konkani

konkani Goa, Maharashtra ke dakshini bhaag, Karnataka ke uttari bhaag, Kerala ke kuchh kshetron mein boli jaati hai. bhaashaayi taur par yeh 'aarya' bhaasha parivaar se sambandhit hai aur maraathi se iska kaafi nikat ka sambandh hai. raajanaitik taur par is bhaasha ko apni pehchaan ke liye maraathi bhaasha se kaafi sangharsh karna pada hai. ab bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke tahat konkani ko aathaveen anusoochi mein sthaan praapt hai.

1987 mein Goa mein konkani ko maraathi ke baraabar raajabhaasha ka darja diya gaya kintu lipi par asahamati ke kaaran aajatak is par amal naheen kiya ja saka.[1]

konkani anek lipiyon mein likhi jaati rahi hai; jaise - devanaagari, kannad, malayalam aur roman. Goa ko raajya ka darja milne ke baad davanaagari lipi mein konkani ko vahaaain ki raajabhaasha ghoshit kiya gaya hai.

anukram

parichay

Bhaarat ke pashchimi tat sthit konkan pradesh mein prachalit boliyon ko saamaanyat: konkani kehte hai. aitihaasik aur saanskrutik sambandhon ke parinaamasvaroov is pradesh mein boli jaanevaali bhaasha ke teen roop hain-

  • (1) maraatheebhaashi kshetr se sanlagn maalavan-ratnagiri kshetr ki bhaasha;
  • (2) mangaloor se sanlagn dakshin konkani kshetr ki bhaasha jiska kannad se sampark hai tatha
  • (3) madhya konkan athva gomaantak (Goa) kaaravaar mein prachalit bhaasha.
konkan bhaasha-parivaar ka ven-aarekh

govaavaala pradesh anek shati tak Portugal ke adheen tha. vahaaain purtagaaliyon ne jor jabardasti ke bal par logein se dharmaparivrtan karaaya aur unke mool saanskrutik roop ko chhinn-bhinn karne ka prayaas kiya. in sab ke baavajood logon ne apni maatrubhaasha ka parityaag naheen kiya. ulte apne dharmopadesh ke nimitt isaai paadariyon ne vahaaain ki boli mein apne ganth rache. dharmaantarit hue nae isaai praaya: ashikshit log the. unhein isaai dharm ka tatv samajhaane ke liye purtagaali paadariyon ne konkani ka aashray liya.

praacheen kaal mein Goa se saashti tak ke bhoobhaag mein jo boli boli jaati thi use hi log vishuddh konkani maanate the aur use gomaantaki naam se pukaarate the tathaapi solahaveen shati tak uske liye koi vishisht naam roodh naheen tha. purtagaaliyon ko jaisa samajh mein aaya, vaisa hi naam use diya aur pukaara. 1553 E. ke jesuit paadariyon ke aalekhon mein use kaanaari naam diya gaya hai. 17veen shati mein paadari steefeins ne dautreen krishtaan naamak pustak likhi. usamein unka kehna tha ki use unhonne kaanaari mein likha hai aur gomaantaki boli ka jo vyaakaran unhonne taiyaar kiya use unhonne 'kaanaari bhaasha ka vyaakaran' naam diya. is kaanaari shabd ka sambandh kannad se tanik bhi naheen hai. varan samjha jaata hai ki samudra ke kinaare ki bhaasha hone ke kaaran hi use kaanaari kaha gaya.

Tom peerish naamak yaatri ne apni pustak 'soom oriyentaal' mein, jo 1515 E. mein likhi gayi thi, Goa ki boli ka naam konkoni diya hai. 1658 mein jesuit paadari migled aalmaid ne bhi gomantaki ke liye 'konkani' shabd ka prayog kiya hai. ab yeh shabd praaya: poore konkan pradesh ki bhaasha ke liye prayukt hota hai. kuchh log ise maraathi ki upabhaasha maanate hain to kuchh kannad ki. kuchh anya bhaashaavaijnyaaanik ise aaryavansh se udbhoot svatantr samruddh bhaasha bataate hai.

saahitya

satrahaveen shati se poorv is bhaasha ka koi likhit saahitya upalabdh naheen hai. is bhaasha ke saahityik prayog ka shreya isaai mishnariyon ko hai. paadari stifes ki pustak dautreen krishtaan is bhaasha ki pratham pustak hai jo 1622 E. mein likhi gayi thi. uske baad 1640 E. mein unhonne purtagaali bhaasha mein iska vyaakaran 'aarti the lingv kaanaari' naam se likha. isse poorv 1563 E. ke aaspaas kisi sthaaneeya dharmaantarit nivaasi dvaara is bhaasha ka kosh taiyaar hua aur isaai dharm ke anek granth likhe gaye. purtagaali shaasan ke parinaamasvaroop saahitya nirmaan ki gati atyant mand rahi kintu ab is bhaasha ne ek samruddh saahitya ki bhaasha ka roop dhaaran kar liya hai. lokakatha, lokageet, lokanaatya to sangruhit hue hi hain, aadhunik naatak (saamaajik, aitihaasik, pauraanik) aur ekaanki ki rachana bhi hui hai. anya vidhaaon mein bhi rachanaaeain ki jaane lagi hai.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain