krushi

kaufi ki kheti

krushi kheti aur vaaniki ke maadhyam se khaadya aur anya saamaan ke utpaadan se sambandhit hai. krushi ek mukhya vikaas tha, jo sabhyataaon ke udaya ka kaaran bana, ismein paalatoo jaanvaron ka paalan kiya gaya aur paudhon (fasalon) ko ugaaya gaya, jisse atirikt khaadya ka utpaadan hua. isne adhik ghani aabaadi aur stareekrut samaaj ke vikaas ko saksham banaaya. kashi ka adhyayan krushi vigyaan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai (isse sambandhit abhyaas baagavaani ka adhyayan horteekalchar mein kiya jaata hai).

takaneekon aur visheshataaon ki bahut si kismein krushi ke antargat aati hai, ismein ve tareeke shaamil hain jinse paudhe ugaane ke liye upayukt bhoomi ka vistaar kiya jaata hai, iske liye paani ke channel khode jaate hain aur sinchaai ke anya roopon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. krushi yogya bhoomi par fasalon ko ugaana aur chaaraagaahon aur reinjalaind par pashudhan ko gadriyon ke dvaara charaaya jaana, mukhyat: krushi se sambandhit raha hai. krushi ke bhinn roopon ki pehchaan karna va unki maatraatmak vruddhi, pichhli shataabdi mein vichaar ke mukhya mudde ban gaye. viksit duniya mein yeh kshetr jaivik krushi (udaaharan parmaakalchar ya kaarbanik krushi) se lekar gahan krushi (udaaharan audyogik krushi) tak faili hai.

aadhunik egronomi, paudhon mein sankaran, keetanaashakon aur urvarakon aur takaneeki sudhaaron ne fasalon se hone vaale utpaadan ko teji se badhaaya hai aur saath hi yeh vyaapak roop se paaristhitik kshati ka kaaran bhi bana hai aur isne manushya ke svaasthya par rinaatmak prabhaav daala hai. chayanaatmak prajanan aur pashupaalan ki aadhunik prathaaon jaise gahan sooar kheti (aur isi prakaar ke abhyaason ko murgi par bhi laagoo kiya jaata hai) ne maans ke utpaadan mein vruddhi ki hai, lekin isse pashu kroorata, enteebaayotik davaaon ke svaasthya prabhaav, vruddhi hormon aur maans ke audyogik utpaadan mein saamaanya roop se kaam mein liye jaane vaale rasaayanon ke baare mein mudde saamane aaye hain.

pramukh krushi utpaadon ko mote taur par bhojan, resha, indhan, kachcha maal, faarmaasyootikls aur uddeepakon mein samoohit kiya ja sakta hai. saath hi sajaavati ya videshi utpaadon ki bhi ek shreni hai. 2000 se, paudhon ka upayog jaivik indhan, jaivafaarmaasyootikls, jaivaplaastik,[1] aur faarmaasyootikls[2] ke utpaadan mein kiya ja raha hai. vishesh khaadyon mein shaamil hain anaaj, sabjiyaan, fal aur maans. reshe mein kapaas, oon, san, resham aur flaiks shaamil hain. kachche maal mein lakdi aur baaains shaamil hain. uddeepakon mein tanbaakoo, sharaab, afeem, kokeen aur dijitelis shaamil hain. paudhon se anya upayogi padaarth bhi utpann hote hain, jaise rejin. jaiv indhanon mein shaamil hain baayomaas se methen, ethenol aur jaiv diesel.kate hue fool, nursery ke paudhe, ushnakatibandheeya machhaliyaaain aur vyaapaar ke liye paalatoo pakshi, kuchh sajaavati utpaad hain.

2007 mein, duniya ke lagbhag ek tihaai shramik krushi kshetr mein kaaryarat the. haalaanki, audyogikeekaran ki shuruaat ke baad se krushi se sambandhit mahattv kam ho gaya hai aur 2003 mein-itihaas mein pehli baar-seva kshetr ne ek aarthik kshetr ke roop mein krushi ko pachhaad diya kyonki isne duniya bhar mein adhiktam logon ko rojagaar upalabdh karaaya.[3] is tathya ke baavajood ki krushi duniya ke aabaadi ke ek tihaai se adhik logon ki rojagaar upalabdh karaati hai, krushi utpaadan, sakal vishv utpaad (sakal ghareloo utpaad ka ek samuchchaya) ka paanch pratishat se bhi kam hissa banta hai.[4][mrut kadiyaaain][5]

anukram

sanjnyaa

shabd agriculture laitin shabd agricultūaara ka angreji roopaantar hai, ager ka arth hai "ek kshetr"[5] aur cultūaara ka arth hai "jutaai", sakht arth mein "mitti ki jutaai".[6] is prakaar se, shabd ke shaabdik paathan se hamein jo arth praapt hota hai vah hai "ek kshetr / kshetron ki jutaai"

avlokan

krushi ne maanav sabhyata ke vikaas mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai hai. audyogik kraanti se poorv, maanav aabaadi ka adhikaansh hissa krushi mein hi kaaryarat tha. krushi takaneekon ke vikaas ke kaaran krushi utpaadakata mein lagaataar vruddhi hui hai aur ek samay avadhi ke dauraan in takaneekon ke vyaapak prasaar ko aksar krushi kraanti kaha jaata hai. pichhli sadi mein in nai takaneekon ki vajah se krushi ki paddhatiyon mein ullekhaneeya badlaav aaya hai. vishesh roop se, amoniym naaitret ko banaane ke liye hebar-baush vidhi ne, jantu khaad va fasal punaraavartan ke dvaara poshakon ke pun: chakreekaran ki paaramparik paddhati ko kam aavashyak bana diya hai.


krushi kshetr mein kaam karne waali maanav aabaadi ke pratishat mein samay ke saath giraavat I hai.

khadaanon se nikle rock fausfet, keetanaashak aur yaantrikeekaran ke saath krutrim naaitrojan ne 20 veen sadi ke praarambh mein fasal ki paidaavaar ko bahut adhik badha diya hai.

anaaj ki aapoorti ke badhne se pashudhan sasta ho gaya hai. iske alaava, vishv star par utpaadan mein vruddhi 20 veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein dekhi gayi jab pradhaan anaajon jaise chaaval, gehooain aur makai (makka) ki uchch paidaavaar waali kismein harit kraanti ke ek bhaag ke roop mein saamane aayeen.

harit kraanti mein viksit duniya ke dvaara vikaasasheel duniya ko takaneek (jismein keetanaashak aur krutrim naaitrojan bhi shaamil the) ka niryaat kiya gaya.

Thomas maalthas ne prasiddh bhavishyavaani ki thi ki pruthvi apni badhati hui aabaadi ka bhaar vahan naheen kar paayegi, lekin takaneekon jaise harit kraanti ki vajah se vishv mein atirikt bhojan ka utpaadan sambhav ho gaya hai.[7]

2005 mein krushi utpaadan

kai sarkaaron ne paryaapt khaadya aapoorti ko sunishchit karne ke liye krushi ko aarthik sahaayata pradaan ki hai. ye krushi sahaayataayein aksar vishesh padaarthon ke utpaadan se sambandhit rahi hain jaise gehooain, makai (makka), chaaval, soyaabeen aur doodh. ye sahaayataayein, vishesh roop se jab jab viksit deshon ke dvaara ki gayi hain, tab tab inke surakshaavaadi, aprabhaavi aur vaataavaran ke liye kshatikaarak hone ka ullekh kiya gaya hai.[8] pichhli shataabdi mein krushi ko, utpaadakata mein vruddhi, krutrim urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ke upayog, chayanaatmak prajanan, yaantrikeekaran, jal sandooshan aur firm subsidy ke roop mein parilkshit kiya gaya hai. kaarbanik kheti ke samarthak jaise sar elbart haavard ne 1900 ke shuruaat mein tark diya ki keetanaashakon aur krutrim urvarakon ka jarurat se adhik isttemaal mitti ki deerghakaalik urvarakata ko nuksaan pahunchaata hai.

2000 ke dashak mein paryaavaran jaagrukta mein vruddhi hui hai, iske kaaran kuchh kisaanon, upabhoktaaon aur neeti nirmaataaon ke dvaara sthaayi krushi ki disha mein ek aandolan ki shuruaat hui hai. haal hi ke varshon mein mukhyadhaara krushi, vishesh roop se jal pradooshan ke kathit baahari vaataavaraneeya prabhaavon ke khilaaf ek pratikriya saamane aayi hai,[9] jiske parinaamasvaroop ek kaarbanik aandolan hua hai. is aandolan ke peechhe mukhya taakaton mein se ek hai Europeeya sangh, jisne 1991 mein sarvapratham kaarbanik khaadya ko pramaanit kiya aur 2005 mein apni saamaanya krushi neeti (CAP) mein sudhaar laana shuroo kiya taaki kamoditi aadhaarit krushi subsidy ko hataaya ja sake,[10] ise dikpaling kaha jaata hai.

