kohinoor heera

koh-i-noor
कोहिनूर की कांच प्रति
bhaar 105.60 kairet (21.6 gram)
varn mahaan shvet
mool desh Bhaarat
udgam Khan golakunda
mool svaami see early history
vartamaan svaami Elizabeth dviteeya
Glass replica of the Koh-I-Noor as it appeared in its original form, turned upside down

kohinoor (faarasi: kooh-A-noor) ek 105 kairet (21.6 gram) ka heera hai jo kisi samay vishv ka sabse bada gyaat heera rah chuka hai. kaha jaata hai ki yeh heera Bhaarat ki golakunda ki Khan se nikaala gaya tha. 'kohinoor' ka arth hai- aabha ya roshani ka parvat. yeh kai mugal va faarasi shaasakon se hota hua, antat: british shaasan ke adhikaar mein liya gaya, va unke khajaane mein shaamil ho gaya, jab british pradhaan mantri, beinjaamin dijraaeli ne mahaaraani Victoria ko 1877 mein Bhaarat ki samraajnyai ghoshit kiya.

anya kai prasiddh javaaharaaton ki bhaanti hi, kohinoor ki bhi apni kathaaen rahi hain. isse judi maanyata ke anusaar, yeh purush svaamiyon ka durbhaagya va mrutyu ka kaaran bana, va stri svaaminiyon ke liye saubhaagya lekar aaya. anya maanyata ke anusaar, kohinoor ka svaami sansaar par raajya karne wala bana.

anukram

udgam va aarambhik itihaas

iska udgam spasht naheen hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein, heeron se judi kai kahaaniyaan raheen hain, parantu kaun si iski hai, kehna mushkil hai.

kai sroton ke anusaar, kohinoor heera, lagbhag 5000 varsh pehle, mila tha aur yeh praacheen sanskrut itihaas mein likhe anusaar syamantak mani naam se prasiddh raha tha. hindu kathaaon ke anusaar[1], Bhagwan shriKrishna ne swayam yeh mani, jaambavant se li thi, jiski putri jaamavanti ne baad mein shri Krishna se vivaah bhi kiya tha. jab jaamvant so rahe the, tab shreekrushn ne yeh mani chura li thi. ek anya katha anusaar, yeh heera nadi ki tali mein mila tha, lagbhag 3200 E.poo.[2].

aitihaasik pramaanon ke anusaar, yeh golakunda ki Khan se nikla tha, jo Andhra pradesh mein, vishv ki savase praacheen khaanon mein se ek hain. san 1730 tak yeh vishv ka ekamaatr heera utpaadak kshetr gyaat tha. iske baad Brazil mein heeron ki khoj hui. shabd golakunda heera, atyadhik shvet varn, spashtata va uchch koti ki paaradarshita he liye prayog ki jaati rahi hai. yeh atyadhik durlabh, at: keemati hote hain.

is heere ke baare mein, dakshin bhaarateeya katha, kuchh pukhta lagti hai. yeh sambhav hai, ki heera, Andhra pradesh ki kollar Khan, jo vartamaan mein guntoor jila mein hai, vahaan nikla tha[3]. Delhi saltanat mein khilji vansh ka ant 1320 mein hone ke baad giyaasuddeen tugalak ne gaddi sambhaali thi. usane apne putr ulugh Khan ko 1323 mein kaakaateeya vansh ke raaja prataaparudr ko haraane bheja tha. is hamle ko kadi takkar mili, parantu uloogh Khan ek badi sena ke saath fir laita. iske liye anpekshit raaja, Warangal ke yuddh mein haar gaya. tab Warangal ki loot-paat, tod-fod va hatya-kaand maheenon chali. sone-chaandi va haathi-daant ki bahutaayat mili, jo ki haathiyon, ghodon va oonton par Delhi le jaaya gaya. kohinoor heera bhi us loot ka bhaag tha. yaheen se, yeh heera Delhi saltanat ke uttaraadhikaariyon ke haathon se mugal samraat baabar ke haath 1526 mein laga.

