koyala

koyala
avasaadi chattaan
Coal anthracite.jpg
enthraasaait koyala
banaavat
mukhya kaarban
sahaayak haaidrojan
salfar
okseejan
naaitrojan

koyala ek thos kaarbanik padaarth hai jisko indhan ke roop mein prayog mein laaya jaata hai. oorja ke pramukh srot ke rup mein koyala atyant mahatvapoorn hain. kul prayukt oorja ka 35% se 40% bhaag koyalein se paapt hota hain. vibhinn prakaar ke koyale mein kaarban ki maatra alag-alag hoti hai. koyale se anya dahanasheel tatha upayogi padaarth bhi praapt kiya jaata hai. oorja ke anya sroton mein petrolium tatha uske utpaad ka naam sarvopari hai.

anukram

parichay

bitumins koyala

'koyala' or 'koyal' donon sanskrut ke 'kokil' shabd se nikle hain. saadhaaranataya lakdi ke angaaron ko bujhaane se bach rahe jale hue ansh ko 'koyala' kaha jaata hai. us khanij padaarth ko bhi koyala kehte hain jo sansaar ke anek sthalon par khaanon se nikaala jaata hai. pehle prakaar ke koyale ko lakdi ka koyala ya kaath koyala aur doosare prakaar ke koyale ko 'patthar ka koyala' ya keval koyala, kehte hain. ek teesare prakaar ka bhi koyala hota hai jo haddiyon ko jalaane se praapt hota hai. ise haddi ka koyala ya asthi koyala kehte hain.

teenon prakaar ke koyale mahatva ke hain aur anek ghareloo kaamon, raasaayanik kriyaaon aur udyogadhandhon mein prayukt hote hain. koyale ka vishesh upayog indhan ke roop mein hota hai. koyale ke jalne se dhuainaa kam ya bilkul naheen hota. koyale ki aaainch tej aur lau saaf hoti hai tatha kaalikh ya kajali bahut kam banti hai. koyale mein gandhak bahut kam hota hai aur vah aag jaldi pakad leta hai. koyale mein raakh kam hoti hai aur usaka parivhan saral hota hai. indhan ke atirikt koyale ka upayog rabar ke saamaanon, visheshat: tyre, tube aur joote ke nirmaan mein tatha peint aur enaimal paalish, graamofon aur fonograaf ke rekaard, kaaraban, kaagaj, taaiparaaitar ke ribn, chamade, jild baaaindhane ki dafti, mudran ki syaahi aur peinsil ke nirmaan mein hota hai. koyale se anek rasaayanak bhi praapt ya taiyaar hote hain. koyale se koyala gas bhi taiyaar hoti hai, jo prakaash aur ooshma praapt karne mein aajkal vyaapak roop se prayukt hoti hain.

koyale ki ek visheshata rangon aur gaison ka avashoshan hai, jisse iska upayog anek padaarthon, jaise madira, telon, rasaayanakon, yuddh aur ashrugaison aadi ke parishkaar ke liye tatha avaanchhit gaison ke prabhaav ko kam ya door karne ke liye mukhauton (mask) mein hota hai. is kaam ke liye ek vishesh prakaar ka sakriykrut koyala (aiktiveted kol) taiyaar hota hai jiski avashoshan kshamata bahut adhik hoti hai. koyala baarood ka bhi ek aavashyak avayav hai.

koyala patthar aur koyala kshetr

varsh 2005 mein vishv mein koyale ke utpaadak kshetr

aadhunik yug mein udyogon tatha yaataayaat ke vikaas ke liye patthar ka koyala paramaavashyak padaarth hain. lohe tatha ispaat udyog mein aise uttam koyale ki aavashyakta hoti hai jisse kok banaaya ja sake. Bhaarat mein saadhaaran koyale ke bhandaar to prachur maatra mein praapt hain, kintu kok utpaadan ke liye uttam shreni ka koyala apekshaakrut seemit hai.

Bhaarat mein koyala mukhyat: do vibhinn yugon ke starasamoohon mein milta hai :

pehla gondavaana yug (Gondwana Period) mein tatha
doosra truteeya kalp (Tertiary Age) mein.

inmein gondavaana koyala uchch shreni ka hota hai. ismein raakh ki maatra alp tatha taapotpaadak shakti adhik hoti hai. truteeya kalp ka koyala ghatiya shreni ka hota hai. ismein gandhak ki prachurata hone ke kaaran yeh katipya udyogon mein prayukt naheen kiya ja sakta.

gondavaana yug ke pramukh kshetr jhariya (jharakhand]] tatha raaneeganj (Bengal) mein sthit hai. anya pramukh kshetron mein bokaaro, girideeh, karanapura, peinchaghaati, umariya, sohaagapur, sigreni, kotha gudem aadi ullekhaneeya hain. Bhaarat mein utpaadit sanpoornai koyale ka 70 pratishat keval jhariya aur raaneeganj se praapt hota hai. truteeya kalp ke koyale, lignaait aur ainthraasaait aadi ke nikshep asam, kashameer, Rajasthan, Madras aur kachh raajyon mein hai.

mukhya gondavaana virksha (Exposures) tatha anya sambandhit koyala nikshep praayadveepeeya Bhaarat mein Damodar, son, mahaanadi, godaavari aur unki sahaayak nadiyon ki ghaatiyon ke anuprasth ek rekhaabaddh kram (linear fashion) mein vitrit hain.

koyale ki utpatti

varshon poorv vanaspatiyon ke bhoomi ke neeche dabane ke kaaran kaalaantar mein ye koyala bana. lagbhag 30 karod varsh poorv pruthvi ghane jungle, kachh kshetron (marshlands) aur jaladhaaraaon se tar thi. vanaspati samoohon ki jal mein girkar mrutyu ho gayi jo baad mein mitti ke bojh ke neeche dabate chale gaye. bhoogarbh mein uchch taap evam dabaav ke kaaran ye jeevaavashesh koyale mein parivrtit hote gaye.

sanrachana

koyale mein mukhyat: kaarban tatha uske yaugik rahate hai. kaarban tatha haaidrojan ke atirikt naaitrojan, okseejan tatha gandhak (Sulphur) bhi rahate hain. iske atirikt fausforas tatha kuchh akaarbanik dravya bhi paaya jaata hai.

koyale ke prakaar

enthresaait koyala

nameerahit kaarban ki maatra ke aadhaar par koyale ko nimnalikhit chaar prakaaro me baanta gaya hain -

  • enthresaait (94-98%)
  • bitoomins (78-86%)
  • lignaait (28-30%)
  • peet (27%)

bhanjak aasavan

hava ki gairamaujoodagi mein 1000-1400 degree celcius par garm karne par kolataar, kol gas, amoniya praapt hota hai. is prakriya ko koyale ka bhanjak aasavan kehte hain.

koyale ke srot

khaanon se nikaale jaane wala yeh shaktipradaayak khanij mukhyat: - cheen, sanyukt raajya America (USA), great Britain, Germany, Poland, Australia tatha Bhaarat mein paaya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein yeh mukhyat: Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, udeesa, pashchim Bengal evam Andhra pradesh mein paaya jaata hai. January 2000 mein kiye gaye aakalan ke anusaar Bhaarat ki khaanon mein kul 211.5 arab tan koyale ka bhandaar hai.

svachh koyala praudyogiki

koyala ek jeevaashm indhan hai jo mukhya roop se kaarbanon tatha haaidrokaarbanon se bana hai. bijli udyog mein iska badi maatra mein upayog kiya jaata hai. ise jalaakar vaashp banaai jaati hai jo tarbaainon ko ghumaakar bijli taiyaar karti hai. jab isko jalaaya jaata hai to isse utsarjan hota hai jo pradooshan aur vaishvik taapan ko badhaata hai. Bhaarat sahit kai deshon mein bijli ka utpaadan mukhya roop se koyale par nirbhar hai isliye sarkaar svachh koyala praudyogiki par jor de rahi hai. is praudyogiki ke maadhyam se koyale ko svachh banaakar aur uske utsarjan ko niyantrit karke paryaavaran par padne vaale kuprabhaavon ko kam kiya ja sakta hai.

svachh koyala praudyaangiki mein koyale ki dhulaai, kol bed methane/kol maain methane nishkarshan, bhoomigat koyale ko gas upachaarit karna evam koyale ka draveekaran karna aadi shaamil hai.

koyala prakshaalan

paryaavaran evam van mantraalaya ke dishaanirdeinshon ke anusaar 34 pratishat se adhik raakh vaale koyale ka upayog un tharmal power stationon mein mana kiya gaya hai jo ladaan kendron se door tatha atyadhik pradooshit kshetron mein hain. aise mein prakshaalit koyale ka istemaal karna mahatvapoorn ho gaya hai. isse aise power stationon ke sanchaalan se sambandhit kharch mein bhi kami aati hai. dhule koyale ki aapoorti 10veen panchavarsheeya yojana ke aarambh mein 170 lakh tan thi jo is yojana ke ant mein badhkar 550 lakh tan ho gayi. 11veen panchavarsheeya yojana ke ant tak iske 2500 lakh tan hone ki sambhaavana hai.

tharmal power stationon ke liye koyala dhulaai keindron ki maujooda kshamata 1080 lakh tan hai jise is avadhi mein badhaakar 2500 lakh tan karne ki koshish ki ja rahi hai. ismein se adhiktar niji kshetr se sambandhit hain. iske alaava kol India limited company ne bhi apni khadaanon se dhule koyale ki aapoorti karne ka faisala kiya hai. iske liye vah 20 koyala dhulaai keindron ka nirmaan karegi jinki kshamata 1110 lakh tan hogi. 11veen panchavarsheeya yojana ke ant tak in keindron ke shuroo hone ki sambhaavana hai.

seebeeem tatha seeemaem

jo mithen gas koyale ki anachhui paraton se nikaali jaati hai use kol bed methane (seebeeem) kehte hain aur jo chaaloo khadaanon se nikaali jaati hai use kol maain methane (seeemaem) kehte hain. kol bed methane tatha kol maain methane ke vikaas ko Bhaarat sarkaar ne 1997 mein ek neeti ke jriye badhaava diya tha. is neeti ke anusaar koyala mantraalaya tatha petrolium evam praakrutik gas mantraalaya donon milkar kaarya kar rahe hain. sarkaar ne vaishvik boli ke teen dauron ke jriye kol bed methane ke liye 26 blaukon ki boli lagaai thi. inka kul kshetr 13,600 varg kilometer hai aur ismein 1374 arab ghanameetar gas bhandaar hone ki sambhaavana hai. varsh 2007 mein raaneeganj koyala kshetr ke ek block mein vaanijyik utpaadan aarambh kar diya gaya tha aur do keindron mein bhi utpaadan jald hi aarambh ho jaaega. petrolium evam praakrutik gas mantraalaya ke tahat hydrocarbon mahaanideshak (deejeeech) kol bed mithen sambandhi gatividhiyon ke liye viniyaamak ki bhoomika nibhaata hai. deejeeech ne seebeeem-4 ke tahat 10 naye blaukon ki peshakash ki hai.

Bhaarat koking kol limited mein bhoomigat borahol ke jriye yooenadeepee#global envaayarameintal fesiliti ke saath milkar Bhaarat koking kol limited mein bhoomigat borahaalon ke maadhyam seeemaem ki ek pradarshanaatmak pariyojana ko laagoo kiya gaya hai. is pariyojana mein kol bed methane ko ek oordhvaadhar bor ke jriye praapt kiya gaya hai jahaan 500 ki.vaat bijli paida hoti hai aur use beeseeseeel ko aapoorti ki jaati hai.

haal hi mein sanyukt raajya paryaavaran sanrakshan abhikran ke sahayog se seeemapeedeeaaiel, Ranchi mein seebeeemaseeemaem niptaara kendra sthaapit kiya gaya hai jo Bhaarat mein kol bed meethenakol maain methane ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak jaanakaariyaan upalabdh karaaega.

bhoomigat koyala gaiseekaran (yooseeji)

bhoomigat koyala gaiseekaran aprayukt koyale ko dahanasheel gas mein badalne ki prakriya hai. yeh gas udyogon, vidyut utpaadan tatha haaidrojan sinthetik praakrutik gas evam diesel indhan ke nirmaan mein istemaal ki ja sakti hai. bhoomigat gaiseekaran mein un koyala bhandaaron ka dohan karne ki kshamata hai jinka nishkarshan aarthik drushti se manhaga hai ya jo gaharaai pratikool bhoogarbheeya sthiti suraksha ki drushti se nishkarshan ke laayak naheen hai.

bhoomigat koyala gaiseekaran ki mahatta tatha yojana aayog ki samekit oorja samiti evam koyala kshetr mein sudhaar ke liye roadmap par teeel shankar samiti ki sifaarishon ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue sarkaar ne koyala gaiseekaran adhisoochana jaari ki hai jismein khanan neeti ke tahat bhoo evam bhoomigat gaiseekaran ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya hai.

kol India limited ne apni saajheedaar companiyon ke saath milkar seeseeel command area mein raamagadh kaaelafeeld ke kaitha block tatha pashchimi kol field limited command area mein peinch kolafeeld ke thesagoda block mein yooseeji ke vikaas ke liye do sthal chinhit kiye hain. saajheedaar companiyon ke chayan ke sambandh mein sheegra hi aashay patra jaari kiye jaaenge.

iske atirikt 5 lingnaait aur 2 koyala khand bhi yooseeji ke vikaas ke vaaste bhaavi udyamiyon ko diye jaane ke liye chinhit kiye gaye hain.

koyala ke liye S end ti kaaryakram ke tahat sarkaar ne Rajasthan ke liye ek yooseeji pariyojana manjoor ki hai jiska kriyaanvayan enaelasi karega. enaelasi ne is pariyojana ke liye abhi salaahakaar antim roop se tay naheen kiye hain.

koyala draveekaran

oorja suraksha ke drushtikon se desh mein koyala draveekaran ko badhaava dene ke liye neetigat nirnaya liya gaya hai. gazette adhisoochana jaari ki gayi hai jismein kaiptiv koyalaalignaait blaakon ke un udyamiyon ko koyala draveekaran ke baare mein jaankaari di gayi hai jinhein ise aabantit kiya jaana hai. koyala mantraalaya ke antar-mantraaleeya samooh ki sifaarishon ke aadhaar par koyala mantraalaya ne talachar kol field ke do koyala blaakon kramash: Messers straitejik inarji teknoloji system limited (esaiteeel) tatha Messers jindal steel end power limited (jeesapeeel) ko aavantit kiye hain. Messers esaiteeel ko uttari arkha paal shreeraamapur khand tatha Messers jeesapeeel ko raamachaandi khand aavantit kiye gaye hain. har pariyojana ki prastaavit utpaadan kshamata 80000 barrel tel pratidin hai. prastaavit tel utpaadan saat vashon mein shuroo ho jaaega.

koyale ke aarakshit bhandaar

2008 mein gyaat koyale ke aarakshit bhandaar (million tan)[1]
desh enthresaait evam bitumins sab-bitumins lignaait kul sakal vishv ka pratishat
Flag of the United States.svg United States 108,501 98,618 30,176 237,295 22.6
Flag of Russia.svg Russia 49,088 97,472 10,450 157,010 14.4
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 62,200 33,700 18,600 114,500 12.6
Flag of Australia.svg Australia 37,100 2,100 37,200 76,400 8.9
Flag of India.svg India 56,100 0 4,500 60,600 7.0
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 99 0 40,600 40,699 4.7
Flag of Ukraine.svg Ukraine 15,351 16,577 1,945 33,873 3.9
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kazakhstan 21,500 0 12,100 33,600 3.9
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 30,156 0 0 30,156 3.5
Flag of Serbia.svg Serbia 9 361 13,400 13,770 1.6
Flag of Colombia.svg Colombia 6,366 380 0 6,746 0.8
Flag of Canada.svg Canada 3,474 872 2,236 6,528 0.8
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 4,338 0 1,371 5,709 0.7
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia 1,520 2,904 1,105 5,529 0.6
Flag of Brazil.svg Brazil 0 4,559 0 4,559 0.5
Flag of Greece.svg Greece 0 0 3,020 3,020 0.4
Flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina.svg Bosnia and Herzegovina 484 0 2,369 2,853 0.3
Flag of Mongolia.svg Mongolia 1,170 0 1,350 2,520 0.3
Flag of Bulgaria.svg Bulgaria 2 190 2,174 2,366 0.3
Flag of Pakistan.svg Pakistan 0 166 1,904 2,070 0.3
Flag of Turkey.svg Turkey 529 0 1,814 2,343 0.3
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg Uzbekistan 47 0 1,853 1,900 0.2
Flag of Hungary.svg Hungary 13 439 1,208 1,660 0.2
Flag of Thailand.svg Thailand 0 0 1,239 1,239 0.1
Flag of Mexico.svg Mexico 860 300 51 1,211 0.1
Flag of Iran.svg Iran 1,203 0 0 1,203 0.1
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg Czech Republic 192 0 908 1,100 0.1
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kyrgyzstan 0 0 812 812 0.1
Flag of Albania.svg Albania 0 0 794 794 0.1
Flag of North Korea.svg North Korea 300 300 0 600 0.1
Flag of New Zealand.svg New Zealand 33 205 333-7,000 571–15,000[2] 0.1
Flag of Spain.svg Spain 200 300 30 530 0.1
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Laos 4 0 499 503 0.1
Flag of Zimbabwe.svg Zimbabwe 502 0 0 502 0.1
Flag of Argentina.svg Argentina 0 0 500 500 0.1
All others 3,421 1,346 846 5,613 0.7
World Total 404,762 260,789 195,387 860,938 100

pramukh koyala utpaadak desh

desh aur varsh ke anusaar koyala utpaadan (million tan) [3]
desh 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share Reserve Life (years)
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 1834.9 2122.6 2349.5 2528.6 2691.6 2802.0 2973.0 3235.0 3520.0 49.5% 35
Flag of the United States.svg United States 972.3 1008.9 1026.5 1054.8 1040.2 1063.0 975.2 983.7 992.8 14.1% 239
Flag of India.svg India 375.4 407.7 428.4 449.2 478.4 515.9 556.0 573.8 588.5 5.6% 103
Flag of Europe.svg European Union 637.2 627.6 607.4 595.1 592.3 563.6 538.4 535.7 576.1 4.2% 97
Flag of Australia.svg Australia 350.4 364.3 375.4 382.2 392.7 399.2 413.2 424.0 415.5 5.8% 184
Flag of Russia.svg Russia 276.7 281.7 298.3 309.9 313.5 328.6 301.3 321.6 333.5 4.0% 471
Flag of Indonesia.svg Indonesia 114.3 132.4 152.7 193.8 216.9 240.2 256.2 275.2 324.9 5.1% 17
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 237.9 243.4 244.4 244.8 247.7 252.6 250.6 254.3 255.1 3.6% 118
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 204.9 207.8 202.8 197.1 201.9 192.4 183.7 182.3 188.6 1.1% 216
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 163.8 162.4 159.5 156.1 145.9 144.0 135.2 133.2 139.2 1.4% 41
saaaincha:desh aaainkade Kazakhstan 84.9 86.9 86.6 96.2 97.8 111.1 100.9 110.9 115.9 1.5% 290
World Total 5,301.3 5,716.0 6,035.3 6,342.0 6,573.3 6,795.0 6,880.8 7,254.6 7,695.4 100% 112

koyale ke pramukh upabhokta desh

desh evam varsh ke anusaar koyale ka upabhog (million tan)[4]
Country 2008 2009 2010 2011 Share
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg China 2,966 3,188 3,695 4,053 50.7%
Flag of the United States.svg United States 1,121 997 1,048 1,003 12.5%
Flag of India.svg India 641 705 722 788 9.9%
Flag of Russia.svg Russia 250 204 256 262 3.3%
Flag of Germany.svg Germany 268 248 256 256 3.3%
Flag of South Africa.svg South Africa 215 204 206 210 2.6%
Flag of Japan.svg Japan 204 181 206 202 2.5%
Flag of Poland.svg Poland 149 151 149 162 2.0%
World Total 7,327 7,318 7,994 N/A 100%

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain