kshaar

kshaar ek aisa padaarth hai, jisko jal mein milaane se jal ka pHmaan 7.0 se adhik ho jaata hai. bransted aur lori ke anusaar, kshaar ek aisa padaarth hai jo amleeya padaarthon ko OH- daan karte hain.

kshaarak vaastav mein ve padaarth hain jo aml ke saath milkar lavan aur jal banaate hain. udaaharanat:, jink aaaiksaaid salfyoorik aml ke saath milkar jink salfet aur jal banaata hai. daahak soda (kaustik soda), salfyoorik aml ke saath milkar sodiym salfet aur jal banaata hai. dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid saamaanyat: kshaarak hain. par iske apavaad bhi hain.

kshaarakon mein dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid aur haaidraaaiksaaid hain, par suvidha ke liye tatvon ke kuchh aise samooh bhi rakhe gaye hain jo amlon ke saath milkar bina jal bane hi lavan banaate hain. aise kshaarakon mein amoniya, haaidraaaiksilemeen aur faaaisfeen hain. drav amoniya mein ghul jaata hai par finolfathaileen se koi rang naheen deta. at: kahaaain tak yeh kshaarak kaha ja sakta hai, yeh baat sandigdh hai.

yadyapi oopar ki kshaarak ki paribhaasha badi asantoshaprad hai, tathaapi isse achhi paribhaasha naheen di ja saki hai. kshaarak (base) aur kshaar (ailkaili) paryaayavaachi shabd naheen hain. sab kshaar kshaarak hain par sab kshaarak kshaar naheen hain. kshaar-dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid, jaise sodiym aaaiksaaid, jal mein ghulakar haaidraaaiksaaid banaate hain. ye prabal kshaarakeeya hote hain. kshaareeya mrudaadhaatuon ke aaksaaid, jaise kailsiym aaaiksaaid, jal mein alp vileya aur alp kshaareeya hote hain. anya dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid jal mein naheen ghulate aur unke haaidraaaiksaaid paroksh reetiyon se hi banaae jaate hain.

dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid aur haaidraaaiksaaid kshaarak hote hain. kshaar dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid jal mein sheegra ghul jaate hain. kuchh dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid jal mein kam vileya hote hain aur kuchh dhaatuon ke aaaiksaaid jal mein jra bhi vileya naheen hain. kuchh adhaatuon ke haaidraaid, jaise naaitrojan aur faaaisforas ke haaidraaid (kramash: amoniya aur faaaisfeen) bhi bhasm hote hain.

kshaaron ke gun

  1. bahut se kshaar jal mein vileya hain. (jaise- sodiym haaidauksaaid, amoniya aadi) kintu kuchh vileya naheen hain (jaise- alamuniym haaidauksaaid).
  2. saandr kshaar jaivik cheenjon ke liye daahak (kaustik) hote hain tatha amleeya padaarthon ke saath teji se kriya karte hain.
  3. kshaaron ke jaleeya bilyan tatha pighle hue kshaar vidyut ke suchaalak hote hain evam in roopon mein ye aayanon mein bilgit ho jaate hain.
  4. kshaar, litmas patra ko neela kar dete hain tatha fenaufthaleen ko gulaabi bana dete hain.
  5. telon evam vasaaon se ve saabun evam gleesareen banaane ke kaam aate hain.
  6. kuchh kshaar prabal (strong) hote hain aur kuchh kshaar kamjor (weak).
  7. kshaaron mein jal milaane se inki saandrata (kansentreshan) kam hota hai (tanuta badhti hai) tanutabadhne ke saath-saath kshaaron ka prabhaav bhi kam hota hai.

inhein bhi dekhein