is heere ki pratham drushtaya pakki tippani yaheen san 1526 se milti hai. baabar ne apne baabaranaama mein likha hai, ki yeh heera 1294 mein maalava ke ek (anaami) raaja ka tha. baabar ne iska moolya yeh aanka, ki poore sansaar ko do dinon tak pet bhar sake, itna mhanga. baabaranaama mein diya hai, ki kis prakaar maalava ke raaja ko jabaradasti yeh viraasat alaauddeen khilji ko dene par majaboor kiya gaya. uske baad yeh Delhi saltanat ke uttaraadhikaariyon dvaara aage badhaaya gaya aur antat: 1526 mein, baabar ki jeet par use praapt hua. haalaanki baabaranaama 1526-30 mein likha gaya tha, parantu iske srot gyaat naheen hain. usane is heere ko sarvada iske vartamaan naam se naheen pukaara hai. balki ek vivaad[1] ke baad yeh nishkarsh nikla ki baabar ka heera hi baad mein kohinoor kahalaaya.

baabar evam humaayun, donon ne hi apni aatmakathaaon mein, baabar ke heere ke udgam ke baare mein likha hai. yeh heera pehle gvaaliyr ke kachhavaaha shaasakon ke paas tha, jinse yeh tomar raajaaon ke paas pahuncha. antim tomar vikramaaditya ko sikandar lodhi ne haraaya, va apne adheen kiya, tatha apne saath Delhi mein hi bandi bana kar rakha. lodhi ki mugalon se haar ke baad, mugalon ne usaki sampatti looti, kintu Rajkumar humaayun ne madhyasthata karke usaki sampatti vaapas dilva di, balki use chhudva kar, mevaad, chittaud mein panaah lene diya. humaayun ki is bhalaai ke badle vikramaaditya ne apna ek bahumoolya heera, jo shaayad kohinoor hi tha, humaayun ko saabhaar de diya. parantu humaayun ka jeevan ati durbhaagyapoorn raha. vah sherashaah soori se haar gaya. soori bhi ek top ke gole se jal kar mar gaya. usaka putr va uttaraadhikaari jalaal Khan apne saale dvaara hatya ko praapt hua. us saale ko bhi uske ek mantri ne takhtaapalat kar hata diya. vah mantri bhi ek yuddh ko jeetate jeetate aankh mein chot lag jaane ke kaaran haar gaya, va sltanat kho baitha. humaayun ke putr Akbar ne yeh ratn kabhi apne paas naheen rakha, jo ki baad mein seedhe shaahajahaan ke khajaane mein hi pahuncha. shaahajahaan bhi apne bete aurangajeb dvaara takhtaapalat kar bandi banaaya gaya, jisne apne anya teen bhaaiyon ki hatya bhi ki thi.

kohinoor ki bhinn konon se taivarniyr ki abhiklpana

samraaton ke ratn

shaahajahaan ne kohinoor ko apne prasiddh mayoor-sinhaasan (takhte-taaus) mein jadvaaya. uske putr aurangajeb ne apne pita ko kaid karke Agra ke kile mein rakha. yeh bhi katha hai, ki usane kohinoor ko khidki ke paas is tarah rakha, ki uske andar, shaahajahaan ko usamein Tajmahal ka pratibimb dikhaayi de. kohinoor, mugalo ke paas 1739 mein hue Irani shaasak naadir shaah ke aakraman tak hi raha. usane Agra va Delhi mein bhayankar lootpaat ki. vah mayoor sinhaasan sahit kohinoor va agaadh sampatti faaras loot kar le gaya. is heere ko praapt karne par hi, naadir shaah ke mukh se achaanak nikal pada: koh-i-noor, jisse isko apna vartamaan naam mila. 1739 se poorv, is naam ka koi bhi sandarbh gyaat naheen hai.

kohinoor ka moolyaankan, naadir shaah ki ek katha se milta hai. usaki raani ne kaha tha, ki yadi koi shaktishaali maanav, paaainch pattharon ko chaaron dishaaon, va oopar ki or, poori shakti sahit feinke, to unke beech ka khaali sthaan, yadi suvarn va ratnon maatr se hi bhara jaaye, unke baraabar iski keemat hogi.

san 1747 mein, naadir shaah ki hatya ke baad, yeh Afghanistan ke Ahmad shaah abdaali ke haathon mein pahuncha. 1830 mein, shooja shaah, Afghanistan ka tatkaaleen padachyut shaasak kisi tarah kohinoor ke saath, bach nikla; va Punjab pahuncha, va vahaan ke mahaaraaja Ranjit Singh ko yeh heera bheint kiya. iske badalein svaroop, Ranjit Singh ne East India company ko, apni tukadiyaan Afghanistan bhej kar, Afghan gaddi jeet kar, shaah shooja ko vaapas dilaane ke liye taiyaar kar liya tha.

heera Bhaarat ke baahar nikla

Ranjit Singh, ne swayam ko Punjab ka mahaaraaja ghoshit kiya tha. 1839 mein, apni mrutyu shayya par usane apni vaseeyat mein, kohinoor ko puri, udeesa prasiddh shri jagannaath, mandir ko daan dene ko likha tha. kintu uske antim shabdon ke baare mein vivaad utha aur antat: vah poore na ho sake. 29 March,1849 ko Lahore ke kile par british dhvaj faharaaya. is tarah Punjab, british Bhaarat ka bhaag ghoshit hua. Lahore sandhi ka ek mahatvapoorn ang nimn anusaar tha: "koh-i-noor naamak ratn, jo shaah-shooja-ul-mulk se mahaaraaja ranjeet Singh dvaara liya gaya tha, Lahore ke mahaaraaja dvaara inglaind ki mahaaraani ko saunpa jaayega."

is sandhi ka prabhaari Governor general the, Lord dalhauji, jinki kohinoor arjan ki chaah, is sandhi ke mukhya kaaranon mein se ek thi. inke Bhaarat mein kaarya, sada hi vivaad grast rahe, va koheenoor arjan ka krutya, bahut se british teekaakaaron dvaara, aalochit kiya gaya hai. haalaanki, kuchh ne yeh bhi prastaav diya, ki heere ko mahaaraani ko seedhe hi bheint kiya jaana chaahiye tha, bajaay chheene jaane ke; kintu dalhaiji ne ise yuddh ka munaafa samjha, va usi prakaar saheja.

baad mein, dalhauji ne, 1851 mein, mahaaraaja ranjeet Singh ke uttaraadhikaari daleep Singh dvaara mahaaraani Victoria ko bheint kiye jaane ke prabandh kiye. terah varsheeya, daleep ne England ki yaatra ki, va unhein bheint kiya. yeh bheint, kisi ratn ko yuddh ke maal ke roop mein sthaanaantaran kiye jaane ka antim drushtaant tha.

mahaan pradarshani

1851 mein, London ke haaid park mein ek vishaal pradarshani mein, british janta ko ise dikhaaya gaya.

mukut/kireeton ki shobha

kohinoor ke nare taraashon ki prati

ratn ke kataav mein kuchh badlaav hue, jinse vah aur sundar prateet hone laga. 1852 mein, Victoria ke pati prince albart ki upasthiti mein, heere ko pun: taraasha gaya, jisse vah 186 1/6 kairet se ghat kar 105.602 kairet ka ho gaya, kintu iski aabha mein kai guna badhottri hui. albart ne buddhimta ka parichay dete hue, achhi salaahon ke saath, is kaarya mein apna ateev prayaas lagaaya, saath hi tatkaaleen 8000 paaund bhi, jisse is ratn ka bhaar 42% ghat gaya, parantu albart fir bhi asantusht the. heere ko mukut mein anya do hajaar heeron sahit jada gaya.

baad mein, ise mahaaraaja ki patni ke kireet ka mukhya ratn jada gaya. mahaaraani alekjeindriya ise prayog karne waali pratham mahaaraani theen. inke baad mahaaraani mairi theen. 1936 mein, ise mahaaraani elijaabeth ke kireet ki shobha banaaya gaya. 2002 mein, ise unke taaboot ke oopar sajaaya gaya.

prachalit itihaas

duniya ke sabse durlabh aur beshakeemati heere 'kohinoor' ki Britain ki mahaaraani ke mukut tak pahuainchane ki daas‍aataan mahaabhaarat ke kurukshetr se lekar golakun‍aada ke greeb majadoor ki kutiya tak faili hui hai. Britain ki mahaaraani ke taaj mein jada aur duniya ke anek baadashaahon ke dilon ko lalachaane ki kshamata rakhane wala anokha kohinoor duniya mein aakhir kahaaain se aaya, is baare mein aitihaasik ghatnaaon ke alaava bahut si kathaaeain aur kinvadantiyaaain bhi prachalit hain. yeh heera anek yuddhon, saajishon, laalach, raktapaat aur jaya-paraajayon ka saakshi raha hai.

kohinoor ki ek aur prati

duniya ke sabhi heeron ka raaja hai kohinoor heera. iski kahaani bhi pari kathaaon se kam romaanchak naheen hai. kohinoor ke jan‍aam ki pramaanit jaankaari na‍aaheen hai par kohinoor ka pehla ul‍aalekh 3000 varsh pehle mila tha. iska naata shri krush‍aan kaal se bataaya jaata hai. puraanon ke anusaar s‍aavayantak mani hi baad mein kohinoor kahalaayi. ye mani soorya se karn ko fir arjun aur yudhishthir ko mili. fir ashok, harsh aur chan‍aadragup‍aat ke haath yeh mani lagi. san 1306 mein yeh mani sabse pehle maalava ke mahaaraaja raamadev ke paas dekhi gayi. maalava ke mahaaraaja ko paraajit karke sul‍aataan alaaudeen khilji ne mani par kab‍aaja kar liya. baabar se peedhi dar peedhi yeh bemisaal heera antim mugal baadshah aurangajeb ko mila. 'j‍aavel‍aas of bitren' ka maanana hai ki san 1655 ke aaspaas kohinoor ka jan‍aam hin‍aadus‍aataan ke golakun‍aada jile ki kohinoor Khan se hua. tab heere ka vajan tha 787 kairet. ise bataur tohafa Khan maalikon ne shaahajahaan ko diya. san1739 tak heera shaahajahaan ke paas ra‍aaha. fir ise naadir shaah ke paas ra‍aaha. iski chakaachaudhan chamak dekhkar hi naadir shaah ne ise kohinoor naam diya. kohinoor ko rakhane vaale aakhiri hin‍aadus‍aataani Punjab ka ranajeet Singh tha. san 1849 me Punjab ki sat‍aata hathiyaane ke baad kohinoor angrejon ke haath lag gaya. fir san 1850 mein is‍aat indiya kam‍aapani ne heera mahaaraani vik‍aatoriya ko bheint kiya. ing‍aalain‍aad panhuchate-panhuchate kohinoor ka vajan keval 186 rah gaya. mahaaraani vik‍aatoriya ke jauhari prince elavet ne kohinoor ki pun: kataai ki aur paulish karavaai. san 1852 se aaj tak kohinoor ko vajan 105.6 hi rah gaya hai. san 1911 mein kohinoor mahaaraani mairi ke sarataaj mein jada gaya. aur aaj bhi usi taaj mein hai. ise London sthit 'tower of London' sangraahalaya mein numaaish ke liye rakha gaya hai.

kohinoor ke daavon ki raajaneeti

is heere ki labi katha ke baad, kai desh ispar apna daava jataate rahe hain. 1976 mein, Pakistan ke pradhaan mantri julfeekaar Ali bhutto ne british pradhaan mantri jim kaileghan ko Pakistan ko vaapas karne ka anurodh kiya, jise unhonne ek namr "naheen" mein uttar diya..[4] anya daava Bhaarat ne kiya tha. [5] evam [[afgaanistaan ki taaleebaan shaasan ne,[6] va Iran ne.

Bhaarat vaapasi prayaas

heeron ki aakrutiyaan

filhaal ise Bhaarat vaapas laane ko koshishein jaari ki gayi hain. aajaadi ke fauran baad, Bhaarat ne kai baar kohinoor par apna maalikaana hak jataaya hai. mahaaraaja dileep Singh ki beti Cathrine ki san 1942 me mrut‍aayu ho gayi thi, jo kohinoor ke bhaarateeya daave ke sanbadh mein thos daleelein de sakti thi.

  • 2007 tak kohinoor tauvar of London mein hi rakha hai.

prachalit media mein kohinoor

anuvaad nivedit

golakunda ke anya kuchh heere

Bhaarat ki golakunda ki khaanon se kohinoor ke alaava bhi duniya ke kai beshakeemati heere nikle. great mugal, oralov, Agra daayamand, Ahmedabad daayamand, broliti of India jaise na jaane kitne aise heere hain, jo kohinoor jitne hi beshakeemati hain.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • syamantak mani
  • dariya-A-noor heera (prakaash ka saagar)
  • noor-ul-aayan heera (aaainkh ki roshani)
  • prasiddh heeron ki soochi

sandarbh

srot

baahari kadiyaaain