kaarbanik krushi ke vikaas ne vaikalpik takaneekon jaise ekeekrut keet prabandhan aur chayanaatmak prajanan mein anusandhaanon ka naveeneekaran kiya hai. haal hi ke mukhyadhaara praudyogikeeya vikaas mein shaamil hai aanuvanshik roop se sanshodhit bhojan. 2007 ke ant mein, kai kaarakon ki vajah se murgi, dairy ki gaaya aur anya maveshiyon ko khilaaye jaane vaale anaaj aur bhojan ki keematon mein vruddhi I, jiske kaaran is varsh mein gehoon (58% se adhik), soyaabeen (32% se adhik) aur makke (11% se adhik) ke daam bahut badh gaye.[11][12] haal hi mein poori duniya ke bahut se deshon mein khaadya ko lekar hangaama hua hai.[13][14][15] vartamaan mein gehoon ki Ug99 prajaati ke dvaara poore Africa aur Asia mein iske tane ke rast ki mahaamaari fail rahi hai, jo mukhya chinta ka vishay hai.[16][17][18] duniya ki lagbhag 40% krushi bhoomi gambhir roop se banjar ho gayi hai.[19] Africa mein, yadi vartamaan mein ho raha mitti ka aparadan jaari rahata hai, to yeh desh 2025 mein keval apni 25% janasankhya ko hi bhojan upalabdh kara paayega. yeh anumaan Africa mein praakrutik sansaadhanon ke liye UNU ke Ghana aadhaarit sansthaan ne lagaaya hai.[20]

itihaas

seinki hui mitti se bani ek sumeriyn kataai ki daraanti (si ai. 3000 E. poo.).

lagbhag 10,000 saal pehle iske vikaas ke baad se, bhaugolik vyaapthi aur paidaavaar mein krushi ka bahut adhik vistaar hua hai.

is vistaar ke dauraan, nai praudyogiki aur nai fasalein shaamil huin. krushi paddhatiyon jaise ki sinchaai, fasal punaraavartan, urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ka vikaas kaafi pehle hi ho chuka tha lekin inmein ullekhaneeya vikaas pichhli sadi mein hi hua. krushi ke itihaas nein maanav itihaas mein ek pramukh bhoomika nibhaai hai, kyonki krushi ka vikaas vishv ke saamaajik aur aarthik parivartan mein mahattvapoorn kaarak raha hai. sampatti arjan aur sainya vikaas, jinhein shikaari samaajon mein sanbhavataya mahattv naheen diya jaata hai, krushi pramukh samaajon mein aam baat thi. isliye kalaaen jaise bhavya saahityik mahaakaavya aur smaarakon ka vaastushilp aur sanhitaabaddh kaanooni vyavastha bhi ismein shaamil theen.

jab kisaan apne parivaar ki aavashyakataaon se adhik bhojan ke utpaadan mein saksham ban gaye, tab unke samaaj mein kuchh logon ko anya jaruri kaamon mein dhyaan dene ke liye khaali chhod diya gaya. itihaasakaaron aur maanav-shaastriyon ka shuroo se ye mat raha hai ki krushi ke vikaas ne hi sabhyata ke vikaas ko sambhav kiya hai.

praacheen utpattiyaan

madhya poorv, misr aur Bhaarat ke upajaaoo sthaan paudhon ki praarambhik niyojit buvaai aur kataai ke sthaan the, jinhein praarambh mein jangalon mein ikaththa kiya gaya tha.

krushi ka svatantr roop se vikaas uttari aur dakshini cheen, Africa ke saahel, new gini aur America ke kai kshetron mein hua. krushi ki aath tathaakathit navapaashaan sansthaapak fasalein prakat huin. pratham emmar gehoon aur enkorn gehoon, uske baad bina chhilke waali jau, matar, masoor, bitr vech, chik pi aur san.

7000 E. poo. tak laghu paimaane ki krushi misr pahuainch gayi. kam se kam 7000 E. pu. se bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein gehooain aur jau ki kheti ki jaane lagi, ye satyaapan baloochistaan ke meharagadh mein kiye gaye puraataatvik utkhanan ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai. 6000 isa poorv tak neel nadi ke tat par madhya paimaane ki krushi ki jaane lagi. lagbhag isi samay, sudoor poorv mein krushi ka svatantr roop se vikaas ho raha tha, is samay gehoon ke bajaay chaaval praathamik fasal ban gayi. cheeni aur indoneshiyaai kisaan taaro aur faliyaan, moong, soya aur ajuki ugaane lage.

kaarbohaaidret ke in nae stroton ke saath in kshetron mein nadiyon, jheelon aur samudron ke kinaaron par yojanaabaddh tareeke se machhali pakadne ka kaam shuroo hua, jo aavashyak proteen ki kaafi maatra upalabdh karaata tha. saamoohik roop se, kheti aur machhali pakadne ki ye nayi vidhiyaan maanav ke liye varadaan saabit huin, iske saamane pehle ke sabhi vistaar chhote pad gaye aur yeh aaj bhi kaayam hai.

5000 E. poo. tak sumeravaasi kendreeya krushi takaneekon ko viksit kar chuke the, in takaneekon mein shaamil hain bade paimaane par bhoomi ki gahan jutaai, ek fasal ugaana, sangathit sinchaai aur ek vishisht shramik bal ka upayog karna aadi. ek vishesh takaneek thi jal maarg jo ab shat-al-arab ke naam se jaani jaati hai, yeh faaras ki khaadi ke delta se taaigris aur yufrets ke samaagam tak apanaayi gayi.

jangali aurok tatha mauflon kramash: paalatoo pashu tatha bhed mein badalne lage, inka upayog bade paimaane par bhojan / reshe ke liye aur bojha dhone ke liye kiya jaane laga.

gadariye ya charavaahe, aaseen aur arddh ghumantoo samaaj ke liye ek anivaarya pradaata ke roop mein kisaanon ke saath mil gaye.

makka, maniok aur araarot sabse pehle 5200 E. poo. America mein ugaaye gaye.[21] aaloo, tamaatar, mirch, skvaish, faliyon ki kai kismein, tambaakoo aur kai anya paudhon ko bhi is nai duniya mein viksit kiya gaya. Indian dakshin America ke adhikaansh bhaag mein khadi pahaadiyon ki dhaal par vyaapak roop mein yeh krushi ki gayi.

yoonaan aur rom vaasiyon ne, sumer vaasiyon dvaara shuroo ki gayi takaneekon ko na sirf aage badhaaya balki unamein kuchh maulik parivartan bhi kiye. dakshini yoonaani atyant anupajaaoo bhoomi hone ke baavajood varshon tak ek prabal samaaj ke roop mein bane rahane ke liye sangharsh karte rahe. rom nivaasiyon ne vyaapaar ke liye fasalein upajaane par jor diya.

di haaravesatars Peter bruegel. 1565.

madhya yug

madhya yug ke dauraan, uttari Africa aur poorv ke nikat ke muslim krushakon nein krushi ki takaneekon ka vikaas kiya jismein haaidrolik aur jal sthaitik siddhaanton par aadhaarit sinchaai pranaali, norias jaisi masheenon ka prayog aur jal star ko badhaane waali masheenon, baandhon aur jalaashayon aadi ka upayog kiya gaya.

unhonein sthaan parak krushi pustikaaen likheen, ganna, chaaval, sitras fal, khubaani, kapaas, artichoks, obarajines aur kesar sahit fasalon ko vyaapak roop se apnaane mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi.

muslamaan hi neenboo, santara, kapaas, baadaam, anjeer aur up ushnakatibandheeya fasalon jaise ki kela aadi Spain mein laaye. madhya yug ke dauraan fasal ke punaraavartan ke liye teen kshetr pranaali ka aavishkaar aur cheeniyon dvaara aavishkrut moldabord ke aayaat ne krushi ki prabhaavita mein kaafi sudhaar kiya.

aadhunik yug

yeh photo 1921 ke ek vishvakosh se li gayi hai, jismein ek alfa-alfa kshetr mein ek trektar ko jutaai karte hue dikhaaya gaya hai.

1492 ke baad, poorv sthaaneeya fasalon aur pashudhan prajaatiyon ka vishv stareeya aadaan-pradaan shuroo hua. is aadaan pradaan mein shaamil pramukh fasalein theen, tamaatar, makka, aaloo, maniok, koko aur tambaakoo jo nayi duniya se puraani duniya ki aur ja rahi theen. aur gehoon, masaale, kaufi aur ganne ki kai kismein jo puraani duniya se nayi duniya ki aur ja rahi theen.

pramukh jaanavar jinka niryaat puraani duniya se nai duniya mein hua ve ghode aur kutte the (kutte Columbia se pehle ke kaal mein hi America mein upasthit the, lekin inki sankhya aur prajaati kheti ke liye upayukt naheen thi). haalaanki khaadya jaanvaron ghode (jinmein gadhe aur khachchar shaamil hain) aur kutte ne pashchimi golaardh ke kheton mein jaldi hi aavashyak utpaadan bhoomika nibhaayi.

aaloo uttari Europe mein ek mahatvapoorn aahaar fasal ban gayi.[22] 16 veen shataabdi mein purtagaaliyon ke dvaara laaye gaye,[23] makka aur maniok ne paaramparik afreeki fasalon ko pratisthaapit kar diya aur ve mahaadveep ki sabse mahatvapoorn khaadya fasalein ban gayeen.[24]

1800 ki shurooaat mein, krushi takaneekon, beej bhandaar aur upajaae gaye paudhon ko chuna gaya aur unhein ek adviteeya naam diya gaya kyonki iski sajaavat aur upayogita ki visheshataaen itni behtar ho gayi theen ki prati ikaai bhoomi ka utpaadan madhya yug ki tulana mein kai guna ho gaya tha.

19 veen shataabdi ke ant mein aur 20 veen shataabdi mein masheeneekaran mein teevr vruddhi ke saath, vishesh roop se trektar ke vikaas ke saath, kheti ke kaarya adhik gati se kiye jaane lage aur ye kaarya itne bade paimaane par hone lage jiski pehle kalpana bhi naheen ki ja sakti thi. 
in aadhunik vikaason ke kaaran sanyukt raajya America, Argentina, ijraail, Germany aur kuchh anya raashtron mein vishisht aadhunik kheton ki prabhaavita mein itni vruddhi hui ki prati ikaai bhoomi par utpaadan ki maatra aur gunavatta ki seema ne utpaadan ki vyavahaarik seema ko chhoo liya.

amoniym naaitret ke nirmaan ki hebar-baush vidhi ko ek badi safalta maana jaata hai, isne fasal ki paidaavaar badhaane mein utpann hone waali puraani baadhaaon ko door karne mein madad ki.

pichhli sadi mein krushi ki mukhya visheshataaen raheen hain utpaadakata mein badhottari, shram ke bajaay krutrim urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ka upayog, chayanaatmak prajanan, jal pradooshan aur krushi subsidy.

haal hi ke varshon mein paramparaagat krushi ke baahya paryaavaraneeya par prabhaav ke prati logon mein rosh badha hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop kaarbanik aandolan ki shuruaat hui.

unneesaveen sadi ke antim samay ke baad se vishv ke vibhinn kshetron mein nai prajaatiyon aur nae krushi paddhatiyon khojane ke liye krushi khoj abhiyaan shuroo kiya gaya hai.

is abhiyaan ke do praarambhik udaaharan hain 1916-1918 se fal aur meve ikatthe karne ke liye freink N mayor ki cheen aur Japan ki yaatra[25]

aur 1929-1931 se doraset-mors oriental krushi anveshan abhiyaan jo soyaabeen jarmaplaasm ko ikaththa karne ke liye cheen, Japan aur Korea mein chalaaya gaya, taaki sanyukt raajya mein soyaabeen ke utpaadan mein vruddhi ho sake.[26]

antararaashtreeya mudra kosh ke anusaar 2005 mein, duniya mein cheen ka krushi utpaadan sabse adhik raha, yeh Europeeya sangh, Bhaarat aur amareeka ke baad poori duniya ka lagbhag chhatha hissa tha.[tathya vaanchhit][33] arthashaastri krushi ki kul kaarak utpaadakata ka maapan karte hain aur is maapan ke anusaar sanyukt raajya mein krushi 1948 ki tulana mein lagbhag 2. 6 guna adhik utpaadak hai.[27]

chhah desh- America, Canada, France, Australia, Argentina aur Thailand- anaaj ke niryaat ki 90% aapoorti karte hain.[28] jal ke ghaate se yukt desh, jo Algeria, Iran, misr aur maiksiko sahit asankhya madhyam aakaar ke deshon mein pehle se hi bhaari maatra mein anaaj ka aayaat kar rahe hain,[29] jald hi cheen aur Bhaarat jaise bade deshon mein aisa kar sakte hain.[30] ==

fasal utpaadan pranaali

Workers tending crop fields off of the highway from Dharwad to Hampi.

fasal pranaali upalabdh sansaadhanon aur baadhaaon ke aadhaar par bhinn kheton mein alag alag ho sakti hai; khet ki bhaugolik sthiti aur jalavaayu; sarkaari neeti; aarthik, saamaajik aur raajanaitik dabaav; aur kisaan ka darshan aur sanskruti.[31][32] sthaanaantaran krushi (slesh end barn) ek ऎsi pranaali hai jismein vanon ko jalaaya jaata hai, taaki varsh bhar utpaadan ke liye poshak mukt ho jaaen aur fir kai varshon ke liye vaarshik fasalein lagaayi jaati hain. hisake baad is bhoomi ko fir se jungle ugane ke liye chhod diya jaata hai aur kisaan kisi nayi bhoomi par chala jaata hai, kai saalon (10-20) ke baad vaapas lautata hai.

tab bhookhand parati van regrow ke liye aur ek naya saajish karne ke liye kisaan chaalein, laut rah gaya hai kai saal ke baad. is parati avadhi ko chhota kar diya jaata hai yadi janasankhya ghanatv badhta hai, iske liye poshak tatvon (urvarak ya khaad) ke nivesh tatha kuchh mainual keet niyantran ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

vaarshik kheti teevrata ki ek agali praavastha hai jismein koi parati avadhi naheen hoti hai. ismein aur bhi adhik poshak tatvon aur keet niyantran ki aavashyakta hoti hai. adhik audyogikeekaran monokalchar ke upayog ko janm deta hai, jismein ek hi fasal ko ek bade kshetr par ugaaya jaata hai.


kam jaiv vividhta ke kaaran, poshak tatvon ka ek samaan upayog kiya jaata hai aur keetanaashak kaam mein liye jaate hain, yeh keetanaashakon aur urvarakon ke upayog ki aavashyakta ko badhaata hai.[32] bahu fasaleekaran, jismein ek hi saal mein kai fasalein ek ke baad ek karke ugaayi jaati hain aur antar fasaleekaran jismein kai fasalein ek hi samay par ugaayi jaati hai, vaarshik fasal pranaali ke anya prakaar hain jo poliklchar ya bahusanvardhan ke naam se jaane jaate hain.[33]

ushnakatibandheeya vaataavaran mein, in sabhi fasal pranaaliyon ko kaam mein liya jaata hai. uposhnakatibandheeya aur shushk vaataavaran mein, krushi ka samay aur seema varsha ke dvaara seemit ho sakte hain. ya to yahaaain ek varsh mein ek se adhik fasal naheen lagaayi ja sakti ya inhein sinchaai ki jarurat hoti hai. hin sabhi vaataavaranon mein vaarshik fasalein (kaufi, chaukalet) ugaayi jaati hain aur egroforestri jaisi pranaaliyon ko apnaaya jaata hai. sheetoshn vaataavaran mein, jahaan paaritantr mukhyat: charaagaah ya preyari the, uchch utpaadak vaarshik fasal, pramukh krushi pranaali hai.[33]


pichhli sadi mein, krushi mein saghanata, saandran aur vishishteekaran hua, jo krushi rasaayanon ki nayi takaneekon (urvarak aur keetanaashak), masheeneekaran aur paadap prajanan (sankar aur GMO) par nirbhar tha.

pichhle kuchh dashakon mein, krushi mein sthirta ki disha mein vikaas hua hai, ek krushi pranaali ke bheetar paryaavaran aur sansaadhanon ka sanrakshan va saamaajik-aarthik nyaaya ke ekeekrut vichaaron ki disha mein kadam badhaaya gaya hai.[34][35] isne kaarbanik krushi, shahari krushi, samudaaya samarthit krushi, paaristhitik ya jaivik krushi, ekeekrut krushi aur samagr prabandhan sahit paaramparik krushi drushtikon ke liye kai pratikriyaaon ka vikaas kiya hai.

fasal ke aaainkade

fasalon ki mahatvapoorn shreniyon mein shaamil hain, anaaj aur koot anaaj, daalein (legyoom ya faliyaan), forej aur fal aur sabjiyaan. vishv bhar mein vishisht utpaadak kshetron mein vishisht fasalein hi ugaai jaati hain. meetrik tan ke million mein, FAO ke anumaanon par aadhaarit.

sheersh krushi utpaad, fasal ke prakaar ke dvaara
(million meetrik tan) 2004 aankade
anaaj 2,263
sabjiyaan aur tarabooj 866
jadein aur kand 715
doodh 619
fal 503
maans 259
tel waali fasalein 133
machhali (2001 ka anumaan) 130
ande 63
daalein 60
sabjiyon ka resha 30
srot:
khaadya aur krushi sangathan (FAO)[36]
sheersh krushi utpaad, vyaktigat fasalon ke dvaara
(million meetrik tan) 2004 aankade
ganna 1,324
makka 721
gehooain 627
chaaval 605
aaloo 328
chukndar 249
soyaabeen 204
cheed ke tel ka fal 162
jau 154
tamaatar 120
srot:
khaadya aur krushi sangathan (FAO)[36]


pashudhan utpaadan pranaali

Indonesia mein jal bhainson dvaara dhaan ke kheton ki jutaai.

jantu jaise ghode, khachchar, bail, oont, laama, alpakaas aur kutton ka upayog aksar bhoomi ki jutaai mein, fasal ki kataai mein, anya pashuon ko ikaththa karne mein aur khareedadaaron tak krushi utpaad ka parivhan karne mein kiya jaata hai.

pashupaalan mein na keval maans aur jantu utpaadon (jaise doodh, anda aur oon) ki nirantar praapti ke liye pashuon ka prajanan karavaaya jaata hai balki kaam aur saath ke liye bhi unki prajaatiyon mein prajanan karavaaya jaata hai aur unki dekhbhaal ki jaati hai.

pashudhan utpaadan pranaaliyon ko bhojan ke srot ke aadhaar par paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai, jaise chaaraagaah aadhaarit, mishrit aur bhoomiheen.[37] chaaraagaah aadhaarit pashudhan utpaadan, jugaali karne vaale jaanvaron ke bhojan ke liye paadap padaarthon jaise jhaad yukt bhoomi, reinjalaind aur charaagaahon par nirbhar karta hai.

baahari poshak tatvon ke nivesh ka bhi istemaal kiya ja sakta hai, haalaanki khaad seedhe ek mukhya poshak srot ke roop mein charaagaah par pahuainch jaati hai.

yeh pranaali visheshakar un kshetron mein mahatvapoorn hai, jahaan 30-40 million pestoraalist ka pratinidhitv karne vaale, jalavaayu ya mitti ke kaaran fasal utpaadan sambhav naheen hai.[33] mishrit utpaadan pranaali mein jugaali karne vaale jaanvaron aur monogestik (ek aamaashaya vaale; mukhyataya murgiyaan aur sooar) pashudhan ke bhojan ke roop mein charaagaahon, chaara fasalon aur anaaj khaadya fasalon ka prayog kiya jaata hai.

aam taur par mishrit pranaali mein khaad ko, fasal ke liye ek urvarak ke roop mein pun: chakreekrut kar diya jaata hai.

anumaanat: poorn krushi bhoomi ka 68% bhaag sthaayi chaaraagaah hain jinka upayog pashudhan ke utpaadan mein kiya jaata hai.[38] bhoomiheen pranaaliyaan khet ke baahar se bhojan praapt karti hain, ye OECD sadasya deshon mein adhik prachalit roop se paae jaane vaale pashudhan utpaadan aur fasalon ko asanbandhit karti hain.

America mein, viksit anaaj ka 70% bhaag, khaadya sthaanon par pashuon ko khila diya jaata hai.[33] fasal utpaadan aur khaad ke upayog ke liye, krutrim urvarak par bahut adhik nirbharata ek chunauti ban gayi hai aur saath hi pradooshan ka ek srot bhi.

utpaadan paddhatiyaan

khet mein road leeding utpaadan paddhatiyon ke liye khet mein machinery ke upayog ki anumati deti hai

jutaai vah prakriya hai jismein paudhe lagaane ya keet niyantran ke liye bhoomi ko jot kar taiyaar kiya jaata hai. jutaai ki pratha mein bahut bhinnata milti hai, yeh paramparaagat tareekon se bhi ki ja sakti hai aur kuchh sthaan aise bhi hain jahaan jutaai naheen ki jaati hai. yeh mitti ko garm karke, usamein urvarak daal kar, khar patavaar ka niyantran karke usaki utpaadakata mein sudhaar la sakti hai, lekin isse mruda aparadan ki sambhaavana bhi badh jaata hai, kaarbanik padaarth apaghatit hokar CO2 mukt karne lagte hain aur mruda jeevon ki upasthiti aur vividhta mein bhi kami aati hai.[39][40]

keet niyantran mein shaamil hain khar patavaar, keeton / makadiyon aur rogon ka prabandhan. raasaayanik (keetanaashak), jaivik (jaiv niyantran), yaantrik (jutaai) aur paaramparik prathaaon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. paaramparik prathaaon mein shaamil hain, fasal punaraavartan, kuling (todna ya chunana), fasalon ko dhakana, antar fasaleekaran, kampost banaana, virodh aur pratirodh.

in sabhi vidhiyon ke upayog ke liye, keeton ki sankhya ko kam karne ke liye, samanvit keet prabandhan prayaas, jo aarthik kshati ka kaaran hota hai aur iske liye ek antim upaaya ke roop mein keetanaashakon ki salaah di jaati hai.[41]

poshak tatv prabandhan mein shaamil hai, fasal aur pashudhan utpaadan ke liye poshakon ke nivesh ke srot aur pashudhan ke dvaara utpann khaad ke upayog ki vidhi. nivisht poshak tatv akaarbanik urvarak, khaad, hari khaad, kampost aur khanan se nikle lavan ho sakte hain.[42] fasal poshakon ke upayog ko paaramparik takaneekon jaise fasal punaraavartan aur parati avadhi ka upayog karte hue prabandhit kiya ja sakta hai.[43][44] khaad niyantrit karne ke liye ya to pashudhan ko vahaan rakha ja sakta hai jahaan khaadya fasal ugaayi gayi hai, jaisa ki prabandhit gahan punaraavarti charaai mein hota hai, ya fasal bhoomi athva charaagaah par khaad ke sookhe ya taral formuleshan ka chhidkaav kiya ja sakta hai.

jal prabandhan vahaan kiya jaata hai jahaan par varsha ya to aparyaapt hai ya anishchit, jo vishv ke adhikaansh kshetron mein kuchh ansh tak hota hai.[33] kuchh kisaan varsha ki anupurti ke liye sinchaai ka upayog karte hain.

anya kshetron jaise sanyukt raajya ke bade maidaanon mein, kisaan aane vaale varsh mein ek fasal ko ugaane ke liye mitti ki nami ko sanrakshit rakhane ke liye ek parati varsh ka upayog karte hain.[45] krushi poori duniya mein 70% taaje jal ka upayog karti hai.[46]

prasanskaran, vitran aur vipnan

sanyukt raajya America mein, khaadya prasanskaran, vitran aur vipnan ki laagat badh gayi hai jabki krushi ki laagat mein giraavat aayi hai. 1960 se 1980 tak kheti ki hissedaari 40% ke aaspaas thi, lekin 1990 tak yeh 30% tak kam ho gayi aur 1998 tak 22. 2% tak pahuainch gayi. is kshetr mein baajaar ekaagrata mein bhi vruddhi aayi hai, 1995 mein sheersh ke 20 khaadya nirmaataaon ke khaate mein khaadya prasanskaran moolya ka aadha bhaag aata tha jo 1954 ke utpaadan se dogune se bhi adhik tha. 1992 ke 32% ki tulana mein, 2000 mein sheersh ke 6 suparamaarket bikri ka 50% bhaag banaate the

haalaanki baajaar ekaagrata mein vruddhi ka kul prabhaav hai sanbhavat: prabhaavita ka badhna. yeh parivartan utpaadakon (kisaanon) aur upabhoktaaon se aarthik adhishesh ko punarvitrit karta hai aur graameen samudaayon ke liye iska nakaaraatmak prabhaav ho sakta hai.[47]

fasal parivartan aur jaiv praudyogiki

traiktar aur chejr bin

fasal parivartan ki pratha, maanav ke dvaara hajaaron saalon se, sabhyata ki shuruaat se hi apanaayi ja rahi hai,

prajanan ki prakriyaaon ke dvaara fasal mein parivartan, ek paudhe ki aanuvanshik saranchana ko badal deta hai, jisse maanav ke liye adhik laabhakaari lakshanon se yukt fasal viksit hoti hai, udaaharan ke liye bade fal ya beej, sookhe ke liye sahishnuta aur keeton ke liye pratirodh.

jeen vigyaani grigor meindal ke kaarya ke baad paadap prajanan mein mahatvapoorn unnati hui. prabhaavi aur aprabhaavi eleelon par unke dvaara kiye gaye kaarya ne, aanuvanshiki ke baare mein paadap prajanakon ko ek behtar samajh di. aur isse paadap prajanakon ke dvaara prayukt takaneekon ko mahaan antardrushti praapt hui. fasal prajanan mein sv-paraagan, par-paraagan aur vaanchhit gunon se yukt paudhon ka chayan, jaisi takaneekein shaamil hain aur ve aanvik takaneekein bhi isi mein shaamil hain jo jeev ko aanuvanshik roop se sanshodhit karti hain.[48] sadiyon se paudhon ke ghareloo istemaal ke kaaran unki upaj mein vruddhi hui hai, isse rog pratirodh aur sookhe ke prati sahanasheelata mein sudhaar hua hai, saath hi isne fasal ki kataai ko aasaan banaaya hai va fasali paudhon ke svaad aur poshak tatvon mein vruddhi hui hai.

saavadhaani poorvak chayan aur prajanan ne fasali paudhon ki visheshataaon par bhaari prabhaav daala hai. 1920 aur 1930 ke dashak mein, paudhon ke chayan aur prajanan ne, New Zealand mein charaagaahon (ghaas aur tiptiya ghaas) mein kaafi sudhaar kiya.

1950 ke dashak ke dauraan ek paraabaingani vyaapak X-re ke dvaara prerit utparivrtajan prabhaav (aadim aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki) ne gehoon, makai (makka) aur jau jaise anaajon ki aadhunik kismon ka utpaadan kiya.[49][50]

harit kraanti ne "uchch-utpaadakata ki kismon" ke nirmaan ke dvaara utpaadan ko kai guna badhaane ke liye paaramparik sankaran ke upayog ko lokapriya bana diya.

udaaharan ke liye, sanyukt raajya America mein makai (makka) ki ausat paidaavaar 1900 mein 2. 5 tan prati hekteyar (t/ha) (40 bushels prati ekad) se badhkar 2001 mein 9. 4 tan prati hekteyar (t/ha) (150 bushels prati ekad) ho gayi.

isi tarah duniya ki ausat geinhoo ki paidaavaar 1900 mein 1 tan prati hekteyar se badh kar 1990 mein 2. 5 tan prati hekteyar ho gayi hai. sinchaai ke saath dakshin America ki ausat gehoon ki paidaavaar lagbhag 2 tan prati hekteyar hai, Africa ki 1 tan prati hekteyar se kam hai, misr aur arab ki 3. 5 se 4 tan prati hekteyar tak hai. iske vipreet, fraans jaise deshon mein geinhoo ki paidaavaar 8 tan prati hekteyar se adhik hai. paidaavaar mein ye bhinnataaen mukhya roop se jalavaayu, aanuvaanshiki aur gahan krushi takaneekon (urvarakon ka upayog, raasaayanik keet niyantran, avaanchhaneeya paudhon ko rokane ke liye vruddhi niyantran) ke star mein bhinnataaon ke kaaran hoti hain.[51][52][53]

aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki

aanuvaanshik roop se parishkrut jeev (GMO) ve jeev hain jinke aanuvanshik padaarth ko aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki takaneek ke dvaara badal diya gaya hai, ise saamaanyataya pun: sanyojak DNA praudyogiki ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

aanunshik abhiyaantriki ne prajanakon ko adhik jeen upalabdh karaaye hain jinka upayog karke ve nayi fasalon ke liye ichhit jeen saranchana ka nirmaan kar sakte hain.

1960 ke praarambh mein yaantrik tamaatar -haarvestar ke vikaas ke baad, krushi vijnyaaaniyon ne tamaatar ki yaantrik sambhaal hetu ise adhik sanshodhit banaane ke liye aanuvanshik roop se parishkrut kiya.

abhi haal hi mein, aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki ka upayog duniya ke vibhinn bhaagon mein kiya ja raha hai taaki behtar visheshataaon se yukt fasalon ka nirmaan kiya ja sake.

shaak-sahishnu GMO fasalein

raaundaap ready beej mein ek shaak pratirodhi jeen hota hai, jo paudhe mein glaaifoset ke prati sahanasheelata ke liye iske jeenom mein daal diya gaya hai. raaundaap ek vyaapaarik naam hai jo glaaifoset aadhaarit utpaad ko diya gaya hai, jo krutrim hai aur khar patavaar ko nasht karne ke liye kaam mein liya jaane wala achayanit shaak vinaashi hai. raaundaap ready beej kisaan ko ऎsi fasal deta hai jis par khar patavaar nasht karne ke liye glaaifoset ka chhidkaav kiya ja sakta hai aur pratirodhi fasal ko koi nuksaan naheen pahunchata hai. shaak vinaashi-sahishnu fasalon ko duniya bhar ke kisaanon ke dvaara upayog kiya jaata hai. aaj, America mein soyaabeen ka 92% bhaag aanuvanshik roop se sanshodhit shaak vinaashi-sahishnu paudhon ke saath ugaaya jaata hai.[54] shaak vinaashi-sahishnu fasalon ke badhte hue upayog ke saath, glaaifoset aadhaarit shaak vinaashi chhidkaav ke upayog mein vruddhi hui hai. kuchh kshetron mein glaaifoset virodhi kharapatavaar viksit ho gaye hain, jiske kaaran kisaanon ne kisi anya shaak vinaashi ka prayog karna shuroo kar diya hai.[55][56] kuchh adhyayan glaaifoset ke adhik upayog ko kuchh fasalon mein lauh tatv ki kami ke saath sambandhit karte hain, jo aarthik kshamata aur svaasthya nihitaarth, fasal utpaadan aur poshan gunavatta donon ki drushti se ek vichaaraneeya vishay hai. [79]

keet-pratirodhi GMO fasalein

utpaadakon ke dvaara prayukt ki jaane waali anya GMO fasalon mein shaamil hain keet pratirodhi fasalein, jinmein mruda jeevaanu besils thuringeensis (Bt) se ek jeen hota hai jo keeton ke liye ek vishsht vish utpann karta hai; keet pratirodhi fasalein paudhon ko keeton se hone waali kshati se bachaati hain, isi prakaar ki ek fasal hai staaralink.

ek anya hai beeti kapaas, jo ameriki kapaas ka 63% bhaag banaati hai.[57]

kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki samaan ya behtar keet-pratirodhi lakshanon ko paaramparik prajanan paddhatiyon ke dvaara bhi praapt kiya ja sakta hai aur bhinn keeton ke liye pratirodhi kshamata ko jangali prajaatiyon ke saath sankaran ya par paraagan ke dvaara praapt kiya ja sakta hai. kuchh maamalon mein, jangali prajaatiyaan pratirodhi lakshan ka praathamik srot hoti hain; kuchh tamaatar ki fasalein jinhonne kam se kam unnees rogon ke liye pratirodhi kshamata praapt kar li hai, aisa tamaatar ki jangali prajaatiyon ke saath sankaran ke maadhyam se kiya gaya hai.[58]

laagat aur GMOs ke laabh

aanuvanshik injiniyr kisi din aise traansajenik paudhon ko viksit kar sakte hain, jo sinchaai, jal nikaasi, sanrakshan, svachhata engineering aur utpaadan ko badhaane ya banaaye rakhane mein saksham honge aur paaramparik fasal ki tulana mein unki jeevaashm indhan vyutpann nivesh ki aavashyakta kam hogi. [22] aise vikaas vishesh roop se un kshetron mein mahatvapoorn honge jo saamaanyataya shushk hote hain aur nirantar sinchaai par nirbhar rahate hain aur bade paimaane ke kheton se yukt hote hain.

haalaanki, paudhon ki aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki vivaadaaspad saabit hui hai. khaadya suraksha aur paryaavaran prabhaavon ke baare mein GMO prathaaon se sambandhit bahut se mudde utpann hue hain. udaaharan ke liye, kuchh paryaavaran vigyaani aur arthashaastri GMO prathaaon jaise tarminetar beej ke sambandh mein GMOs par prashn uthaate hain.[59][60] jo ek aanuvanshik sanshodhan hai jo bandhya beej nirmit karta hai.

vartamaan mein antarraashtreeya star par tarminetar beej ka bahut adhik virodh kiya ja raha hai aur is par vishv stareeya rok lagaaye jaane ke liye nirantar prayaas kiye ja rahe hain.[61] ek aur vivaadaaspad mudda hai un companyon ke liye peteint sanrakshan jo aanuvanshik abhiyaantriki ka upayog karte hue nae prakaar ke beej viksit karti hain. choonki companiyon ke paas apne beej ka bauddhik svaamitv hai, unke paas apne peteint utpaad ki shartein aur niyam laagoo karne ka adhikaar hai. vartamaan mein, das beej companiyaan, poori duniya ki beej ki bikri ke do tihaai se adhik bhaag ka niyantran karti hain.[62] vandana Shiv ka tark hai ki ye companiyaan laabh ke liye jeev ka shoshan karne aur jeevan ke peteint ke dvaara jaiv paairesi ke doshi hain.[63] peteint beej ka upayog karne vaale kisaan agali fasal ke liye beej ko bacha naheen sakte hain, jisse unhein har saal nae beej khareedne padte hain. chooainki viksit aur vikaas sheel donon prakaar ke deshon mein beej ko bachaana kai kisaanon ke liye ek paaramparik pratha hai, GMO beej kisaanon ko beej bachaane ki is pratha ko parivrtit karne aur har saal nae beej khareedne ke liye baadhya karte hain.[64][65]

sthaaneeya anukoolit beej bhi vartamaan sankarit beejon tatha GMOs ki tarah hi saksham hote hain. sthaaneeya roop se anukoolit beej, jo bhoomi prajaati ya fasal paaristhitik-prakaar bhi kahalaate hain, ve mahatvapoorn hain kyonki samay ke saath ve jutaai ke kshetr ke vishesh sookshm vaataavaran, mruda, anya paryaavarani paristhitiyon, kshetr ke design aur jaateeya vareeyata ke liye anukoolit ho jaate hain.[66] ek kshetr mein GMOs aur sankarit vyaapaarik beejon ko laana sthaaneeya prajaatiyon ke saath iske par paraagan ka jokhim bhi paida karta hai isliye, GMOs bhoomi prajaatiyon tatha paaramparik ethanik heritej ke liye ek khtara hain.

ek baar beej mein jab traansajenik saamagri shaamil ho jaati hai, yeh us beej company ke ko sharton ke adheen bana deta hai, jiske paas traansajenik saamagri ka peteint hai.[67]

mudda yeh bhi hai ki GMOs jangali prajaatiyon ke saath par-paraagan kar lete hain aur mool aabaadi ki aanuvanshikta ko sthaayi roop se badal dete hain; aise kai jangali paudhon ki pehchaan ki ja chuki hai jinmein traansajenik jeen paae gaye hain.

GMO jeen ka sambandhit khar-patavaar prajaati mein chala jaana bhi ek chinta ka vishay hai, aisa bhi gair traansajenik fasal ke saath par paraagan ke dvaara hi hota hai.

choonki kai GMO fasalon ko unke beej ke liye kaata jaata hai, jaise repaseed, parivhan ke dauraan aur punaraavarti kheton mein swayamsevi paudhon ke liye beej ke spilej ki samasya hoti hai.[68]

khaadya suraksha aur lebaling

khaadya raksha ke mudde bhi sanyogavash khaadya suraksha aur khaadya lebaling ke muddon se mel khaate hain.

vartamaan mein ek vishv sandhi, di baayo sefti protokol, GMOs ke vyaapaar ko niyantrit karti hai. vartamaan mein EU ke liye sabhi GMO khaadya padaarthon ko lebal karna jaruri hai, jabki US mein GMO khaadya padaarthon ki paaradarshak lebaling jaruri naheen hai.

isliye GMO khaadya padaarthon se sambandhit jokhim aur suraksha ke muddon par kai prashn hain, kuchh logon ka maanana hai ki janta ko apne liye khaadya padaarth chunane ka adhikaar hona chaahiye, use gyaan hona chaahiye ki vah kya kha rahi hai aur iske liye sabhi GMO utpaadon ko lebal kiya jaana jaruri hai.[69]

paryaavaraneeya prabhaav

krushi, keetanaashakon, poshakon ke risaav, atirikt jal upayog aur anya mishrit samasyaaon ke dvaara samaaj par kai baahari kharche adhyaaropit karti hai

Britain mein 2000 mein krushi par kiye gaye ek aakalan mein pata chala ki 1996 ke liye kul baahari laagat 2343 million british pound ya 208 pound prati hekteyar thi.[70] sanyukt raajya mein 2005 ke ek vishleshan mein nishkarsh nikaala gaya ki fasal bhoomi lagbhag 5-16 billion dollar ($30 se $96 prati hekteyar) adhyaaropit karti hai, jabki pashudhan utpaadan 714 million dollar adhyaaropit karta hai.[71] donon adhyayanon ka nishkarsh yeh hai ki baahari laagat ko kam karne ke liye adhik kaarya kiya jaana chaahiye, is vishleshan mein unki subsidy ko shaamil naheen kiya gaya, lekin yeh not kiya gaya ki subsidy bhi krushi ki laagat ki drushti se samaaj par prabhaav daalati hai.

donon hi poori tarah vitteeya prabhaavon par keindrit hai. yeh 2000 ki sameeksha mein keetanaashak ke vishaile prabhaav ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya lekin keetanaashakon ke anumaanit deerghakaalik prabhaavon ko shaamil naheen kiya gaya aur 2004 ki sameeksha mein keetanaashakon ke kul prabhaav ke 1992 ke anumaan par bharosa kiya gaya.

pashudhan mudde

is samasya ka vistruteekaran karne vaale sanyukt raashtra ke ek varishth adhikaari aur sanyukt raashtra ki ek report ke sah lekhak, henning stenafeld, ne kaha "aaj ki sabse gambhir paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ke liye pashudhan sabse mukhya hain."[72] pashudhan utpaadan krushi ke liye upayukt bhoomi ka 70% bhaag gherata hai, athva poore grah ki bhoomi satah ka 30% bhaag gherata hai.[73] yeh harit gruh gaison ke sabse bade sroton mein se ek hai, duniya ke kul harit gruh gas utsarjan ke 18% ke liye jimmedaar hai, yeh CO2samakaksh mein maapa gaya hai.

tulana ke dvaara, sampoorn parivhan 13. 5% CO2 ka utsarjan karta hai. yeh 65% maanav se sambandhit naaitras oksaaid ka (jiski global vaarming ki kshamata CO2 se 296 guna hai) aur kul prerit methane ke 37% ka utpaadan karta hai (jo CO2 se 23 guna adhik vaarming ka kaaran hai)

yeh 64% amoniya bhi utpann karta hai, jo amleeya varsha aur paaristhitik tantr ke amleekaran mein yogadaan deti hai. pashudhan vistaar vanon ki kataai ke peechhe ek mukhya kaarak hai, amejain besin mein van kshetron ka 70% bhaag charaagaahon mein badal chuka hai aur shesh ko feed fasalon ke liye kaam mein liya jaata hai.[73] vanon ki kataai aur bhoomi ksharan ke maadhyam se pashudhan bhi jaiv vividhta mein kami la raha hai.

bhoomi roopaantaran aur ksharan

bhoomi roopaantaran, maal aur sevaaon ki upaj ke liye sabse mahatvapoorn tareeka hai, jiske dvaara maanav pruthvi ke paritantr ko parivrtit karta hai aur ise jaiv vividhta ki kshati mein mukhya kaarak maana jaata hai.

manushyon dvaara roopaantarit bhoomi ki maatra ka anumaan 39 se 50% tak lagaaya gaya hai.[74] bhoomi ksharan, jo paritantr pranaali aur utpaadakata mein deerghakaalik giraavat hai, anumaan ke anusaar yeh poori duniya mein 24% bhoomi par ho raha hai, jismein fasali bhoomi bhi shaamil hai.[75] UN-FAO ki report mein bhoomi prabandhan ko is avanaman ke peechhe mukhya kaarak maana gaya hai aur report mein kaha gaya hai ki 1. 5 billion log avanamit ho rahi bhoomi par nirbhar hain.

ksharan vanon ki kataai se ho sakta hai, marusthaleekaran se ho sakta hai, mruda aparadan se ho sakta hai, khanij rikteekaran se ho sakta hai, ya raasaayanik patan (amleekaran aur lavaneekaran) se ho sakta hai.[33]

yutrofikeshan

yutrofikeshan, jaleeya paaritantr mein atirikt poshak tatvon ke parinaamasvaroop shaivaal ka vikaas aur enoksiya ho jaata hai, jiske kaaran machhaliyaan mar jaati hain, jaiv vividhta ki kshati hoti hai aur paani peene va anya audyogik upayog ki drushti se ayogya ho jaata hai.

fasal bhoomi mein bahut adhik urvarak aur khaad daalne, saath hi uchch maatra mein pashudhan ki upasthiti ke kaaran poshakon (mukhyat: naaitrojan aur fosforas) ka krushi bhoomi se pravaah ho jaata hai aur leeching ki sthiti aa jaati hai.

ye poshak tatv pramukh gair bindu pradooshak hain jo jaleeya paritantr ke yutrofikeshan mein yogadaan dete hain.[76]

keetanaashak

keetanaashak ka prayog 1950 ke baad se badh kar poori duniya mein saalaana 2. 5 million tan tak pahuainch gaya hai. fir bhi keeton ke kaaran fasalon ki kshati apekshaakrut sthir bani hui hai.[77] vishv svaasthya sangathan ne 1992 mein anumaan lagaaya ki saalaana 3 million keetanaashak vishikran hote hain, jinke kaaran 220,000 mautein hoti hain.[78] keeton ki aabaadi mein keetanaashak pratirodh ke liye keetanaashak ka chayan, ek sthiti ko janm deta hai, jise 'keetanaashak tredamil' kaha jaata hai, jismein keetanaashak pratirodh ek nae keetanaashak ke vikaas ki vaaranti deta hai.[79] ek vaikalpik tark yeh hai ki 'vaataavaran ki raksha karne' aur akaal ko rokane ka ek tareeka hai keetanaashakon ka upayog karna aur gahan uchch utpaadakata kheti. center for global food ishooj vebasaait ka ek sheershak: 'groing mor par ekar leevj mor land for nechar'. isi prakaar ka ek drushtikon deta hai.[80][81] yadyapi aalochakon ka tark hai ki bhojan ki aavashyakta aur paryaavaran ke beech ek tredaof aparihaarya naheen hai[82] aur yeh bhi ki keetanaashak saadhaaran roop se achhi egronomik prathaaon jaise fasal punaraavartan ko pratisthaapit karte hain.[79]

jalavaayu parivartan

jalavaayu parivartan, krushi ko prabhaavit karne ki kshamata rakhata hai. krushi par taapamaan parivartan aur nami kshetron mein parivartan ka prabhaav padta hai.[33] krushi global vaarming ko kam bhi kar sakti hai is sthiti ko or badatar bhi bana sakti hai. vaayumandal mein CO2 mein kuchh vruddhi mruda mein kaarbanik padaarthon ke apaghatan ki vajah se bhi hoti hai. aur vaayumandal mein mukt hone waali adhikaansh methen, geeli mitti jaise dhaan ke kheton mein, kaarbanik padaarthon ke apaghatan se aati hai.[83] iske alaava, geeli aur avaayaveeya mruda vinaaitreekaran ke dvaara naaitrojan bhi mukt karti hai, jisse harit gruh gas naaitrik oksaaid mukt hoti hai.[84] aur mruda ka upayog vaayumandal mein se kuchh CO2 ko alag karne mein kiya ja sakta hai.[83]

aadhunik vishv krushi mein vikrutiyaan

aarthik vikaas, janasankhya ghanatv aur sanskruti mein antar ka arth hai ki duniya bhar ke kisaan bahut alag alag paristhitiyon mein kaam karte hain.

ko Amreeki dollar 230 [119][85] sarkaari subsidy (2003 mein), maali aur anya teesari duniya ke deshon mein kisaanon ko ho bina lagaaya praapt ho sakti hai. jab keematon mein kami aati hai, bahut adhik subsidy praapt karne vaale sanyukt raajya ke kisaan par apne utpaadan ko kam karne ka dabaav naheen hota hai. jisse kapaas ki keematon ko banaaye rakhana mushkil ho jaata hai, isi samay mein

dakshin Korea mein ek pashu kisaan, ek bachhade ke liye (bahut adhik subsidy se yukt) 1300 ameriki dollar bikri moolya ki ganana kar sakta hai.[86] ek dakshin ameriki merkosur country reinchar ek bachhade ke liye 120-200 ameriki dollar bikri moolya ki ganana kar sakta hai (donon 2008 ke aankade).[87] pehle waali sthiti mein, bhoomi ki unchi laagat ki kshatipoorti saarvajanik subsidy ke dvaara ki jaati hai. baad waali sthiti mein, subsidy ke abhaav ki kshatipoorti bhoomi ki kam laagat aur paimaane ke arthashaastr ke saath ki jaati hai.

cheen ke ganavaadi raajya mein, ek graameen gharelu utpaadak sampatti, kheti ki bhoomi ka ek hekteyar ho sakti hai.[88] Brazil, peraagve aur anya desh jahaan sthaaneeya vidhaayika aisi khareed ki anumati deti hai, antararaashtreeya niveshak prati hekteyar kuchh sau ameriki dollar ki keemat par hajaaron hekteyar kachchi bhoomi ya kheti ki bhoomi khareedte hain.[89][90][91]

krushi aur petrolium

san 1940 ke dashak ke baad se, bade paimaane par petrokemikl vyutpann keetanaashakon, urvarakon ke upayog aur masheeneekaran ke badhne ke kaaran, (tathaakathit harit kraanti) krushi ki utpaadakata mein naatakeeya dhang se vruddhi hui hai. 1950 aur 1984 ke beech, jaise jaise harit kraanti ne poori duniya mein krushi ko roopaantarit kiya, duniya ka anaaj utpaadan 250% tak badh gaya.[92][93] jisne pichhle 50 saalon mein duniya ki aabaadi ko dogune se adhik badhne ki anumati di hai.

haalaanki, aadhunik takaneekon ka upayog karte hue ugaaye gaye bhojan ke liye oorja ki pratyek ikaai ko utpaadan aur delivery ke liye das se adhik urja ikaaiyon ki jarurat hoti hai.[94] yadyapi yeh aankada petrolium aadhaarit krushi ke samarthan ka virodhi hai.[95] is oorja input ka adhikaansh bhaag jeevaashm indhan sroton se aata hai. aadhunik krushi ki petrorasaayan aur masheeneekaran par bahut adhik nirbharata ke kaaran, aisi chetaavaniyaan di gayeen hain ki tel ki kam hoti hui aapoorti (naatakeeya pravruti jo peek tel ke roop mein jaani jaati hai[96][97][98][99][100]) aadhunik audyogik krushi vyavastha ko bahut adhik kshati pahunchaayegi aur yeh bhojan ki ek badi kami paida kar sakti hai.[101]

aadhunik ya audyogik krushi do maulik tareekon se petrolium par nirbhar karti hai: 1) kheti-beej se fasal uga kar kataai karna. 2) parivhan-kataai karke upabhokta ke frij tak pahuainchaana. is prakriya mein traiktar va kheton mein jutaai ke liye kaam mein liye jaane vaale upakaranon ko indhan upalabdh karaane ke liye, prati naagrik prati varsh lagbhag 400 gailan tel prayukt hota hai. yeh desh ke kul urja upayog ka 17 pratishat hai.[102] tel aur praakrutik gas bhi kheton mein prayukt kiye jaane vaale urvarakon, keetanaashakon aur shaak vinaashiyon ke nirmaan block hain. petrolium baajaar mein pahuainchane se pehle bhojan se prasanskaran ki prakriya ke liye aavashyak urja bhi upalabdh karta hai. naashte ke liye 2 pound anaaj ke bag ka utpaadan karne mein aadha gailan gaisolin ke tulya urja kharch hoti hai.[103] ismein is anaaj ko baajaar tak pahuainchane ke liye aavashyak urja naheen jodi gayi hai; prasanskrut khaadya padaarth aur fasalon ke parivhan mein sabse adhik tel kharch hota hai.

New Zealand se kiwi, arjenteena se asperegas, gvaatemaala se tarabooj aur brokali, California se kaarbanik salaad-aise adhikansh khaadya padaarth upabhokta ki plate par pahuainchane ke liye ausatan 1500 meal ki yaatra karte hain.[104]

tel ki kami is khaadya aapoorti ko rok sakti hai. is jokhim ke baare mein upabhoktaaon ki badhti jaagrukta aise kai kaarakon mein se ek hai jo kaarbanik kheti aur anya sthaayi kheti ki vidhiyon mein roochi ko badhaava de rahe hain.

aadhunik kaarbanik kheti ki vidhiyon ka upayog karne vaale kuchh kisaanon nein paaramparik kheti ki tulana mein adhik utpaadan kiya hai. (lekin ismein jeevaashm-indhan-gahan krutrim urvarakon aur keetanaashakon ka upayog naheen kiya gaya hai)

petrolium aadhaarit takaneek ke dvaara monokalchar krushi takaneek ke dauraan khoye ja chuke poshakon ko pun: mruda mein laane ke liye kandishning mein samay lagega.[105][106][107][108]

tel par nirbharata aur America ki khaadya aapoorti ke jokhim ne ek jaagruk khapat aandolan shuroo kiya hai, jismein upabhokta un "khaadya meelon" ki ganana karte hain, jo ek khaadya utpaad ne yaatra ke dauraan tay kiye hain. sthaayi krushi ke liye leopold kendra ek khaadya meal ko nimnaanusaar paribhaashit karta hai:"....... ugaaye jaane vaale sthaan se upabhokta ya antim upayogakarta dvaara antat: khreede jaane vaale sthaan tak bhojan ki yaatra."

sthaaneeya roop se ugaaye jaane vaale aur door sthaanon par ugaaye jaane vaale bhojan ki ek tulana mein leopold kendra ke anusandhaanakartaaon ne paaya ki sthaaneeya bhojan ko apne gantavya tak pahuainchane ke liye 44. 6 meal ki doori tay curry hoti hai aur sudur sthaanon par ugaaye jaane vaale jahaajon se sthaanaantarit kiye jaane vaale bhojan ko 1,546 meal ki doori tay curry hoti hai.[109]

nae sthaaneeya khaadya aandolan mein upabhokta jo bhojan meelon ki ganana karte hain, apne aap ko "lokaavors" link kehte hain; ve ek sthaaneeya aadhaarit bhojan vyavastha par lautane ki vakaalat karte hain, jismein bhojan jitna ho sake najadeek ke sthaanon par hi ugaaya jaaye, chaahe yeh kaarbanik ho ya naheen.

lokaavors ka tark hai ki California mein mool roop se ugaai jaane waali salaad, jo jahaajon ke dvaara new yaark laayi jaati hai, abhi bhi asthaayi khaadya srot hai kyonki yeh apne sthaanaantaran keliye jeevaashm indhan par nirbhar hai. "lokaavors" aandolan ke alaava, tel aadhaarit krushi par nirbharata ke mudde ne ghar aur saamudaayik baagavaani ki aur rujhaan ko badhaaya hai.

link

kisaanon nein makke jaisi fasalon ko isliye bhi ugaana shuroo kar diya hai taaki unka istemaal bhojan ki bajaay peek tel ki kami ko pura karne mein kiya ja sake. isse haal hi mein yeh gehoon ki keematon mein 60% ki vruddhi hui hai, yeh vikaasasheel deshon mein gambhir saamaajik ashaanti ki sambhaavana ko ingit karta hai.[110] aisi sthitiyaan bhojan aur indhan ki keemat mein bhaavi vruddhi ki sthiti mein aur bhi buri ho jaayeingi, ye kaarak pehle se hi bhookhamari se peedit aabaadi ko khaadya sahaayata bhejane vaale dharmaarth daataaon ki kshamata ko prabhaavit kar chuke hai.[111]

peek tel muddon ke kaaran hone waali shrrunkhala abhikriyaaon ke ek udaaharan mein shaamil hai kisaanon ke dvaara peek tel ki samasya ko kam karne ke liye makke jaisi fasalein ugaane ka prayaas.

isne pehle se hi khaadya utpaadan ko kam kar diya hai.[112] yeh bhojan banaam indhan mudda aur bhi buri sthiti dhaaran kar lega jab ithenaul indhan ki maang badh jaayegi. bhojan aur indhan ki badhti laagat ne pehle se hi bhookhamari se peedit logon ko khaadya sahaayata bhejane vaale kuchh dharmaarth daataaon ki kshamata ko seemit kar diya hai.[111] sanyukt raashtra mein kuchh log chetaavani dete hain ki haal hi mein gehoon ki keemat mein hui 60% vruddhi "vikaasasheel deshon mein gambhir saamaajik ashaanti paida kar sakti hai"[112][113] 2007 mein, kisaanon ko gair khaadya jaivik indhan fasalein ugaane ke liye diye gaye atirikt bhatte[114] anya kaarakon ke saath sanyukt ho gaye, (jaise poorv khet ki bhoomi ka atirikt vikaas, sthaanaantaran ki laagat ka badhna, jalavaayu parivartan, cheen aur Bhaarat mein graahak ki maang ka badhna aur janasankhya mein vruddhi)[115] jisse Asia, madhya poorv, Africa aur maiksiko, mein khaadya ki maatra mein kami aa gayi, saath hi vishv bhar mein khaadya ki keematein badh gayeen.[116][117] December 2007 mein 37 deshon ne khaadya sankat ka saamana kiya aur 20 ne kisi prakaar ke khaadya keemat niyantran ko laagoo kar diya.

inmein se kuchh kamiyon ke parinaam svarup khaadya dange hue aur ghatak bhagadad bhi mach gayi.[13][14][118]

krushi kshetr mein ek anya pramukh petrolium mudda hai petrolium aapoorti ka prabhaav urvarak utpaadan par padega. krushi mein jeevaashm indhan ka sabse jyaada input hai haabar-bosh urvarak nirmaan prakriya ke liye ek haaidrojan srot ke roop mein praakrut gas ka upayog,[119] praakrut gas ka istemaal isliye kiya jaata hai kyonki yeh vartamaan mein upalabdh haaidrojan ka sabse sasta srot hai.[120][121] jab tel ka utpaadan bahut kam ho jaata hai tab praakrut gas ko iske vikalp ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. aur parivhan mein haaidrojan ka upayog badh jaata hai, praakrutik gas adhik mahangi ho jaayegi. yadi haabar prakriya ko navyakaraneeya oorja (jaise vidyut apaghatan) ka upayog karte hue vaaneejyeekrut naheen kiya ja sakta ya yadi haabar prakriya ko pratisthaapit karne ke liye haaidrojan ke anya srot itni maatra mein upalabdh naheen hain, ki ve parivhan aur krushi ki aavashyakta ke liye paryaapt hon, to urvarak ka yeh mukhya srot ya to bahut adhik mahanga ho jaayega ya upalabdh naheen hoga.

yeh ya to bhojan ki kami laayega ya khaadya keematon mein naatakeeya dhang se vruddhi kar dega.

petrolium ki kami ke prabhaav ko kam karna

kami ka ek asar yeh ho sakta hai ki krushi poori tarah se kaarbanik krushi ki aur laut jaaye. peek tel muddon ke prakaash mein, kaarbanik vidhiyaan samakaaleen prathaaon ki tulana mein adhik sthaayi hongi, kyonki unamein petrolium aadhaarit keetanaashakon, shaak vinaashiyon, ya urvarakon ka upayog naheen kiya jaata hai.

aadhunik kaarbanik kheti ki vidhiyon ka upayog karne vaale kuchh kisaanon ne paaramparik vidhiyon ke tulana mein adhik utpaadan ki report di hai. [[122][123][124][125] haalaanki kaarbanik kheti adhik shram pradhaan ho sakti hai aur ismein kaarya kshetr par shahari se graameen kshetron ki or sthaanaantaran ka dabaav ho sakta hai.[126]

aisi salaah di gayi hai ki graameen samudaaya baayochar or sinfyool prakriyaaon se indhan praapt kar sakte hain, jismein saamaanya bhojan banaam indhan daataabes ke bajaay indhan aur, khaadya or chaarakol urvarak upalabdh karaane ke liye krushi ke vyarth padaarthon ka upayog kiya jaata hai.

jab sinfyul ka saait par upayog kiya jaayega, prakriya adhik prabhaavi ho jaayegi aur isse kaarbanik-krushi sangalan ke liye paryaapt indhan upalabdh hogaagi.[127][128]

aisi salaah di gayi hai ki aise traansajenik podhon ka vikaas kiya ja sakta hai jo paaramparik fasalon ki tulana mein kam jeevaashm indhan ka upayog karte hue, utpaadan mein vruddhi kareinge aur ise banaaye rakheinge.[129] in kaaryakramon ki safalta ki sambhaavana par arthashaastriyon aur paaristhitik vijnyaaaniyon ne savaal uthaayein hain, ye savaal asthaayi GMO prathaaon jaise tarminetar beej ke muddon ko lekar uthaaye gaye hain.[130][131] aur ek January 2008 ki report se pata chalta hai ki GMO prathaaen "paryaavarani, saamaajik aur aarthik laabh dene mein asafal hain."[132] GMO fasalon ke upayog ke sthaayitv par kuchh anusandhaan kiye gaye hain, monaseinto ke dvaara kam se kam ek haaipd aur prabhaavi bahu varshi prayaas asafal rahata hai, haalaanki saamaan avadhi ke dauraan paaramparik prajanan prathaaon ne saamaan fasalon ki ek adhik sthaayi kism upalabdh karaayi hai.[133] iske atirikt, Africa mein sabsisteins ke jaiv prodyogiki udyog ke dvaara kiye gaye ek sarvekshan mein khoja gaya ki kaun sa GMO anusandhaan sabse sthaayi krushi ke liye laabhakaari hoga aur gair traansajenik muddon ki pehchaan karega.[134] baharahaal, Africa mein kuchh sarkaaron ne nae traansajenik praudyogikiyon mein sthirta mein sudhaar karne ke liye aavashyak ghatak ke roop nivesh ko jaari rakha hai.[135]

neeti

krushi neeti krushi utpaadan ke lakshyon aur tareekon par dhyaanakeindrit karti hai. neetigat star par, krushi ke saamaanya lakshyon mein shaamil hain:

  • sanrakshan
  • aarthik sthirta
  • paryaavaraneeya prabhaav
  • bhojan ki gunavatta: ye sunishchit karna ki ek gyaat gunavatta ki sthir khaadya aapoorti bani rahe.
  • khaadya suraksha: yeh sunishchit karna ki khaadya aapoorti sandooshan se mukt ho.
  • khaadya raksha: yeh sunishchit karna ki bhojan ki aapoorti, aabaadi ki jarooraton ko poora kare.[110][111]
  • nirdhanata mein kami

krushi suraksha aur svaasthya

kensas mein kendra sinchaai dhuri ke golaakaar fasal kheton ki saitelaait chhavi. svasth, badhti hui fasalein hareen hain; gehoon ke khet sone ke rang ke hain; aur parati khet bhoore hain.

sanyukt raajya America

krushi sabse khatarnaak udyogon mein se ek hai.[136] kisaanon ko ऎsi choton ka khatra hota hai, jo unke liye ghaatak bhi ho sakti hain, ya ghaatak naheen ho sakti hai. unhein kaam se sambandhit fefadon ki beemaariyaan, shor se hone wala baharaapan, tvacha rog aur rasaayanon ke upayog aur lambe samay tak dhoop mein rahane ke kaaran Cancer ho sakta hai.

krushi un gine chune udyogon mein se hai jinmein parivaar ko bhi chot, beemaari ya mrutyu ka khatra bana rahata hai. (kyonki parivaar vaale aksar saath hi rahate hain aur kaam mein haath bantaate hain). ek ausat varsh mein, America mein 516 shramikon ki mrutyu kheti ka kaarya karne ke dauraan hoti hai. 1992-2005). in mauton mein se, 101 traiktar palatane ke kaaran hoti hain. prati din lagbhag 243 krushi majadoor kaarya-samay-chot-kshati ko jhelate hain aur inmein se lagbhag 5% sthaayi roop se viklaang ho jaate hain.[137]

krushi yuva shramikon ke liye sabse khatarnaak udyog hai, America mein 1992 aur 2000 ke beech kaarya se sambandhit hone waali mauton mein se 42% yuva shramikon ki theen. anya udyogon ke vipreet, krushi mein yuva peediton ke aadhe logon ki umr 15 varsh se kam thi.[138] 15-17 aayu varg ke yuva krushi shramikon ke liye, ghaatak chot ka khatra anya kaarya sthaanon ki tulana mein chaar guna hota hai.[139] krushi kaarya ke dauraan yuva shramikon ko khataron mein kaam karna hota hai, jaise machinery par kaam karna, seemit sthaanon mein kaam karna, teekhe dhalaan par kaam karna aur pashuon ke aas paas kaam karna.


ek anumaan ke anusaar varsh 2004 mein 1. 26 million bachche aur 20 saal se kam aayu ke kishor kheton mein rah rahe the. inke saath lagbhag 699,000 yuva bhi kheton mein kaam kar rahe the.

kheton mein rahane vaale yuvaaon ke alaava, 2004 mein, atirikt 337,000 bachchon aur kishoron ko America ke kheton mein naukri par rakha gaya.

ausatan 103 bachche prati varsh kheton mein maare jaate hain (1990-1996). in mauton ki lagbhag 40 pratishat kaarya se sambandhit theen. 2004 mein, ek anumaan ke anusaar 27,600 bachche aur kishor kheton mein ghaayal ho gaye; inmein se 8,100 kheti ke kaarya ke kaaran hi ghaayal hue the.[137]

kendra

kuchh ameriki anusandhaan kendra krushi prathaaon mein svaasthya aur suraksha ke vishay par dhyaan keindrit kar rahe hain. inmein se adhiktar samooh national Institute for okyupeshanal helth end sefti, di you. S. dipaartameint of egreekalchar, ya anya raajya agencyon ke dvaara vitt poshit hai.

in kendron mein shaamil hain:

  • great leks center for egreekalcharal sefti end helth (ohiyo raajya vishvavidyaalaya, OH)
  • great plens center for egreekalcharal helth end sefti (iova raajya vishvavidyaalaya, iova shahar, IA)
  • di haai plens center for egreekalcharal helth end sefti (Colorado raajya vishvavidyaalaya, kolins, CO)
  • south East center for egreekalcharal helth end injari priveinshan (keintaki vishvavidyaalaya, leksingatan, KY)
  • south vest center for egreekalcharal helth, injari priveinshan end education (Texas vishvavidyaalaya, taayalar, TX)
  • western center for egreekalcharal helth end sefti (California vishvavidyaalaya, Davis, CA)

yeh bhi dekhein

mukhya soocheeyaan: buniyaadi krushi vishyon ki soochi aur krushi vishyon ki soochi
  • krutrim paadap haarmon
  • peek tel ke krushi prabhaav
  • eroponiks (khaadya aur paudhon ko ghar ke andar ugaana)
  • krushi arthashaastr
  • krushi vipnan
  • krushi paaristhitiki
  • jaivakeetaanu naashak
  • chitosan (krushi aur baagavaani upayog ke liye praakrutik jaiv niyantran)
  • jalavaayu parivartan aur krushi
  • anubandh krushi
  • khapat-shram-santulan siddhaant
  • krofting
  • doha vikaas daur
  • faarming first
  • feed editiv
  • fortahej state vishvavidyaalaya
  • khaadya adhyayan
  • achha krushi abhyaas
  • harit kraanti
  • audyogik krushi
  • kaarbanik kheti
  • paramaakalchar
  • paramaaforestri
  • graameen arthashaastr
  • chhoti sampati ki krushi
  • krushi aur khaadya takaneek ki samayarekha
  • vaaildakalchar

sandarbh

  1. market vauch (2007), plastic ek se adhik tareekon mein hare hain.
  2. [1] ^ BIO (n.d.) aushadhiyon ke utpaadan ke liye banaam khaadya padaarth tatha chaare ke liye paudhon ko ugaana.
  3. [2] ^ shram baajaar ke antarraashtreeya shram sangathan mahatvapoorn sanketak 2008, pi. 11-12
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granthasoochi

kaufi baagaan up Sãao Joãao do Manhuaçau City mouth - meenaas gerais raajya - Brazil.

doradrecht / Boston / London, peepi 20-2

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krushi ke prakaar

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain