kreemiya ka yuddh

kreemiya yuddh ka roosi bhaasha mein bana naksha. uttar-poorv mein roos aur dakshin mein Turkey hain.

kreemiya ka yuddh (July, 1853 - September, 1855) tak kaala saagar ke aaspaas chala yuddh tha, jismein France, Britain, saaradeeniya, Turkey ne ek taraf tatha roos ne doosari taraf se lada tha. 'kreemiya ki ladaai' ko itihaas ke sarvaadhik moorkhataapoorn tatha anirnaayak yuddhon mein se ek maana jaata hai. yuddh ka kaaran slaavavaadi raashtreeyata ki bhaavana thi. iske atirikt doosare taraf Turkey ke dhaarmik atyaachaar bhi kaaran bane, kintu behad khoon kharaabe ke baad bhi nateeja kuchh bhi naheen nikla.

yeh yuddh kadaachit akaaran lada gaya tha fir bhi Europeeya itihaas mein iska vishesh mahatva aaainka jaata hai. un dinon Europeeya deshon mein logon ki yeh dhaarana ho gayi thi ki roos ke paas itne adhik shastraastr hain ki vah Ajay hai. usase log aatankit the. kustantuniya ki or raajyavistaar karne ki roos ki neeti Peter mahaan ke samay se hi chali aa rahi thi. apni is raajyavistaar ki aakaankshaapoorti ke liye vah koi na koi bahaana dhooaindhta rahata tha. is yuddh ko pehla aisa yuddh maana jaata hai jismein janta ko pratidin ki ladaai ki khabar mili. the times akhbaar ke William Russel aur Roger feintan ne patra mein is ladaai ka vivran diya tha.


prushthabhoomi

is yuddh ka sootrapaat ek chhote se dhaarmik vivaad ko lekar hua. un dinon filisteen, Turkey saamraajya (usmaani saamraajya ya otoman saamraajya) ke antargat tha. 1535 E. mein Turkey ke sultaan ne roman isaaiyon ke teerthasthaanon ki dekhbhaal France ke sanrakshan mein French kaithalik paadariyon ko saunpa tha. isi prakaar Turkey sthit yoonaani-isaai sanpradaaya ke dhaarmik sthaan roos ke jaar ke sanrakshan mein diye gaye the. kintu France ki prakhyaat raajakraanti ke samay France apne uttaradaayitv ki or samuchit dhyaan na de saka. dheere dheere laitin dharmasthaanon par yoonaani-isaai sanpradaaya ke saadhuon ka adhikaar ho gaya. 1850 E. mein fraansanaresh naipoliyn truteeya ka dhyaan laitin church ki or gaya; usane unke prabandh ko France ke sanrakshan mein de dene ke liye Turkey ko likha. 1852 E. mein usane apni is maaaing ko duharaaya. kuchh heela-havaali karne ke baad Turkey ke sultaan ne France ki is maaaing ko sveekaar kar liya. roos ke liye koi kaaran na tha ki vah Turkey ke is kaarya par aapatti karta; kintu usane ise Turkey ko hadp lene ka ek achha avsar samjha. yoonaani-isaai sanpradaaya ka paksh lekar jaar ne sultaan ko laitin dhaarmik sthalon ka prabandh unhein lauta dene ko likha. isse England aashankit ho utha. use dar laga ki kustuntuniya par roos ka adhikaar ho jaane par sthal maarg se Bhaarat ke liye sthaayi khatra utpann ho jaaega aur yeh aisa khatra hoga jiska kisi prakaar bhi saamana karna uske liye sambhav na hoga. vah roos ke virooddh Turkey ki sahaayata ke liye uth khada hua.

France ke liye to rusht hone ka spasht kaaran tha hi. roos uske teerthasthalon ki dekhbhaal ke adhikaar mein hastakshep kar raha hai. kintu isse bada kaaran yeh tha ki jaar nikolas pratham ne France ke nae samraat ko 'bhaai' sambodhit na kar 'mitr' sambodhit kiya tha. isaliye roos ke yoonaani-isaai sanpradaaya ka pakshadhar bante dekh use apne raajavansh par khatra aata dikhaai pada. aastriya ko bhi baalkan ki or roosi badhaav se ghabaraahat hui. yadyapi 1849 E. mein aastriyaanaresh ko apna Patrick sinhaasan roosi sainik sahaayata se praapt hua tha, tathaapi is avsar par roos ki krutajnyaata maanana aur chup baithe rahana uchit naheen jaan pada. usaka jhukaav France aur England ki or hone laga. usane british raajadoot ke ishaare par roos ki chunauti ko thukara diya. iska jo parinaam hona tha hua.

yuddh

July, 1853 mein roos ki sena ne kooch bol diya aur dainyoob nadi ke uttaravarti Turkey ke bhoobhaag-moldeviya aur baaleshiya ke praanton par aadhikaar kar liya. tatkaal England aur France ka sanyukt nausenik beda Turkey ki sahaayata ke liye baasforas pahuaincha; kintu angareji aur fraanseesi yuddhapoton ke dekhte dekhte saainop ke nikat roosi nausena ne Turkey ke bede ko nasht kar diya. tab January,1854 E. ke aanrabh mein England aur France ka sanyukt beda kaalaasaagar mein ghusa aur donon deshon ne sheegra hi roos ke virooddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di. unhonne apni rakshaatmak yuddh karne ki yojana banaai. kustuntuniya ki raksha ke liye unhonne gaileepoli mein kilebandi karne ka nishchaya kiya. kintu iske poorv ki aangl-French senaaeain kaalaasaagar ke pashchimi tat par varna mein ekatr hon, aastriya ke amaitreepoorn rukh ko dekhkar roos ne apni sena ko Turkey ke adhikrut pradeshon se vaapas bula liya. is prakaar roos dvaara Turkey par aakraman ki sambhaavana samaapt ho gayi. falat: England aur France ki sthiti visham ho gayi.

varna mein joron ka haija faila. sena vahaaain chhodi naheen ja sakti thi. doosari or bina yuddh kiye apni sena ko svadesh lauta le jaana donon hi desh ke shaasakon ka apni heenata ka dyotak jaan pada. at: kuchh karne ki dhun mein unhonne kreemiya par aakraman karne ka nishchaya kiya. uske dakshini tat par sevaastopol mein roos ka nausenik adda tha. use adhikaar mein karna unahonne apna lakshya banaaya.

durdharsh nirnaya to in donon deshon ne le liya par uname se kisi ko bhi kreemiya ke bhoobhaag ke sambandh mein koi jaankaari na thi. utsaahi France ne jab is kathinaai ka anubhav kiya tab usane pleinchet par naipoliyn mahaan ki aatma ko bulaakar usase salaah lene ki baat ki. raifet ne sevaastopol aur baalaklaava ke jo maanachitr taiyaar kiye the unka adhyayan-manan kiya gaya; ranavyooh-visheshagya jaimini se salaah li gayi kintu koi utsaahajanak baat saamane naheen aari. asafalata ki hi sanbhaavanaaeain jaan padi. idhar british mantrimandal ko kisi prakaar ke gambhir chintan ki aavashyakta naheen jaan padi. usane kreemiya ke nakshe par saamaanya dhang se drushtipaat kiya aur kaha ki topon ke bal par sthaladam degree ke avaruddh kar kreemiya ke praayadveep ko mukhya bhoobhaag se kaat dena koi kathin kaam naheen hai. unhein tab tak is baat ka gyaan na tha ki sthaladam degree ke donon or samudra mein do-teen foot se adhik jal naheen hai. unhonne yuddh ke liye aadesh jaari kar diye.

14 September ko senaaeain yoopotoriya pahuainchi. 17 September ko unhonne sevaastopol ki aur badhna aarambh kar diya. 20 September ko unhonne roosi sena ko haraaya kintu kisi prakaar ka koi nirnaayak parinaam naheen nikla. roosi senaapati taadelaben ne sevaastopol ke durg mein ghuskar durg ki raksha ki poori taiyaari kar li. aaaingl-French sena ne durg par ghera daal diya. aage koi kaararavaai ve kar paaeain, iske poorv jaada aa gaya; samuchit khaanepeene, vasraadi ki vyavastha ke abhaav mein sainik dayaneeya sthiti mein pad gaye. aaingareji sena ki sthiti to aur bhi kharaab ho gayi. jo jahaaj unke lise saamaan la rahe the ve baalaklaava ke bandargaah mein bhayankar samudri toofaan mein padkar nasht ho gaye. varsh samaapt hote hote 8,000 sainik beemaar pad gaye. aspataalon ki sthiti beemaari ko ghataane ke bajaay badhaanevaali thi. aadhe se bhi kam aadmi ladne yogya bache. jab floreins night engel mahila svayansevikaaon ko lekar pahuainchi aur beemaaron ki sevaasushrusha ki vyavastha ki tab kaheen sthiti mein kuchh sudhaar hua.

jab sardi kam hui to doosari museebat uth khadi hui. taar ke aavishkaar se tvarit sampark sthaapit karne ki suvidha ho gayi. at: donon deshon ke mukhyaalayon se jo aadesh das din mein pahuainchate the ab 24 ghante mein pahuainchane lage. is suvidha ka upayog England aur France ne alag alag dhang se kiya. England ke liye sainik asafalata ka arth mantrimandal mein ulatafer ki sambhaavana se adhik aur kuchh na tha. at: yuddh vibhaag ne usaka upayog keval apne kaptaan jevis ke svaasthya ke prati chinta vyakt karne mein kiya. kintu France ke samraat ke liye to haar raajavansh ke vinaash ka paigaam tha. at: ve apne senaapati ko danaadan sujhaav, salaah aur aadesh bhejane lage. falat: donon hi deshon ke senaapatiyon ko taaron ke is prakaar ke aadaan-pradaan ke kaaran mej se uthakar aur kuchh karne aur sochane ki furasat hi naheen rahi.

fir bhi April aate aate un logon ne sevaastopol ke ghere ki gati teevr karne ki cheshta ki. June mein angareji sena ne redaan par aur fraanseesi sena ne melekaaf par aakraman kiya parantu roosiyon ne donon hi aakramanon ko vifal kar diya. kintu jab aaaingl-French sena ne kinbarn par adhikaar kar liya tab roos ne yuddh jaari rakhana vyarth samjha. is samay tak French naresh naipoliyn (truteeya) bhi is yuddh se ghabara utha tha. vah aage yuddh karne ke paksh mein na tha. kintu angarej, jinhein sevaastopol ke aakraman mein asafalata mili thi, kheejhe hue the. ve yuddh jaari rakhana chaahate the kintu akele roos se yuddh kar sakana unke bas ki baat na thi. nidaan peris mein ek sandhi hui. is sandhi mein anya baaton ke atirikt mukhya baat yeh thi ki daanyoob nadi mein sabhi deshon ke jahaajon ke liye yaataayaat khol diya gaya; kaalaasaagar tatasth kshetr ghoshit kiya gaya; pratyek desh ke yuddhapoton ka vahaaain aana nishiddh kar diya gaya. doosare shabdon mein roos ko apne yuddhapot kaalaasaagar se hata lene pade; kintu pandrah varsh ke bheetar hi sandhi ki ye baatein nirrthak ho gayi.

prabhaav

saamaarik drushti se kreemiya ka yuddh keval is kaaran smaran kiya jaata hai ki vah angareji itihaas mein sarvaadhik avyavasthit yuddh tha. yeh yuddh sah-mitr yuddh ki kathinaaiyon aur khataron ka bhi ek chirsthaayi udaaharan hai. vyaapak drushti se itna hi kaha ja sakta hai ki naana prakaar ki kathinaaiyon ke hote hue bhi mitr-senaaon ne apna ranakaushal poori tarah pradarshit karne ki cheshta ki thi. raajaneetik drushti se laabh itna hi hua ki Turkey ko roos ke traas se mukti mili aur usaki svatantrata kaayam rahi.