

lithiym

lithiym
Li-TableImage.png

petaalaait (LiAlSi4O10) ki khoj 1800 mein ek braajeel ke rasaayanashaastri jos bonifesiyo de endraada ne uto, svidn ke dweep ki khudaai ke dauraan ki thi.[6][7] 1817 mein johaan August aafavedasan naamak rasaayanajnya jaus jekab berjeliys naamak rasaayanajnya ke prayogashaala mein petaalaait ayask ka vishleshan kar rahe the tabhi unhein ek nae tatv ki upasthiti ka pata chala.[8][9] yeh naya yaugik sodiym tatha potaishiym ke samaan tha tatha iske kaarbonet tatha haaidrauksaaid jal mein kam ghulanasheel tatha anya kshaar dhaatuon se adhik kshaareeya the.[10] lithiym greek shabd λaaιaaθaaoς (lithios = patthar) se bana hai.

sodiym

sodiym haaidrauksaaid
sodiym
Na-TableImage.png

sodiym yaugik praacheen kaal se gyaat hai tatha namak (sodiym kloraaid) maanaveeya gatividhiyon ke liye atyant aavashyak hota hai. iska upayog puraane samay mein namak ke vefars jarman sainikon ko unke vetan ke saath dene mein bhi karte the. madhyakaaleen yurop mein bhi sodiym ke mishran ko 'sodinm' naam se sirdard ki dava ke roop mein prasaarit kiya gaya tha. hamfri devi ne san 1907 mein ilektrolaaisis paddhati se shuddh sodiym (sodiym haaidroksaaid) ko pruthak kiya.[11]

potaishiym

K-TableImage.png
potaishiym haaidrauksaaid
potaishiym

potaishiym athva dahaatu ek kshaar dhaatu hai. iska prateek akshar 'K' hai. iske do sthir samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 39 aur 41) gyaat hain. ek asthir samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 40) prakruti mein nyoon maatra mein paaya jaata hai. inke atirikt teen anya samasthaanik (dravyamaan sankhya 38, 42 aur 43) krutrim roop se nirmit hue hain. potaishiym ke yaugik puraatan kaal se kaam mein laae ja rahe hain, charakasanhita mein bhasm se kshaar banaane ki vidhi ka varnan aaya hai. cheeni turkistaan me sthit buddhamandir mein ek puraatan chikitsakeeya granth ki 1890 E. mein praapti hui. is granth mein yavakshaar (potaishiym kaarbonet) ka varnan aaya hai. in sab baaton se pata chalta hai ki pautaishiym kshaaron ka upayog puraatan kaal mein bhi aushadhi tatha raasaayanik kriyaaon mein hota tha. potaishiym ka pruthakkaran 1807 E. England mein sar hamfri devi ne potaishiym haaidrauksaaid ke vidyudvishlaishan dvaara kiya. potaash shabd ke aadhaar par devi ne is tatv ka naam potaishiym rakha. potaishiym ke pruthakkaran mein hi sarvapratham ilektrolaaisis ka upayog kiya gaya tha.[12]

rubidiym

rubidiym
Rb-TableImage.png
lepidolaait

rubidiym ki khoj 1860 mein heedalabarg mein Robert bansen tatha gustaav kirchaaf ne ki thi jo pehle vyakti the jinhonne tatvon ki khoj ke liye spectrum enaalisis ko upayukt maana. yeh ek raasaayanik tattv hai. yeh aavart saarani ke pratham mukhya samooh ka chautha tatv hai. ismein dhaatugun vartamaan hain. iske teen sthir samasthaanik praapt hain, jinki dravyamaan sankhyaaeain kramash: 85, 86, 87 hain. spektramadarshi dvaara prayogon mein do nai laal rekhaaeain mileen, jinke kaaran iska naam roobidiym rakha gaya. lepidolaait ayask mein roobidiym ki maatra lagbhag 1% rahati hai. iske atirikt abhrak tatha kaartelaaid mein bhi yeh kam maatra mein milta hai. potaishiym tatha roobidiym ke plaitinik kloraaidon ki vileyata bhinn bhinn hai, jiske kaaran in donon ko alag kar sakte hain.[13][14]

