kriya (vyaakaran)

jin shabdon se kisi kaarya ka karna ya hona vyakt ho use kriya kehte hain. jaise- roya, kha raha, jaayega aadi. udaaharanasvaroop agar ek vaakya 'mainne khaana khaaya' dekha jaaye to ismein kriya 'khaaya' shabd hai. 'iska naam mohan hai' mein kriya 'hai' shabd hai. 'aapko vahaaain jaana tha' mein do kriya shabd hain - 'jaana' aur 'tha'.

kriya ke bhi kai roop hote hain, jo pratyaya aur sahaayak kriyaaon dvaara badle jaate hain. kriya ke roop se uske vishay sanjnyaa ya sarvanaam ke ling aur vachan ka bhi pata chal jaat hai. kriya vah vikaari shabd hai, jisse kisi padaarth ya praani ke vishay mein kuchh vidhaan kiya jaata hai. athva jis vikaari shabd ke prayog se ham kisi vastu ke vishay mein kuchh vidhaan karte hain, use kriya kehte hain. jaise-

1. ghoda jaata hai.
2. pustak mej par padi hai.
3. mohan khaana khaata hai.

uparyukt vaakyon mein jaata hai, padi hai aur khaata hai kriyaaeain hain.

kriya ke saadhaaran roopon ke ant mein na laga rahata hai. jaise-aana, jaana, paana, khona, khelna, koodana aadi. kriya ke saadhaaran roopon ke ant ka na nikaal dene se jo baaki bache use kriya ki dhaatu kehte hain. aana, jaana, paana, khona, khelna, koodana kriyaaon mein aa, ,ja, pa, kho, khel, kood dhaatueain hain. shabdakosh mein kriya ka jo roop milta hai, usamein dhaatu ke saath na juda rahata hai. na hata dene se dhaatu shesh rah jaati hai.

anukram

prayog ke aadhaar par kriya ke prakaar

akarmak kriya

jis kriya se soochit hone wala vyaapaar karta kare aur usaka fal bhi karta par hi pade, use akarmak kriya kehte hain. jaise- Ram khaata hai. vaakya mein khaane ka vyaapaar Ram karta hai aur khaane ka fal bhi Ram par hi padta hai, isliye 'khaata hai' akarmak kriya hai.

anya udaaharan:

1. geeta gaati hai.

2. bachcha khelta hai.

3. shyaam hansata hai.

4. keeda bilbilaata hai.

apoorn akarmak kriya

jis kriya ke poorn arth ka bodh karaane ke liye karta ke atirikt anya sanjnyaa ya visheshan ki aavashyakta padti hai, use apoorn akarmak kriya kehte hain. apoorn akarmak kriya ka arth poorn karne ke liye sanjnyaa ya visheshan ko joda jaata hai, use poorti kehte hain. jaise- gaaaindhi kahalaaye. - se abheesht arth ki ki praapti naheen hoti. arth samajhne ke liye yadi poochha jaaya ki gaaaindhi kya kahalaaye? to uttar hoga- gaaaindhi mahaatma kahalaaye. is prakaar kahalaaye apoorn akarmak kriya ka arth mahaatma shabd dvaara spasht hota hai. is vaakya mein kahalaaye apoorn akarmak kriya aur mahaatma shabd poorti hai.

anya udaaharan:

1. mera bhaai shikshak ho gaya.

2. sona peela hota hai.

3. saadhu chor nikla.

4. vah manushya buddhimaan hai.

uparyukt vaakyon mein ho gaya, hota hai, nikla aur hai apoorn akarmak kriyaaeain hain aur shikshak, peela, chor aur buddhimaan poorti hai.

sakarmak kriya

jis kriya se soochit hone vaale vyaapaar ka fal karta par na padkar karm par pade, use sakarmak kriya kehte hain. jaise- shyaam pustak padhta hai. - vaakya mein padhta hai kriya ka vyaapaar shyaam karta hai, kintu is vyaapaar ka fal pustak par padta hai, isliye padhta hai sakarmak kriya hai aur pustak karm shabd karm hai.

anya udaaharan:

1. Ram baan maarta hai.

2. raadha moorti banaati hai.

3. neta bhaashan deta hai.

4. kutta haddi chabaata hai.

uparyukt vaakyon mein 'maarta hai', 'banaati hai', 'deta hai' aur 'chabaata hai' sakarmak kriyaaeain hain aur baan, moorti, bhaashan aur haddi shabd karm hain.

apoorn sakarmak kriya

jis sakarmak kriya ka poora aashay spasht karne ke liye vaakya mein karm ke saath anya sanjnyaa ya visheshan ka poorti ke roop prayog hota hai, use apoorn sakarmak kriya kehte hain. jaise- raaja ne gangaadhar ko mantri banaaya.– vaakya mein banaaya sakarmak kriya ka karm gangaadhar hai, kintu itne maatr se is karm ka aashay spasht naheen hota. usaka aashay spasht karne ke liye uske saath mantri sanjnyaa bhi prayukt hoti hai. is vaakya mein banaaya apoorn sakarmak kriya hai, gangaadhar karm hai aur mantri shabd karm-poorti hai.

anya udaaharan:

1. adhyaapak ne santosh ko varg-pratinidhi chuna.

2. ham apne mitr ko chatur samajhte hain.

3. ham pratyek bhaarateeya ko apna maanate hain.

uparyukt vaakyon mein chuna, samajhte hain aur maanate hain apoorn sakarmak kriyaaeain hain. santosh ko, mitr ko aur bhaarateeya ko karm hain aur varg-pratinidhi, chatur aur apna karm-poorti hai.

dvikrmak kriya

jis sakarmak kriya ka arth spasht karne ke liye vaakya mein do karm prayukt hote hain, use dvikrmak kriya kehte hain. jaise-shikshak ne vidyaarthi ko pustak di.– is vaakya mein di kriya ke vyaapaar ka fal do karmon- pustak aur vidyaarthi par padta hai, isliye di vaakya mein dvikrmak kriya hai. pustak mukhya karm aur vidyaarthi gaun karm hai. dvikrmak kriya ke saath prayukt hone vaale donon karm mein se mukhya karm kisi padaarth ka to gaun karm kisi praani ka bodh karaata hai.

anya udaaharan:

1. raaja ne braahman ko daan diya.

2. Ram Lakshman ko ganit sikhaata hai.

3. maalik naukar ko paise deta hai.

uparyukt vaakyon mein diya, sikhaata hai aur deta hai dvikramak kriya hai. daan, ganit aur paise mukhya karm hain to braahman ko, Lakshman ko aur naukar ko gaun karm.

rachana ki drushti se kriya ke prakaar

rachana ki drushti se kriya do prakaar ki hoti hai-

  • 1. roodh, aur
  • 2. yaugik.

roodh kriyaa: jis kriya ki rachana dhaatu se hoti hai, use roodh kehte hain. jaise, likhna, padhna, khaana, peena aadi.

yaugik kriyaa: jis kriya ki rachana ek se adhik tatvon se hoti hai, use yaugik kriya kehte hain. jaise- likhvaana, aate jaate rahana, padhvaana, bataana, badbadaana aadi.

yaugik kriya ke bhed:

  • 1. preranaarthak kriya
  • 2. sanyukt kriya.
  • 3. naamadhaatu
  • 4. anukaranaatmak kriya.

preranaarthak kriya

jis kriya ke vyaapaar mein karta par kisi doosare ki preऱaana jaani jaati hai use preranaarthak kriya kehte hain. jaise- shikshak ne vidyaarthi se pustak padhvaayi. vaakya mein padhvaayi kriya se vidyaarthi karta par shikshak karta ki prerana jaani jaati hai. jo karta doosare par prerana karta hai, use prerak karta kehte hain aur jis par prerana ki jaati hai, use prerit karta kehte hain. prastut vaakya mein padhvaayi preranaarthak kriya, shikshak prerak karta aur vidyaarthi prerit karta hai. prerak karta ka prayog karta kaarak mein aur prerit karta ka prayog karan kaarak mein hota hai. adhiktar akarmak se sakarmak aur sakarmak se preranaarthak kriya banti hai. jaise-

akarmak sakarmak preranaarthak
paani girta hai . raadha paani giraati hai. shyaam raadha se paani girvaata hai.
ham uthate hain. ham bojh uthaate hain. ham kuli se bojh uthavaate hain.

preऱaanaarthak kriya banaane ke niym:

1. adhiktar dhaatuon se do-do preranaarthak kriyaaeain banti hain, pehli preranaarthak mein aa aur doosari mein vaaain judta hai-

gir (na) giraana girvaana

chal (na) chalaana chalavaana

chadh(na) chadhaana chadhvaana

2. dhaatu ke beech mein yadi deergh svar ho to use hrasv karne se-

jaag (na) jagaana jagavaana

naach (na) nachaana nachavaana

seekh (na) sikhaana sikhvaana

3. dhaatu ke beech mein A, ai ho to i aur O, au ho to u ho jaata hai-

khod (na) khudaana khudavaana

khel (na) khilaana khilvaana

bol (na) bulaana bulavaana

4. dhaatu ke ant mein yadi deergh svar ho to usamein praay: la judta hai-

kha (na) khilaana khilvaana

ro (na) rulaana rulavaana

de (na) dilaana dilvaana

aaऩaa, kumhalaana, garajana, ghighiyaana, takaraana, tutalaana, pachhataana, padna, sakana, laingadaana, siskana, hona, paana aadi kriyaaon se preranaarthak kriyaaeain naheen banti.

2.sanyukt kriyaa: jo kriya kisi doosari kriya ya anya shabd-bhed ke yog se banti hai, use sanyukt kriya kehte hain. jaise-

1. vah mere ghar aaya jaaya karta hai.

2. aaj padhna-likhna hoga.

3. ham padhaai kar chuke.

uparyukt vaakyon mein aaya jaaya karta hai, padhna-likhna hoga aur kar chuke sanyukt kriyaaeain hain. sanyukt kriya ki rachana jab do kriyaaon ke yog se hoti hai to ek kriya mukhya aur doosari sahaayak ke roop mein prayukt hoti hai.

3.naamadhaatu: sanjnyaa, sarvanaam athva visheshan se bananevaali dhaatu ko naamadhaatu kehte hain. naamadhaatu se bananevaali kriya naamadhaatu kriya kahalaateehai. jaise-

sanjnyaa naamadhaatu naamadhaatu kriya
baat bata bataana
maati matiya matiyaana
lajja laja lajaana
haath hathiya hathiyaana
sarvanaam naamadhaatu naamadhaatu kriya
apna apna apanaana
visheshan naamadhaatu naamadhaatu kriya
chikna chikna chiknaana
saath sathiya sathiyaana
sookha sukha sukhaana
kriya-visheshan naamadhaatu naamadhaatu kriya
oopar upara uparaana
bheetar bhitra bhitraana

4.anukaranaatmak kriyaa: kisi dhvani ke anukaran par jo kriya banti hai, use anukaranaatmak kriya kehte hain. jaise-

khat khat khatakhataana jhan jhan jhanajhanaana
bhan bhan bhanabhanaana dhad dhad dhaddhadaana
thar thar tharatharraana san san sanasanaana:
chhal chhal chhalachhalaana thap thap thapathapaana

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain