kristaleeya thos

kristaleeya thos saadhaaranat: laghu kristalon ki atyadhik sankhya se bana hota hai, unamein pratyek kristal ka nishchit jyaamiteeya aakaar hota hai. kristal mein paramaanuon, anuon athva aayanon ka kram suvyavasthit hota hai. ismein deergh paraasi vyavastha hoti hai arthaat kanon ki vyavasthaaka khaas paitarn hota hai jiski nischit kram se punaraavrutti hoti hai. kristaleeya thoso ka galanaank nishchit hota hai. kristaleeya thos vishmadaishik prakruti ke hote hain arthaat unke kuchh bhautik gun jaise vidyuteeya pratirodhakata aur apavartanaank ek hi kristal mein bhin-bhin dishaaon mein maapane par bhin-bhin maan pradarshit karte hain. yeh alag- alag dishaaon mein kanon ki bhin vyavastha se utpann hota hai. bhin-bhin dishaaon mein kanon ki vyavastha alag hone par ek hi bhautik gun ka maan pratyek disha mein bhin paaya jaata hai.[1] udaaharan- sodiym kloraaid, kvaartj aadi.

adhiktar thos padaarth kristaleeya prakruti ke hote hain. udaaharan ke liye sabhi dhaatvik tatv; jaise- loha, taaainba aur chaaaindi; adhaatvik tatv; jaise-salfar, fausaforas aur aayodeen evam yaugik jaise sodiym kloraaid, jink salpaaid aur neptheleen kristaleeya thos hain.

anukram

kristaleeya thos ke prakaar

kristaleeya thoson ko unamein parichaalit antaraaaanvik balon ki prakruti ke aadhaar par chaar sanvargo mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai- aanvik, aayanik, dhaatvik aur sahasanyojak.[2]

aanvik thos

aanvik thos ve hain jinke avayavi kan anu hote hain.

adhruveeya aanvik thos

adhruveeya aanvik thos ve thos hain jo ya to paramaanuon; udaaharanaarth. nim taap par organ aur heeliym athva adhruveeya sahasanyojak bandhanon se bane anuon dvaara bane hote hain. in thoson mein parmaanu athva anu durbal parikshepan balon athva ladan balon dvaara baindhe rahate hain. yeh thos mulaayam aur vidyut ke achaalak hote hain.[3]

dhruveeya aanvik thos

dhruveeya-aanvik thos ve thos hain jinke anu dhruveeya sahasanyojak bandhon se bane hote hain. aise thoson mein anu apekshaakrut prabal dvidhruv-dvidhruv anyonyakriyaaon se ek doosare ke saath baindhe rahate hain. ye thos mulaayam aur vidyut ke achaalak hote hain. inke galanaank adhruveeya aanvik thoson se adhik hote hain fir bhi inmein se adhiktar kamre ke taap aur daab par gas athva drav roop mein milte hain.[4]

aayanik thos

aayanik thos ve thos hain jinke avayavi kan aayan hote hain. inka nirmaan dhanaayanon aur rinaayanon ke trivimeeya vinyaason mein prabal sthir vaidyut balon se baindhane par hota hai. ye thos kathor aur bhangur prakruti ke hote hain. inke galanaank aur kvathanaank uchch hote hain. chooki ismein aayan gaman ke liye svatantr naheen hote, at: ye thos avastha mein vijhutarodhi hote hain. tathaapi galit avastha mein athva jal mein gholane par, aayan gaman ke liye mukt ho jaate hain aur ve vidyut ka sanchaalan karte hain. dhaatuen, mukt ilektraunon ke samudra se ghire aur unke dvaara sanlagnit dhanaayanon ka vyavasthit sangrah hain. ye ilektraun gatisheel hote hain aur kristal mein sarvatr samaroop se vistaarit hote hain.[5]

sandarbh

  1. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-2-3
  2. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-4
  3. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-4
  4. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-4
  5. rasaayanashaastr, bhaag-1, (kaksha 12), enaseeiaarati, nai Delhi, prushth-4