sijiym

seejiym
Cs-TableImage.png

sijiym ki khoj mineral vaatar mein gustaav kirchof tatha Robert bansen ne 1860 mein Germany mein ki thi. iski vajah se utsarjit spectrum mein chamakadaar neeli rekhaaeain dikhi. unhonne laitin shabd sijiys (caesius) se naam banaaya jiska arth aasamaani neela hota hai. sijiym spektroskop se khoja gaya pehla tatv hai jiski khoj spektroskop ke aavishkaar ke sirf ek varsh baad hui.[15]

fraansiym

Fr-TableImage.png

iski khoj mein lagbhag chaar galatiyaaain theen[16] baad mein kyoori instityoot ke maargaret pairi ne san 1939 mein ekteeniym-227 ke namoone se iski khoj ki jismein ilektraunavaalt se urja kshaya dikhaai diya, peri ne 80 ilektraunavaalt ke saath kshaya kano ko dekha. unhonne soncha yeh gatividhiyaaain poorv agyaat kshaya ke kaaran ho sakta hai. kai prakaar ke gatividhiyon se unhein ismein thoriym, rediym, seesa, vismut, ya thailiym ke hone ki sambhaavana dikhi. unhein naya tatv mila, jismein kshaar dhaatuon jaise gun the. ekteeniym-227 ke alfa kshaya ke kaaran peri ko vishvaas ho gaya ki yeh tatv 87 hai. unhonne beeta kshaya se alfa kshaya ke anupaat ka nirdhaaran kiya. unke pratham pareekshan mein 0.6% se kam shaakhaaon mein alfa tha.[17] sanshleshan ki tulana mein yeh antim tatv tha jo prakruti mein dhoondha gaya.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

the va b
aavart saarani
Group 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
Alkali metals Alkaline earth metals Pnicto­agens Chal­aco­agens Halo­agens Noble gases
Period

1

1:
2:
He:
2
3:
Li:
4:
Be:
5:
B:
6:
C:
7:
N:
8:
O:
9:
F:
10:
Ne:
3
11:
Na:
12:
Mg:
13:
Al:
14:
Si:
15:
P:
16:
S:
17:
Cl:
18:
Ar:
4
19:
K:
20:
Ca:
21:
Sc:
22:
Ti:
23:
V:
24:
Cr:
25:
Mn:
26:
Fe:
27:
Co:
28:
Ni:
29:
Cu:
30:
Zn:
31:
Ga:
32:
Ge:
33:
As:
34:
Se:
35:
Br:
36:
Kr:
5
37:
38:
Sr:
39:
Y:
40:
Zr:
41:
Nb:
42:
Mo:
43:
Tc:
44:
Ru:
45:
Rh:
46:
Pd:
47:
Ag:
48:
Cd:
49:
In:
50:
Sn:
51:
Sb:
52:
Te:
53:
I:
54:
Xe:
6
55:
Cs:
56:
Ba:
*
72:
Hf:
73:
Ta:
74:
W:
75:
Re:
76:
Os:
77:
Ir:
78:
Pt:
79:
Au:
80:
81:
Tl:
82:
Pb:
83:
Bi:
84:
Po:
85:
At:
86:
Rn:
7
87:
Fr:
88:
Ra:
**
104:
Rf:
105:
Db:
106:
Sg:
107:
Bh:
108:
Hs:
109:
Mt:
110:
Ds:
111:
Rg:
112:
Cn:
113:
Uut:
114:
Fl:
115:
Uup:
116:
Lv:
117:
Uus:
118:
Uuo:
* Lantha­anides
57:
La:
58:
Ce:
59:
Pr:
60:
Nd:
61:
Pm:
62:
Sm:
63:
Eu:
64:
Gd:
65:
Tb:
66:
Dy:
67:
Ho:
68:
Er:
69:
Tm:
70:
Yb:
71:
Lu:
** Acti­anides
89:
Ac:
90:
Th:
91:
Pa:
92:
U:
93:
Np:
94:
Pu:
95:
Am:
96:
Cm:
97:
Bk:
98:
Cf:
99:
Es:
100:
Fm:
101:
Md:
102:
No:
103:
Lr:
Color of the atomic number shows state of matter (at 0 °aC and 1 atm): black=Solid green=Liquid red=Gas grey=Unknown
Border shows natural occurrence of the element: Primordial From decay Synthetic
Metal Metalloid Nonmetal Unknown
chemical
properties
Alkali metal Alkaline earth metal Inner transition metal Transition metal Poor metal Polyatomic nonmetal Diatomic nonmetal Noble gas
Lan­athanide Actinide

baahari kadiyaaain