koyala khanan

Bhaarat ke Jharkhand ki ek koyala Khan
Belgium ki ek koyala Khan ka upari bhaag

koyala jameen ke andar paaya jaata hai. vidyut utpaadan ke liye prayukt koyala 'ooshmeeya koyala' kahalaata hai jabki ispaat nirmaan ke liye aavashyak kok ke utpaadan ke liye ko koyala prayukt hota hai use 'koking kol' kehte hain


anukram

Bhaarat mein koyala khanan

Bhaarat mein koyala khanan (angreji: Coal Mining) ka praarambh William jons (angreji: William Jones) ne daamaliya (raaneeganj) ke sameep san‌ 1815 mein kiya. us samay ishaaeain (shafts) khodi gayi aur unase koyala nikaala gaya. jons ne bail pit reeti (Bell Pit Method) se bhi koyale ki kuchh khudaai karaai thi.

isha khudaai par laagat kam hone ke kaaran aur koyale ki maaaing badhne ke saath ishaaaaon dvaara sainkare koyala staron (narrow seams) ka paryaapt vikaas hua. 19veen shataabdi ke madhya mein samjha jaata tha ki adhik surangon se adhik koyala praapt hoga. un dinon koyale ko dharaatal tak laane ke liye ve vidhiyaaain prayukt hoti theen jo kueain se jal kheenchne mein ki jaati hain, arthaat‌ ismein bail tatha maanav shakti ka upayog kiya jaata tha. jab yaataayaat ke saadhan badhe aur sainkare staron tak pahuainchana sambhav ho sakta tab vahan pravanakon (Carrying out inclines) ka vikaas hua.

1855-56 E. mein relein tatha nadiyon mein yaataayaat ke saadhan upalabdh hue. koyale ki kuchh khaanon tak patari bhi bichha di gayi tatha Calcutta ke sameep vidyaavati (Bidyabatti) mein East Indian railway par koyale ka ek sangrah kendra (coal depot) bhi sthaapit kiya gaya. us samay Bengal mein khanan kaarya sarvaadhik vruddhi par tha. falat: san‌ 1860 mein raaneeganj koyala kshetr se Bhaarat ke kul utpaadan ka 88% koyala nikla. san‌ 1900 mein raaneeganj kshetr ka utpaadan ghatkar 25.5 lakh tan ho gaya jabki Bhaarat ka kul utpaadan 65.5 lakh tan tha. san‌ 1906 tak jhariya kshetr (Bihar) ka utpaadan raaneeganj se badh gaya. drut gati se koyala udyog ka vikaas hone ke falasvaroop 1914 E. mein utpaadan 165 lakh tan tak pahuainch gaya, jismein 91.5 lakh tan jhariya aur 50 lakh tan raaneeganj ka utpaadan sammilit hai.

koyala khaanon ka vidyuteekaran evam yantreekaran

Bhaarat mein koyale ki khaanon mein sarvapratham vaashp panp ka prayog 19veen shataabdi mein praarambh mein kiya gaya tha kintu vidyut vikaas se hi khaanon ka vidhipoorvak yantreekaran sambhav hua. 20veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein yantreekaran ki gati atyant mand thi tatha yeh sthiti san‌ 1938 tak rahi. iske pashchaat‌ yantreekaran ka vaastavik vikaas praarambh hua.

vidyutashakti vitran ki charam sthiti san‌ 1952 mein I jab Damodar ghaati yojana se khaanon mein prayukt vidyutashakti mein paryaapt vruddhi hui.

aaj Bhaarat ki koyale ki sabhi badi khaanein ya to poorn roop se vidyutit hain athva kuncheeyan abhiyantr (Winding Engine) ko chhodkar anya kaaryon mein vahaaain vidyuchhakti ka upayog hota hai. kuchh khaanon mein, jahaaain ghatiya koyala praapya hain, usaka upayog vaashp banaane mein hota hai aur is prakaar utpann vaashp ka vahaaain anek kaaryon mein prayog karte hain. vidyuchhakti upabhoktaaon ko paryaapt maatra mein 11 kilovolt (K.V.) tatha 3.3 kilovolt par vitrit ki jaati hai, use ve aavashyakataanusaar roopaantarit kar lete hain. saamaanya paarashen (transmission) mein mukhya vitrak binduon ka voltej saadhaaranataya 3,300 volta hota hai.

koyala khaanon mein aapatkaaleen sevaaeain

jab praakrutik aapattiyon ke kaaran saadhaaran khanan kaarya ruk jaata hai, jaise aag athva visfot aadi us samay aapatkaaleen dal ki sevaaaaein ki aavashyakta hoti hai. yeh dal khanan sainya sanstha (Mining Military Force) ke naam se bhi abhihit kiya ja sakta hai. iska mukhya kaarya un logon ki jeevanaraksha karna hai jo in aapat‌aakaaleen kathinaaiyon se peedit hon. khanij sampatti ki raksha ka bhaar bhi isi dal par hai.

Bhaarat ke koyala kshetron mein sarvapratham svayandhaarit shvaasayantr ka prayog, san‌ 1937 mein aag, vaati tatha visfot dvaara sankat padne par baraakar kol kan0 li0 ne kiya tha. us samay unhonne jhariya kshetr se apni ek Khan ki pun: praapti ki, jo visfot ke parinaamasvaroop band ho chuki thi.

visfot ke kaaran dhvast vaayusanchaalan ko pun: sthaapit karne tatha nashtabhrasht rodhanon (Stoppings) ka jeernodvaar karne ke liye abhi tak aabhyantarik sthitiyon ke gyaan ke bina hi vaayu ka pravesh karaaya jaata tha. ye kathinaaiyaaain ab bahut kuchh saral ho gayi hain; tatha suraksha evam pun: praapti (recovery) kaarya paryaapt sugamata se sanchaalit hota hai.

sarvapratham Bhaarat sarkaar ne san‌ 1939 mein poorn roop se prashikshit evam sajjit (equipped) suraksha dalon sahit suraksha stationon ki sthaapana karne ka nishchaya kiya jisse koyala kshetron mein kisi bhi aapatakaaleen sthiti ka saamana kiya ja sake. san‌ 1942 mein raaneeganj tatha jhariya mein do suraksha stationon ki sthaapana ki gayi.

vartamaan keindreeya pranaali

is pranaali ke antargat ek adheekshak (Superintendent) tatha do shikshakon ke atirikt prashikshiton ka ek dal hota hai, jo yantron ka prayog bhali prakaar jaanta hai tatha pratyek suraksha station (raaneeganj evam jhariya) par sthaayi roop se rahata hai. kisi bhi Khan ki aapaatkaaleen yaachana par is prashikshit dal ki sevaaeain atyant alp samay mein koyala kshetr ke kisi bhi bhaag mein praapt ki ja sakti hain. in sthaayi suraksha dalon ke atirikt donon koyala kshetr ki koyale ki khaanon mein lagbhag 500 prashikshit vyakti rahate hain, jo sahaayata ke liye soochana milne par aa sakte hain.

baahari kadiyaaain