kroosed

entiok ka kabja, pratham kroosayuddh ke samay ke madhyayugeeya chitrakarm se liya gaya

Europe ke isaaiyon ne 1095 aur 1291 ke beech apne dharm ki pavitra bhoomi filisteen aur usaki rajdhani jeroosalam mein sthit isa ki samaadhi ka girjaaghar musalmaanon se chheenane aur apne adhikaar mein karne ke prayaas mein jo yuddh kiye unako saleebi yuddh, isaai dharmayuddh, kroosed (crusades) athva kroosh yuddh kaha jaata hai. itihaasakaar aise saat kroosh yuddh maanate hain.

anukram

yuddhon ki prushthabhoomi

isaai mataavalanbiyon ki pavitra bhoomi aur uske mukhya sthaan saath ke maanachitr mein dikhaae gaye hain. yaatra ki pramukh manjil jeroosalam nagar mein vah bada girjaaghar tha jise rom ke pratham isaai samraat konsteintain ki maaain ne isa ki samaadhi ke paas chauthi sadi mein banavaaya tha.

yeh kshetr rom ke saamraajya ka ang tha jiske shaasak chauthi sadi se isaai mataavalanbi ho gaye the. saataveen sadi mein islaam ka prachaar badi teevr gati se hua aur paignbar ke uttaraadhikaari khleefaaon ne nikat aur door ke deshon par apna shaasan sthaapit kar liya. filisteen to paiganbar ki mrutyu ke 10 varsh ke bheetar hi unke adheen ho gaya tha.

musalmaan isa ko bhi ishvar ka paiganbar maanate hain. saath hi, arab jaati mein sahishnuta bhi thi, isse yahoodiyon ko apni pavitra bhoomi ke sthalon ki yaatra mein koi baadha ya kathinaai naheen hui.

11veen sadi mein yeh sthiti badal gayi. madhya Asiaee turk jaati ki itni janavruddhi hui ki vah aur faili tatha islaam dharm grahan kar liya. khaasakar is samay saljook turkon ne (jo apne ek sardaar seljuk ke naam se prasiddh hai) kaispiyn saagar se jerushalam tak apni shakti bahut badha li. udhar poorv mein turkon ki ek doosari shaakha ne sulataan Mehmood ke netrutv mein Bhaarat par aakraman kiya aur usaka pashchimottar bhaag daba liya. saljookon ne kai deshon ke anantar filisteen par bhi kabja kiya aur jeroosalam tatha vahaaain ke pavitra sthaan 1071 E. uske adheen ho gaye. is samay se isaaiyon ki yaatra kathin aur aashankaapoorn ho gayi.

doosari or pashchimi Europe mein naarman jaati ki shakti ka vikaas hua. naarman England ke shaasak ban gaye; France ke ek bhaag par ve pehle se hi chhaae hue the, 1070 ke lagbhag unhonne sisili, dweep musalmaanon se jeeta aur usase mila hua Italy ka dakshini bhaag bhi daba liya. falasvaroop, bhoomadhyasaagar, jo uttari Africa ke musalmaan shaasakon ke dabaav mein tha, is samay ke isaaiyon ke liye khul gaya.

Italy ke kai svantatr nagar (jinmein venis, jenoaa aur peesa pramukh the) vaanijya mein kushal the aur ab aur bhi unnatisheel ho gaye. unki nausena badhi aur isaaiyon ko apni pavitra bhoomi ke liye naya maarg bhi upalabdh ho gaya.

par isaai mein prabal foot bhi thi. 395 E. mein roman saamraajya do bhaagon mein baint gaya tha. pashchimi bhaag, jiski rajdhani rom thi, 476 mein uttar ki barbar jaatiyon ke aakraman se toot gaya. par Pope ka prabhaav sthir raha aur in jaatiyon ke isaai ho jaane par bahut badh gaya; yahaaain tak ki pashchimi Europe par Pope ka nirvivaad aadhiptya tha. iske shaasak Pope se aasheervaad praapt karte the aur yadi Pope aprasann hokar kisi shaasak ka bahishkaar karta, to use kathin praayashchitt karna hota tha aur prachoor dhan dand ke roop mein Pope ko dena padta tha. is kshetr ke shaasakon mein se ek samraat nirvaachit hota tha jo Pope ka sahakaari maana jaata tha aur pavitra roman samraat kahalaata tha.

isaai jagat ke poorvi bhaag ki rajdhani kustuntuniyaaain (aadhunik istaanbul nagar) mein thi aur vahaaain greek (yoonaani) jaati ke samraat shaasan karte the. poorvi Europe ke atirikt unka raajya Asia maainar par bhi tha. turko ne Asia maainar ke adhikaansh bhaag par kabja kar liya tha, keval rajdhani ke nikat ka aur kuchh samudratat ka kshetr roman (jaati se greek) samraat ke paas rah gaya tha. samraat ne is sankat mein pashchimi isaaiyon ki sahaayata maaaingi. rom ka Pope swayam hi pavitra bhoomi ko turko se mukt karaane ka ichhuk tha. ek prabhaavashaali prachaarak (aamiya nivaasi peetar sannyaasi) ne France aur Italy mein dharmayuddh ke liye janta ko utsaahit kiya. falasvaroop lagbhag chhah lakh krooshadhar prastut ho gaye. isaai jagat ke poorvi aur pashchimi bhaagon mein dhaarmik matabhed itna tha ki 1054 mein rom ke Pope aur kostaanteen nagar ke paatriaark (jo poorvi isaaiyon ka adhyaksh tha) ne ek doosare ko jaatichyut kar diya tha. pashchim ka unnatisheel raajaneetik dal (arthaat naarman jaati) poorvi samraat ko, jo yoonaani tha, nikmma samajhta tha. usaki dhaarana thi ki is saamraajya mein naarman shaasan sthaapit hone par hi Turkey se yuddh mein jeet ho sakti hai. in virodhon tatha matabhedon ka kroosh yuddhon ke itihaas par gahra prabhaav pada.

pratham kroosh yuddh (1096-1099)

pratham kroosayuddh ke baad ka bijeintiam

is yuddh mein do prakaar ke krooshadharon ne bhaag liya. ek to France, Germany aur Italy ke janasaadhaaran, jo laakhon ki sankhya mein Pope aur sannyaasi peetar ki prerana se (bahutere) apne baal bachchon ke saath gaadiyon par samaan laadakar peetar aur anya shraddhonmatt netaaon ke peechhe pavitra bhoomi ki or March, 1096 mein thalamaarg se chal diye. bahutere inmein uddand the aur vidhrmiyon ke prati to sabhi dvesharat the. unke paas bhojan saamagri aur parivhan saadhan ka abhaav hone ke kaaran ve maarg mein loot khasot aur yahoodiyon ki hatya karte gaye jiske falasvaroop bahutere maare bhi gaye. inko yeh pravrutti dekhkar poorvi samraat ne inke konstaanteen nagar pahuainchane par doosare dal ki prateeksha kiye bina baasforas ke paar utaar diya. vahaaain se badhkar jab ve turko dvaara shaasit kshetr mein ghuse to, maare gaye.

doosra dal pashchimi Europe ke kai suyogya saamanton ki senaaon ka tha jo alag alag maargo se konstaanteen pahuainche. inke naam is prakaar hain:-

  1. laren ka Duke gaadafre aur usaka bhaai baaldavin;
  2. dakshin France sthit tooloo ka Duke remon;
  3. sisili ke vijeta naarmanon ka neta bohemon (jo poorvi samraat ka sthaan lene ka ichhuk bhi tha).

poorvi samraat ne in senaaon ko maargaparivhan ityaadi ki suvidhaaeain aur swayam sainik sahaayata dene ke badle inse yeh pratijnyaa karaai ki saamraajya ke bhootapoorv pradesh, jo turko ne hathiya liye the, fir jeete jaane par samraat ko de diye jaaeainge. yadyapi is pratijnyaa ka poora paalan naheen hua aur samraat ki sahaayata yathesht naheen praapt hui, fir bhi krooshadhar senaaon ko is yuddh mein paryaapt safalta mili.

(konstaanteen se aage in senaaon ka maarg maanachitr mein ankit hai.) sarvapratham unka saamana hote hi turko ne nikaaya nagar aur usase sambandhit pradesh samraat ko de diye. fir sena ne doreeliym sthaan par turko ko paraajit kiya or vahaaain se antiok mein pahuainchakar aath maheene ke ghere ke baad use jeet liya. isse pehle hi baaldavin ne apni sena alag kar ke poorv ki or armeeniya ke antargat edesa pradesh par apna adhikaar kar liya.

antiok se navabanr, 1098 mein chalakar senaaeain maarg mein sthit tripolis, teer, tatha sijriya ke shaasakon se dand lete hue June, 1099 mein jeroosalam pahuainchi aur paaainch saptaah ke ghere ke baad July, 1099 mein usapar adhikaar kar liya. unhonne nagar ke musalmaan aur yahoodi nivaasiyon ki (unki striyon aur bachchon ke saath) nirmam hatya kar di.

is vijay ke baad krooshadharon ne jeete hue pradeshon mein apne chaar raajya sthaapit kiye (jo neeche ke maanachitr mein dikhaae gaye hain). poorvi roman samraat isse aprasann hua par in raajyon ko venis, jenoaa ityaadi samakaaleen mahaan shaktiyon ki nausena ki sahaayata praapt thi jinka vaanijya in raajyon ke sahaare Asia mein failata tha. iske atirikt dharmasainikon ke do dal, jo matharakshak (nights teinplars) aur svaasthyarakshak (nights haaspitlars) ke naam se prasiddh hain, inke sahaayak the. paadariyon aur bhikshuon ke samaan ye dharmasainik Pope se deeksha paate the aur aajeevan braahrucharya rakhane tatha dharm, asahaaya striyon aur bachchon ki raksha karne ki shapath lete the.

dviteeya kroosh yuddh (1147-1149)

pratham yuddh ke baad ke raajya

san 1144 mein mosal ke turk shaasak imaad uddeen jngi ne edesa ko isaai shaasak se chheen liya. Pope se sahaayata ki praarthana ki gayi aur uske aadesh se prasiddh sannyaasi sant barnaard ne dharmayuddh ka prachaar kiya.

is yuddh ke liye pashchimi Europe ke do pramukh raaja (France ke saatavein lui aur Germany ke teesare konaraad) teen lakh ki sena ke saath thalamaarg se konstaanteen hote hue Asia maainar pahuainche. inke paraspar vaimanasya aur poorvi samraat ki udaaseenata ke kaaran inhein safalta na mili. jarman sena ikoniym ke yuddh mein 1147 mein paraast hui aur France ki agale varsh laaudeesiya ke yuddh mein. paraajit senaaeain samudra ke maarg se antiok hoti hui jeroosalam pahuainchi aur vahaaain ke raaja ke sahayog se damishk par ghera daala, par bina use liye hue hi hat gayi. is prakaar yeh yuddh nitaant asafal raha.

truteeya kroosh yuddh (1188-1192)

is yuddh ka kaaran Turkey ki shakti ka utthaan tha. sulataan salaahauddeen (1137-1193) ke netrutv mein unka bada saamraajya ban gaya jismein uttari Africa mein misr, pashchimi Asia mein filisteen, Syria, arab, Iran tatha Iraq sammilit the. usane 1187 mein jeroosalam ke isaai raaja ko hattin ke yuddh mein paraast kar bandi kar liya aur jeroosalam par adhikaar kar liya. samudratat par sthit teer par usaka aakraman asafal raha aur is bandar ka bachaav 1188 mein karne ke baad isaai sena ne doosare bandar ekar ko salaahauddeen se lene ke liye usapar August, 1189 mein ghera daala jo 23 maheene tak chala. salaahauddeen ne ghera daalanevaalon ko ghere mein daal diya. jab 1191 ke April mein France ki sena aur June mein England ki sena vahaaain pahuainchi tab salaahauddeen ne apni sena hata li aur is prakaar jeroosalam ke raajya mein se (jo 1199 mein sthaapit chaar firangi raajyon mein pramukh tha) keval samudratat ka vah bhaag, jismein ye bandar (ekar tatha teer) sthit the, shesh rah gaya.

is yuddh ke liye Europe ke teen pramukh raajaaon ne badi taiyaari ki thi par vah sahayog na kar sake aur paarasparik virodh ke kaaran asafal rahe.

pratham jarman samraat fredarik laalamuainha (baarbarosa), jiski avastha 80 varsh se adhik thi, 1189 ke aarambh mein hi apne desh se thalamaarg se chal diya aur Asia maainar mein Turkey kshetr mein pravesh karke usane usaka kuchh pradesh jeet bhi liya, par armeeniya ki ek pahaadi nadi ko tairakar paar karne mein doobkar June, 1190 mein mar gaya. usaki sena ke bahut sainik maare gaye, bahut bhaag nikle; shesh uske putr fredarik ke saath ekar ke ghere mein ja mile.

doosra France ka raaja Phillip ogustoo apni sena jenoaa ke bandar se jahaajon par lekar chala, par sisili mein England ke raaja se (jo ab tak usaka param mitr tha) vivaadavash ek varsh nasht karke April, 1181 mein ekar pahuainch paaya.

is kroosh yuddh ka pramukh England ka raaja richrd pratham tha, jo France ke ek pradesh ka Duke bhi tha aur apne pita ke raajyakaal mein France ke raaja ka param mitr raha tha. isne apni sena France mein hi ekatr ki aur vah France ki sena ke saath hi samudratat tak gayi. England ka samudri beda 1189 mein hi vahaaain se chalakar maarasai ke bandar par upasthit tha. sena ka kuchh bhaag usapar aur kuchh richrd ke saath Italy hota hua sisili pahuaincha, jahaaain France naresh se anban ke kaaran lagbhag ek varsh nasht hua tha. vahaaain se donon alag ho gaye aur richrd ne kuchh samay saaipras ka dweep jeetne aur apna vivaah karne mein vyav kiya. is kaaran vah France ke raaja se do maheene baad ekar pahuaincha (teenon raajaaon ki senaaon ka maarg maanachitr mein dikhaaya gaya hai). ekar ke mukt ho jaane par raajaaon ka matabhed bhadak utha. France ka raaja apne desh laut gaya. richrd ne akele hi turko ke desh mirua ki or badhne ka prayaas kiya jismein usane nau ladaaiyaaain ladeen. vah jeroosalam se chhah meal tak badha par usapar ghera na daal saka. vahaaain se lautakar usane samudratat par jaffa mein September, 1192 mein salaahauddeen se sandhi kar li jisse isaai yaatriyon ko bina rok tok ke yaatra karne ki suvidha de di gayi aur teen varsh ke liye yuddh ko viraam diya gaya.

yuddhaviraam ki avadhi ke uparaant jarman samraat henari shashth ne fir aakraman kiya aur usaki sahaayata ke liye do senaaeain samudri maarg se bhi I. par safalta na mili.

chaturth kroosh yuddh (1202-1204)

is yuddh ka pravartak Pope innoseint truteeya tha. usaki prabal ichha isaai mat ke donon sanpradaayon (poorvi aur pashchimi) ko milaane ki thi jiske liye vah poorvi samraat ko bhi apne adheen karna chaahata tha. Pope ki shakti is samay charam seema par thi. vah jis raajya ko jise chaahata, de deta tha. usaki is neeti ko us samay nausena aur vaanijya mein sabse shaktishaali raajya venis aur naarman jaati ki bhi sahaanubhooti aur sahayog praapt tha. Pope ka uddeshya is prakaar isaai jagat mein ekta utpann karke musalmaanon ko pavitra bhoomi se nikaal dena tha. par uske sahaayakon ka lakshya raajaneetik aur aarthik tha.

san 1202 mein poorvi samraat ijaaks ko uske bhaai aaleksiys ne andha karke hata diya tha aur swayam samraat ban baitha tha. pashchimi senaaeain samudra ke maarg se konstaantaan pahuaincha aur aaleksiys ko haraakar ijaaks ki gaddi par baithaaya. usaki mrutyu ho jaane par konstaanteen par fir ghera daala gaya aur vijay ke baad vahaaain baldivin ka, jo pashchimi Europe mein flaindars (Belgium) ka saamant tha, samraat banaaya gaya. is prakaar poorvi saamraajya bhi pashchimi firangiyon ke shaasan mein aa gaya aur 60 varsh tak bana raha.

is kraanti ke atirikt firangi senaaon ne rajdhani ko bhali prakaar loota. vahaaain ke kosh se dhan, ratn aur kalaakrutiyon lene ke atirikt prasiddh girjaaghar sant saafiya ko bhi loota jiski chhat mein, kaha jaata hai, ek samraat ne 18 tan sona lagaaya tha.

baalakon ka dharmayuddh (Children's crusade)

san 1212 mein France ke stefaaain naam ke ek kisaan ne, jo kuchh chamatkaar bhi dikhaata tha, ghoshana ki ki use ishvar ne musalmaanon ko paraast karne ke liye bheja hai aur yeh paraajaya baalakon dvaara hogi. is prakaar baalakon ke dharmayuddh ka prachaar hua, jo ek vichitr ghatna hai. 30,000 baalak baalikaaeain, jinmein se adhikaansh 12 varsh se kam avastha ke the, is kaam ke liye saat jahaajon mein France ke dakshini bandar maarasai se chale. unhein samudrayaatra paidal hi sampann hone ka vishvaas dilaaya gaya. do jahaaj to samudra mein samast yaatriyon samet doob gaye, shesh ke yaatri sikandariya mein das banaakar bech diye gaye. inmein se kuchh 17 varsh uparaant sandhi dvaara mukt hue.

isi varsh ek doosare utsaahon ne 20,000 baalakon ka doosra dal Germany mein khada kiya aur vah unhein janaaaa tak le gaya. vahaaain ke bade paadari ne unhein laut jaane ka paraamarsh diya. lautate samay unamein se bahut se pahaadon ki yaatra mein mar gaye.

paaainchavaaain kroosh yuddh (1228-29)

1228-29 mein samraat fredarik dviteeya ne mirua ke shaak se sandhi karke, pavitra bhoomi ke mukhya sthaan jaroosalam bethalaham, najrath, tor aur sidaan tatha unke aaspaas ke kshetr praapt karke apne ko jeroosalam ke raajapad par aabheeshakt kiya.

chhatha kroosh yuddh (1248-54)

kuchh hi varsh uparaant jeroosalam fir musalmaanon ne chheen liya. jalaaluddeen, khvaarajmashaah, jo khoba ka shaasak tha, chagej khaaain se paraast hokar, pashchim gaya aur 1144 mein usane jeroosalam lekar vahaaain ke pavitra sthaanon ki kshati pahuainchaai aur nivaasiyon ki hatya ki.

is par France ke raaja lui navein ne (jise sant ki upaadhi praapt hui) 1248 aur 54 ke beech do baar in sthaanon ko fir se lene ka prayaas kiya. France se samudramaarg se chalakar vah saaipras pahuaincha aur vahaaain se 1249 mein mirua mein damiyeta le liya, par 1250 mein masoori ki ladaai mein paraast hua aur apni poori sena ke saath usane poorn aatmasamarpan kiya. chaar lakh svarnamudra ka uddhaaramoolya chukaakar, daamaeta vaapas kar mukti pai. iske uparaant chaar varsh usane ekar ke bachaav ka prayaas kiya, par safal na hua.

saptam kroosh yuddh (1270-72)

jab 1268 mein turko ne isaaiyon se antiaki le liya, tab lui nav ne ek aur kroosh yuddh kiya. usaki aasha thi ki uttari Africa mein tyooaanas ka raaja isaai ho jaaaiga. vahaaain pahuainkar usane kaathej 1270 meliyo, par thode hi dinon mein pleg se mar gaya. is yuddh ko iska mrutyu ke baad England ke Rajkumar Edward ne, jo aage chalakar raaja Edward pratham hua, jaari rakha. parantu usane Africa mein aur koi kaaryavaahi naheen ki. vah sisla hota hua. filisteen pahuaincha. usane ekar ka ghera hata diya or musalmaanon ko das varsh ke liye yuddhaviraam karne ko baadhya kiya.

ekar hi ek sthaan filisteen mein isaaiyon ke haath mein bacha tha aur vah ab unke chhote se raajya ki rajdhani thi. 1291 mein turko ne use bhi le liya.

dharmayuddhon ka prabhaav

in dharmayuddhon ke itihaas mein is baat ka jvalant pramaan milta hai ki dhaarmik andhavishvaas aur kattarata ko uttejit karne se munashya mein swayam vichaar karne ki shakti naheen rah jaati. kattarata ke prachaar se isaaiyat jaise shantipoorn mat ke anuyaayi bhi kitna atyaachaar aur hatyaakaand kar sakte hain, yeh isse prakat hai. jo dharmasainik yaatriyon ki chikitsa ke liye athva mandir ki raksha ke liye Dixit hue, ve yahaaain ke vaataavaran mein sansaari ho gaye. ve mahaajani karne lage.

in yuddhon se Europe ko bahut laabh bhi hua. bahutere kalahapriya log in yuddhon mein kaam aae jisse shaasan ka kaam sugam ho gaya. yuddhon mein jaanevaale Europeeya poorv ke nivaasiyon ke sampark mein aae aur unase unhonne bahut kuchh seekha, kyonki inke rahan sahan ka star Europe se bahut ooaincha tha. vaanijya ko bhi bahut protsaahan mila aur bhoomadhyasaagar ke bandargaah, visheshat: venis, jeneeaa, peesa ki khaadi ki unnati hui.

poorvi saamraajya, jo 11veen shataabdi mein samaapt hone hi ko tha, 300 varsh aur jeevit raha. Pope ka prabhutv aur bhi badh gaya aur saath hi raajaaon ki shakti badhne se donon mein kabhi kabhi sangharsh bhi hua.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain