koshakarm

shabdakosh nirmaan se sambandhit sakal kaaryon ka samuchchaya koshakarm ya koshavidya (Lexicography) kahalaati hai.

vishyon ki drushti se shabdakoshon ke varg ya vibhaag banaana kathin hai. alag alag koshakar apni samajh ke anusaar is prakaar ke vishyavibhaag banaaya karte the. unka na to koi nishchit kram hota tha aur na ho hi sakta tha. isaliye logon ko praaya: saara kosh kanthasth karna padta tha. isi kaaran paashchaatya deshon mein shabdakosh aksharakram se banane lage. aise kosh ratane naheen padte the aur aavashyakataanusaar jab jiska ji chaahata tha, tab vah usaka upayog kar sakta tha. aajkal praaya: sabhi deshon aur sabhi bhaashaaon mein kosh ke kshetr me isi kram ko prayog hone laga hai : jo jijnyaaasu ki drushti se sabse adhik subheete ka hota hain. isi liye kosh ke jitne prakaar hote hain, un sab mein praaya: aksharakram ka hi prayog kiya jaata hai.

anukram

prakaar

yon to kosh ke anek prakaar hote hain, par arth ke vichaar se ve do bhaagon mein baaainte ja sakte hain. ek to ve jinmein kisi bhaasha ke shabdon ke arth aur vivechan usi bhaasha mein hote hai aur doosare ve jinmein ek bhaasha ke shabdon ke arth doosari bhaasha ya bhaashaaon me diye jaate hain. vishay ke vichaar se kosh anek prakaar ke ho sakte hain, jaise-ganit kosh, vidhik kosh, vaidyak kosh, saahitya kosh aadi. aise koshon ki ginti praaya: shabdaavaliyon mein hoti hai, jaise krushi shabdaavali, daarshanik shabdaavali, bhaugolik shabdaavali aadi. inke siva kuchh vishisht kaviyon, boliyon aadi ke bhi alag alag kosh hote hain, jaise-tulasi kosh, soor kosh, avadhi kosh, brajabhaasha kosh aadi. kisi vishisht vishay ke mahatvapoorn granth mein aae hue mukhya prateekon, vishyon ya shabdon ke jo kosh ya taalikaaeain hoti hai, unhein kramaat prateekaanukramanika, vishyaanukramanika ya shabdaanukramanika kehte hain.

parichay

kosharachana ek kala hai. is kala ka gyaan vartamaan yug ki param unnat bhaashaaon ke shabdakoshon ka sookshm drushti se adhyayan karne par praapt ho sakta hai. achhe aur praamaanik koshon ka sanpaadan tab tak keval vidvata ke bal par naheen ho sakta, jab tak kosharachana ki kala ka bhi poora poora gyaan na ho aur is kala ka gyaan koshon ke jeevanavyaapi adhyayan se hi ho sakta hai.

sabhi prakaar ke kosh kisi vishesh uddeshya tatha kisi vishesh kshetr ki aavashyakta ki poorti ke liye hi banaae jaate hain. at: kosharachana mein mukhyat: isi uddeshya ya aavashyakta ka dhyaan rakhana padta hain. doosare, is baat ka bhi baraabar dhyaan rakhana padta hai ki usaka saara kalevar sabhi drushtiyon se santulit rahe; aisa na ho ki koi ang to aavashyakta ya auchitya se adhik badh jaae aur koi usaki tulana mein ksheenakaaya ya heen jaan pade. shabdon ka vivechan bhi aur us vivechan ke angon ka kram bhi sada ek sa rahana chaahiye. shabdon ki bhi jaatiyaaain ya varg hote hain, at: ek jaati ya varg ke sab shabdon ka saara vivechan ek sa hona chaahiye. yadi praamaanik granthon athva lekhakon ke udaaharan liye jaae, to unka utana hi ansh lena chaahiye, jitne mein aashay spasht ho sake aur jijnyaaasu ka samaadhaan ho jaae.

achhe koshon mein sabhi prakaar ke kshetron aur vishyon ke paaribhaashik shabd bhi rahate hain. isaliye sampaadak ka adhik se adhik vishyon ka saamaanya gyaan ya bodh hona chaahiye. aavashyakta hone par kisi anajaane ya nae vishay ke achhe aur praamaanik granth se ya uske achhe jnyaaata se bhi sahaayata lena aavayashk hota hai. kosharachana ke kaarya mein drushti bahut vyaapak rakhana chaahiye aur vrutti madhukaari honi chaahiye. drushti itni paini aur sookshm honi chaahiye jo sahaj mein neer ksheer ka vivek kar sakein aur puraani trutiyon, doshon, bhoolon aadi ko dhooaindhakar sahaj mein unka sanshodhan tatha sudhaar kar sake. koshakaar mein pakshapaat ya rogadvesh naam ko bhi naheen rahana chaahiye. usaka ekamaatr uddeshya hona chaahiye bhaasha tatha saahitya ki seva. koshon mein pradhaanata arthon aur vivechanon ki hi hoti hai, at: unamein kaheen vyaapti ya ativyaapti naheen rahani chaahiye. sabhi baatein napi tuli, maryaadit aur yathaasaadhya sankshipt honi chaahiye. kosh mein adhik se adhik aur thos jaankaari kam se kam shabdon mein prastut karke hi jaani chaahiye. faalatoo ya bharati ki baaton ke liye kosh mein sthaan naheen hota.

shabdon ke kuchh roop to maanak hote hain aur bahut se roop sthaanik ya praanteeya hote hain. jin sthaanik ya praanteeya shabdon ke maanak roop praapt hon, unka saara vivechan unheen maanak shabdon ke antargat rahana chaahiye aur unke sthaanik ya praanteeya roopon ke aage unke maanak roopon ka abhidesh maatr hona chaahiye. isse bahut bada laabh yeh hota hai ki anya bhaasha-bhaashiyon ko sahaj mein shabdon ke maanak roop ka pata chal jaata hai aur bhaasha ka maanak roop sthir hone mein sahaayata milti hai-aparichiton ke dvaara bhaasha ka roop sahasa bigadne naheen paata. yahi baat aise sanskrut shabdon ke sambandh mein bhi honi chaahiye jiske bahut se paryaaya hon. jaise kamal, nadi, parvat, samudra aadi. shabdon ke aage unke paryaaya dete samay bhi is baat ka dhyaan rahana chaahiye ki paryaaya vahi diye jaae jo mool shabd ka theek aashay ya maap bataanevaale hon. jin paryaayon ke kaaran kuchh bhi bhram utpann ho sakta ho, un paryaayon ka aise prasangon mein parityaag karna hi shreyaskar hoga.

koshakaaron ke saamane idhar haal mein vebstar ki new world dikshanari ne ek naya aadarsh rakha hai jo bahut hi upayogi tatha upaadeya hone ke kaaran shabdakoshon ke liye vishesh anukaraneeya hai. usamein anek shabdon ke antargat unase milte julate paryaayon ke sookshm antar bhi dikhlaae gaye hain, yatha - feeyar (Fear) ke antargat dred (Dread), fraait (Fright), elaarm (Alarm), disme (Dismay), terar (Terror) aur painik (Panic) ke sookshm antar bhi batala diye gaye hain. aisa yeh soch ka kiya gaya hai ki koshakaar ka kaam shabdon ke arth batala dene se hi samaapt naheen ho jaata, varan isse bhi aage badhkar usaka kaam logon ko shabdon ke theek prayog batalaana hota hai. hamaare yahaaain aise saikadon hajaaron shabd mileinge, jinke paarasparik sookshm antar batalaae ja sakte hain aur is prakaar jijnyaaasuon ko shabdon par nae dhang se vichaar karne ka abhyaas karaaya ja sakta hai.

haal ke achhe aur bade aaingareji koshon mein ek aur nai tatha upayogi paripaati chali hai jo bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke koshon ke liye vishesh roop se upayogi ho sakti hai. praaya: sabhi bhaashaaon mein bahut se aise yaugik shabd hote hain jo upasarg lagaakar bana liye jaate hain. kanishth se akanishth, karaneeya se akaraneeya, apekshit se anpekshit, aavashyak se anaavashyak, mantri se upamantri, samiti se upasamiti, paalan se paripaalan, bhraman se paribhraman, karm se pratikrm, vidhaan se pratividhaan aadi. upasargon ke yog se bananevaale aise shabdon ki sankhya bahut adhik hoti hai. aise shabdon do vargon mein bainte hote hain athva baaainte ja sakte hain. ek to aise shabd jinke shabd poorv pad tatha uttar pad mil kar bhi kisi nae ya vishisht arth se yukt naheen hote aur isi liye saadhaaran shabdon ke antargat rahate hain. aise shabdon aur unke arthon se kosh ka kalevar bahut badh jaata hai. is prakaar ke vyarth vistaar se bachane ke liye vebstar ke nae koshon mein yeh nai paddhati apnaai gayi hai ki unhein svatantr shabd naheen maanate aur isi liye unke arth bhi naheen liye gaye hain. prushth ke ant mein ek rekha ke neeche aise shabdon ki soochi maatr de di gayi hai, yatha-an-dijaayard, an-distarbd, an-free, an-hurt, an-inavaaited aadi. haaain, inke vipreet doosare varg ke kuchh aise shabd avashya hote hain jinmein upasargon ke yog se kuchh nae arth nikalte hain. jaise visheshan roop mein akach ka roop bina baalonvaala to hai hi, par sanjnyaa roop mein vah ketu grah ka bhi ek naam hai. anaagaar (visheshan) ka arth bina ghar-baaravaala to hai hi, par sanjnyaa roop mein vah sannyaasi ka bhi vaachak hai. isaliye aise shabd lena aavashyak hota hai. jin shabdon ke arth poorvapad aur uttarapad ke yog se svat: nasht ho jaate hon, unhein koshon mein arthasahit lena vyarth hi samjha jaane laga hai. at: prushthaant mein aise shabdon ki soochi maatr de dena yathesht hoga. haaain, jin yaugik shabdon mein donon padon ke yog se koi naya aur vishesh arth niklata ho, unhein yathaasthaan arthasahit lena to aavashyak hai hi.

hamaare yahaaain ke puraane sanskrut koshon ki paddhati yeh rahi hai ki ati, prati sah aadi ke yog se bananevaale shabd apne poorv padavaale shabd ke antargat ek hi sheershak mein ek saath de diye jaate hai. hindi ke kuchh koshon ne bhi is pratha ka anukaran kiya hai. yadyapi sanskrut vyaakaran ki drushti se yeh paddhati yuktisangat hoti hai, fir bhi sanskrut koshon tak mein inka poora poora paalan hota hua naheen dikhaai deta. ismein sthaan ki kuchh bachat avashya hoti hai, par asaadhaaran paathakon ke liye shabd dhooaindhana bahut kathin ho jaata hai. kabhi kabhi to aise logon ke liye bhi is paddhati se shabd dhooaindhana kathin hota hai jo iske niyamon aur siddhaanton se bahut kuchh parichit hote hain.

pratyek bhaasha mein kuchh shabd aise hote hain jo alag alag arthon ke vichaar se avyaya, kriyaavisheshan, visheshan, pratyaya sanjnyaa aadi bhi hote hain aur alag alag moolon se bhi vyutpann hote hein, yatha hindi ko aan shabd sanjnyaa bhi hai, visheshan bhi aur pratyaya bhi. apne sanjnyaa roop mein bhi vah apne kai arthon mein kuchh alag alag moolon se vyutpann hai. aise shabd aadhunik aur shreshth aaingareji koshon mein alag aur svatantr shabd maane jaate hain aur unke alag alag sheershak rakhakar unka vivechan kiya jaata hai, yatha-aaingareji mein vaaij (Wise) visheshan bhi hai, sanjnyaa bhi aur pratyaya bhi aur teenon roopon mein uske sheershak alag alag rakhe gaye hain. yadi bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke koshon mein bhi inka anukaran kiya jaaya to kai drushtiyon se bahut achha hoga.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain