kochchi

kochchi
കaaൊaaചaa്aaചaaി
kocheen
mahanagar
kochchi ki aadhikaarik muhar
Seal
upanaam: arab saagar ki raani[1][2]
कोच्चि is located in केरल
kochchi
nirdeshaank : 9°a58′aN 76°a17′aE / 9.97°aN 76.28°aE / 9.97; 76.28Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 9°a58′aN 76°a17′aE / 9.97°aN 76.28°aE / 9.97; 76.28
raashtra Bhaarat
State Kerala
jila ernaakulam
shaasan
• sabha kochchi nagar nigam
• mahaapaur toni chaimani (bha.ra.kaaaingres)
• police aayukt M aar ajeet Kumar, IPS
kshetr[3]
mahanagar 94.88
• nagar 732.84
ooainchaai 0
janasankhya (2012)[4]
mahanagar 612
• ghanatv 6,340
nagareeya[5] 2
bhaashaaen
• aadhikaarik malayalam, angreji
samay mandal IST (UTC +5:30)
pin 682 XXX
doorabhaash koot 91-(0)484-XXX XXXX
vaahan panjeekaran KL-7,KL-39,KL-41,KL-42,KL-43,KL-63
tatarekha 48 kilometer (30 meal)
ling anupaat 1.028 /
saaksharata 98.5%
nai Delhi se doori 2,594 kilometer (1,612 meal) NE (bhoomi)
Mumbai se doori 1,384 kilometer (860 meal) NW (bhoomi)
bangaluru se doori 539 kilometer (335 meal) N (bhoomi)
jalavaayu Am (koppan)
varsha 3,228.3 mileemeetar (127.10 inch)
jaalasthal corporationofcochin.net

kochchi ([koˈaatʃaaːaai ] ( sunein)), jise kocheen bhi kaha jaata tha, lakshadveep saagar ke dakshin-pashchim tatarekha par sthit ek bada bandargaah shahar hai, jo bhaarateeya raajya Kerala ke ernaakulam jile ka ek bhaag hai. kochchi ko kaafi samay se praay: ernaakulam bhi kaha jaata hai, jiska arth nagar ka mukhyabhoomi bhaag ingit karta hai. kochchi nagar nigam ke adheenasth (janasankhya 6,01,574) ye raajya ka doosra sarvaadhik janasankhya wala shahar hai. ye kochchi mahaanagareeya kshetr ke vistaar sahit (janasankhya 21 lakh) Kerala raajya ka sabse bada shahari aabaadi kshetr hai. kochchi nagar greater kochchi kshetr ka hi ek bhaag hai, [6][7] aur ise Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara dviteeya darje wala shahar vargeekrut kiya gaya hai. nagar ki dekh-rekh va anurakshan daayittv 1967 mein sthaapit hua kochchi nagar nigam dekhta hai. iske alaava poore kshetr ke sarvaangeen vikaas ka bhaar greater kocheen davalapameint athauriti[8] (GCDA) evam goshri aailaind davalapameint athauriti (GIDA) par hai.

kochchi 14veen shataabdi se hi Bhaarat ki pashchimi tatarekha ka masaalon ka vyaapaar kendra raha hai aur ise arab saagar ki raani ke naam se jaana jaata tha. 1503 mein yahaan purtagaaliyon ka aadhiptya hua aur yeh upanivesheeya Bhaarat ki pratham Europeeya kaaloni bana aur 1530 mein Goa ke chune jaane tak ye purtagaaliyon ka yahaan ka pradhaan shakti kendra raha tha.kkaalaantar mein kochchi raajya ke rajavaade mein parivrtit hone ke ksaath hi ye dach evam british ke niyntran mein aa gaya. aaj Kerala mein kul antardesheeya tatha antarraashtreeya paryatakon ke aagaman sankhya mein pratham sthaan banaaye hue hai. [9][10] neelasan company ke outlook traivalar patrika ke liye kiye gaye ek sarvekshan ke anusaar kochchi aaj bhi Bhaarat ke sarvashreshth paryatak aakarshanon mein chhathavein sthaan par bana hua hai.[11] maikinse global sansthaan dvaara kiye gaye ek shodh ke anusaar, kochchi 2025 tak ke vishv ke sakal gharelu utpaad mein 50% yogadaan dene vaale 440 ubharate hue shaharon mein se ek tha. [12]

bhaarateeya nausena ke dakshini nausainik kamaan ka kendra tatha bhaarateeya tatarakshak ka raajya mukhyaalaya bhi isi shahar mein sthit hai,[13][14] jismein air skvaidran 747 naam ki ek vaayu tukadi bhi judi hai.[15] nagar ke vaanijyik saagareeya gatividhiyon se sambandhit suvidhaaon mein kochchi bandargaah, antarraashtreeya kantenar traansshipment terminal, kocheen shipyaard, kochchi rifaainareej ka apatateeya (ofshor) singal bauya mooring (S.pi.M),[16][17] evam kochchi maireena bhi hain. kochchi mein hi kocheen vinimay ekscheinj, international paipar ekscheinj bhi sthit hain, tatha hindustaan machine tools (H.M.ti), saayabar city, evam kinfra haai-tech Pak evam badi raasaayanik nirmaaniyaan jaise frtilaaijrs end kaimikls traavanakaur (faikt), traavanakaur kocheen kaimikls (teeseesi), indiyn reyar arths limited (I.aar.E.L), Hindustan orgainik kaimikls limited (H.O.si.L) [18] kochchi rifaainareej ke saath saath hi kai vidyut companiyaan jaise ti.E.L.ke[19] evam audyogik park bhi bane hain jinmein kocheen epeshal ikaunomik jon evam infopaark kochchi pramukh hain. kochchi mein hi pramukh raajya nyaayapeeth Kerala evam lakshadveep uchch nyaayaalaya evam kocheen yunivrsiti of science end technology bhi sthaapit hain. isi nagar mein Kerala ka national law school, national yunivrsiti of edavaansd leegal stadeej ko bhi sthaan mila hai.

anukram

vyutpatti

praacheen videshi ghumantu7on tatha vyaapaareeganon dvaara kochchi ko vibhinn naamon se ingit kiya gaya hai jaise Cocym, Cochym, kocheen, evam Kochi aadi.[20] kocheen yahoodi samudaaya dvaara ise kochin (Kogin/קaaוaaגaaיaaן) bhi bola jaata tha, jaisa ki saayanaagog ki muhar mein bhi dikhaai deta hai[21] aur ye muhar abhi bhi us samudaaya ke paas rakhi hai. "kochchi" naan ka udgam ek malayalam shabd kochu aajhi se prateet hota hai, jiska arth hai ek chhoti khaadai ya jheel ya laigoon. ek anya dhaarana ke anusaar kochchi ka udgam kaichi se hai jiska arth hai bandargaah.[22] itaalavi anveshakon nikolo kaunti (15veen shataabdi) tatha fra paaoleen (17veen shataabdi) ke anusaar kochchi shabd ka udgam isi naam ki ek chhoti nadi se hai jo baikavaatars ko saagar se jodti thi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] pehle purtagaaliyon ke aagaman aur fir british aagaman se kocheen naam ko lagbhag aadhikaarik padavi mil gayi thi. 1996 mein nagar ko apne mool malayalam naam ke ek niktavartti aangleekrut roop kochchi mila. is naam ko kocheen nagar nigam ne amaanya kar asveekaar kar diya aur nigam abhi tak "kocheen" naam hi chala raha hai.

itihaas

pairaadesi saayanaagog shilaalekh
inhein bhi dekhein: kocheen ka raajya

kochi bhaarateeya masaala vyaapaar ka kendra kai shataabdiyon se raha hai, jiski jaankaari yavanon (praacheen yoonaaniyon evam romavaasiyon) ke saath saath yahoodiyon, seeriyaaiyon, arabon tatha cheeniyon ko praacheen kaal se hi thi. [23] kochi ka mahattv 1341 mein periyaar nadi mein aayi baadh ke kaaran kodungaloor (krainganor) ke niktasth mujiris bandargaah ke nasht hone ke baad se bahut badh gaya tha. [24] kochi ke sabse puraane gyaat ullekh cheeni yaatri ma huaan ki Admiral jeing he ke adheen ki gayi unki 15veen shataabdi ki yaatraaon ke varnan mein milta hai.[25] 1440 mein yahaan aaye itaalavi yaatri nikkolo da kaunti ne bhi kochi shahar ka ullekh apne vruttaanton mein kiya hai. [26]

itihaasavidon ke anusaar kochi raajya ka mool raajya 12veen shataabdi mein cher vansh ke patan uparaant hi yahaan astittv mein aagaya tha. [22] is raajya ka adhikaar vanshaanugat tha aur inhein sthaaneeya logon dvaara perampadappu shaasak kaha gaya tha. kochi ki mukhyabhoomi 18veen shataabdi tak is raajya ya rajavaadeki rajdhani bani rahi tatha kochi ka raaja hi vartamaan kochchi nagar kshetr tatha niktavartti kshetron par adhikaar rakhata tha. haalaanki baad ke kaafi samay se raajya mein videshi aadhiptya raha evam raaja ko keval naamamaatr ka adhikaar praapt raha tha. purtagaali anveshak paidro alvarej kaibraal ne Bhaarat mein pratham Europeeya upanivesh 1500 mein kochi mein basaaya.[27][28] 1503 se 1663 tak, fort kochchi (fort imainyual) purtagaali saamraajya ke adheen raha. ye purtagaali aadhikpatya-kaal seint thomas isaaiyon evam kocheen yahoodiyon ke liye behad viptti kaal raha, kyonki tatkaaleen Portugal-adheen Bhaarat mein saamraajya aadhiptya vivaad aadi badh rahe the. kochi mein pratham purtagaali anveshak vaasko da gaama ki kabr bhi bani hui hai, jisne Bhaarat ki khoj hetupratham safl abhiyaan kiya tha. use seint fraansis girjaaghar mein dafnaaya gaya tha. baad mein uske avashesh 1539 mein Portugal lauta diye gaye.[29] purtagaali shaasan ke baad yaha dach shaasan aaya, jinhon ne yahaan ke sthaani kaaleekat ke jmorin ke saath sandhi kar kochi par aakraman kiya va adhikaar kar liya tha. 1773 mein Mysore raajya ke shaasak haidar Ali dvaara apne raajya ke maalaabaar kshetr mein vistaar ke antargatt kochi par adhikaar kar use Mysore ke adheen kar liya gaya tha. is samay tak kochi ki vanshaanugat pradhaanamantri paaliyth achaan bhi padachyut ho gaye.

isi beech dach logon ne United dach provins par yuddh ki aashanka ke chalte, 1814 ki aangr-dach sandhi kar li, jiske antargatt kochi ko baangka dweep ke badle sanyukt raajashaahi ke adheen de diya gaya. vaise is sandhi ke poorv mein bhi yahaan british upasthiti ke saakshya milte hain.[30]

1866 mein fort kochchi nagar paalika ban gaya, aur iska pratham myunisipl kaaunsil iting kaantest 1883 mein aayojit hua. 1896 mein kocheen ke mahaaraaja ne ernaakulam evam mattanasheri mein do anya parishdon ke gathan kar sthaaneeya prashaasan ka aarambh kiya. 1907 mein Madras presidensi ke tatkaaleen raajyapaal (Governor) sar arthar lauli, unke bhraata belbi lauli, Madras Governor (1891-96) kocheen evam traavanakaur ke aadhikaarik bhraman par nikle aur 25 January se 14 fravari tak yahaan ka bhraman kiya. 26 January ko kocheen ke raaja ne inse bheint ki va inke sammaan mein ernaakulam mein raatribhoj ka aayojan kiya.[31][32][33][34]

1925 mein aam janta ke dabaav ke kaaran kochi vidhaan sabha ka gathan kiya gaya.

seint fraansis girja ghar, kochi 1503 mein bana, Bhaarat ka praacheenatam Europeeya girjaaghar hai.[35]

20veen shataabdi ke aarambh tak bandargaah par vyaapaar va aavaagaman kaafi had tak badh gaya, jiske chalte iske vikaas ki aavashyakta mahasoos ki jaane lagi. 1920 mein ek haarbar engineer Robert bristo ko tatkaaleen Madras presidensi ke Governor Lord vilingdan ke aadesh par bulaaya gaya. 21 varsh ke baad kocheen bandargaah praayadveep ka surakshittam bandargaah ban gaya, jahaan jahaaj navanirmit haarbar bana tha aur bhaap ki kren sthaapit theen.[36]

1947 mein british raaj se Bhaarat ke svatantr hone par, kocheen pratham rajavaadaaa tha jisne svechha se bhaarateeya sangh mein bane rahane ka chunaav kiya. [22] 1949 mein kocheen evam traavanakaur ke vilay uparaant traavanakor-kocheen raajya astittv mein aaya. tab traavanakor ka raaja traavanakor-kocheen sangh ka raajapramukh bana aur 1956 tak raha. traavanakor-kocheen ko tab Madras raajya ke maalaabaar jile mein vilay kar diya gaya. aur antat: Bhaarat sarkaar ke raajya punargathan adhiniyam 1956 mein ek naye raajya k janm hua — Kerala — jismein traavanakor-kocheen (sivaaya chaar dakshini taalul ke, jo tamil naadu mein vilay kiye gaye), maalaabaar jila ke saath saath kasaragod evam dakshin kannad jile sammilit the. [37] 9 July, 1960 ko mattanasheri ne ek prastaav paarit kar sarkaar ko bhejaa— jismein tatkaaleen fort kochi, mattanasheri evam ernaakulam ki nagarapaalika kshetron ko vilay kar ek nagar nigam ki sthaapana ki jaane ka nivedan tha. sarkaar ne prastaavit vilay ki sambhaavnaaen talaashane hetu ek aayog ka gathan kiya. is aayog ki report ke aadhaar par Kerala vidhaan sabha ne nagar nigam ki sthaapana ki sveekruti de di. Kerala raajya ki sthaapana ke theek ek varsh baad, 1 November, 1967 ko, kocheen nagar nigam ki sthaapana ki gayi. yeh vilay ernaakulam, mattanasheri, evam fort kochi ki nagar paalikaaon ke beech hua tha. inke alaava is nagar nigam mein vilingdan dweep, chaar panchaayatein (paalluruti, vennal, vayattil evam edapalli) tatha do chhote dweep gundu evam ramanaturut bhi shaamil the. kochi evam ernaakulam jilon ko 1 April, 1958 ko tatkaaleen traavanakor-kochi-mlaabaar rajavaadon se kaat kar nikaala gaya tha. jile ka adhikaansh bhaag kochi raajya se hi liya gaya tha. [38]

shahar ke aarthik vikaas ne Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara 1990 ke dashak ke aarambh mein laaye gaye aarthik sudhaaron ke baad se tej gati pakadi. varsh 2000 aane tak seva kshetr ne bhi is aarthik pragati ko bharpoor bal diya. soochana praudyogiki par aadhaarit vibhinn paarkon ki sthaapana ke saath saath anya jahaajapattan evam bandargaah aadhaarit avasanrachana vikaas ke chalte nagar mein achal-sampatti vyaapaar ko badi hava di. baad ke varshon mein kochchi ne tvarit vyaavasaayeekaran anubhav kiya aur parinaamasvaroop ye nagar aaj Kerala raajya ke bade vaanijyik kendra ke roop mein viksit ho chuka hai. [39]

bhoogol evam jalavaayu

bhoogol

kudannoor setu se tevar ka ek drushya

kochchi ki bhaugolik sthiti Bhaarat ke dakshin-pashchimi tat 9°a58′aN 76°a13′aE / 9.967°aN 76.217°aE / 9.967; 76.217 nirdeshaank par hai, aur iska kshetrafl 94.88 varg kilometer (36.63 varg meal) hai. nagar mein yahaan ke prasiddh baikavautars hain, aur praayadeep ke uttari chhor tak jaate hain. iske pashchim mein lakshadveep saagar hai tatha poorvi or shesh mukhyabhoomi ka shahari vistaar hai. yahaan ka adhikaansh kshetr samudra satah (ki oonchaai) par hi bana hai aur iski tatarekha 48 kimi hai.[22]

kochchi shahar ki vartamaan nagarapaalika seemaaon mein uttar-poorvi or mukhyabhoomi ernaakulam, fort kochi tatha edaapalli, kalaamasheri evam kakkanaad ke upanagareeya kshetr; dakshin-poorv mein tirupunitra hain evam vembanaad jheel mein niktasth dveepasamooh bhi hai. iske adhikaansh dweep ati laghu aakaar ke hain aur inka kshetrafl 6 kimi2 se lekar 1 kimi2 se bhi kam (1,500 se lekar 250 ekad se kam tak).[krupaya uddharan jodein] raajya sarkaar evam jeeseedeee ki yojana hai ki kochchi mahaanagareeya kshetr ki seema mein sthit maala evam kodangaloor ko trishoor jile mein, angamaali, peranbavoor, piraavum evam kolanasheri ko ernaakulam jile mein, taalayolaperanbu evam vaaikom ko kottayam evam cheratala ko alaapujha jile mein jod diye jaaen. is tarah navanirmit mahaanagareeya kshetr ko navagathit kochchi metropolitan reejanal davalapament athauriti (kochchi mahanagar kshetreeya vikaas praadhikran) ke adheen de diya jaayega.[40][41] haalaanki the hindu ki ek report ke anusaar, raajya sarkaar ko is vishay mein abhi koi pakka nirnaya lena baaki hai.[42]

yahaan ki mruda mein elyooviym, teri ki bhoori baaloo, aadi ke kan milte hain. haaidromaurfik kshaareeya mrudaaen bhi baikavaatars ki niktasth bhoomi mein milti hain.[22]

yahaan milne vaale pradhaan paashaan aarkeiyan-besik daaik, chaarnokaaits evam gnisej prakaar ke hain. ek paaristhitiki sanvedan kshetr mangalavanam pakshi abhayaaranya nagar ke kendreeya bhaag mein sthit hai. ismein maingrov ki dheron prajaatiyaan milti hain tatha badi sankhya mein pravaasi pakshiyon ki aavaas-bhoomi hai.

kochchi ki jal aapoorti adhikaanshat: bhoomigat jal evam jile mein bahne waali do nadiyon, periyaar evam muvattapujha par hi nirbhar hain. periyaar nadi nagar ke uttari bhaag ki aapoorti karti hai tatha muvattapujha nadi jeenanurm pariyojana ke antargatt pashchimi kochchi, poorvi kochchi evam cheratal taalluk ke bhaagon ki aapoorti Japan vautar project skeem ke antargatt karti hai.

jalavaayu

koppan jalavaayu vargeekaran ke anusaar, kochchi mein ushnakatibndheeya maunasoon jalavaayu (Am) hai. kochchi ka bhoomadhyarekha se saameepya tatha iski tateeya sthiti ke parinaamasvaroop yahaan mausami taapamaan mein thoda hi parivartan hota hai, evam uchch star ki aardrata bhi rahati hai. yahaan vaarshik taapamaan 23 aur 31 °ase (73 aur 88 °afai) ke beech rahata hai evam ankit adhiktam taapamaan 36.5 °ase (97.7 °afai), evam nyoonatam taapamaan 16.3 °ase (61.3 °afai) hai.[43] pashchimi ghaat ke havaai or sthit hone ke kaaran June se September tak dakshin-pashchim monsoon kochchi mein tej varsha laata hai. October se December paryant, kochchi mein uttar-poorvi monsoon ke kaaran halki varsha hoti yahaan ki saalaana varsha 2,978.0 mimi (117.24 inch) hai tatha saalaana ausat varsha ke 125 din hote hain.[44]

kochchi (1971-2000) ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ankit adhik °aC (°aF) 36.4
(97.5)
35.7
(96.3)
36.0
(96.8)
36.5
(97.7)
35.2
(95.4)
34.2
(93.6)
33.1
(91.6)
32.5
(90.5)
34.2
(93.6)
34.6
(94.3)
35.6
(96.1)
34.8
(94.6)
36.5
(97.7)
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 31.7
(89.1)
31.9
(89.4)
32.5
(90.5)
32.9
(91.2)
32.3
(90.1)
30.1
(86.2)
29.3
(84.7)
29.3
(84.7)
30.0
(86)
30.6
(87.1)
31.2
(88.2)
31.8
(89.2)
31.1
(88)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 22.6
(72.7)
24.0
(75.2)
25.3
(77.5)
25.9
(78.6)
25.7
(78.3)
24.1
(75.4)
23.7
(74.7)
23.9
(75)
24.2
(75.6)
24.1
(75.4)
24.0
(75.2)
23.1
(73.6)
24.2
(75.6)
ankit nyoon. °aC (°aF) 16.5
(61.7)
16.3
(61.3)
21.6
(70.9)
21.3
(70.3)
21.1
(70)
20.4
(68.7)
17.6
(63.7)
20.6
(69.1)
21.1
(70)
19.2
(66.6)
19.2
(66.6)
17.7
(63.9)
16.3
(61.3)
himpaat/varsha mm (inch) 23.3
(0.917)
25.9
(1.02)
30.8
(1.213)
94.8
(3.732)
282.8
(11.134)
705.8
(27.787)
593.6
(23.37)
403.1
(15.87)
279.6
(11.008)
320.3
(12.61)
174.9
(6.886)
43.2
(1.701)
2,978.0
(117.244)
srot: bhaarateeya mausam vibhaag (2010 tak ke ankit adhiktam evam nyoonatam)[43][44]

naagar prashaasan

kochchi nagar adhikaari
mahaapaur toni chaammini
up-mahaapaur bhadr sateesh
police aayukt M aar ajeet Kumar
Kerala uchch-nyaayaalaya ka ek kaaryasheel diwas
ernaakulam taaun hall

nagar prashasan kochchi nagar nigam ke adheen hai, jiski bgador mahpaur ke haath mein rahati hai. prashaasanik uddeshya se nagar kshetr ko 74 vaards mein baanta hua hai,[45] jahaan pratyek ward se nigam parishad ke sadasya chun kar paanchh varsh ke liye aate hain. pehle kocheen kshetr mein fort kochi, mattanasheri, evam ernaakulam is kshetr ki teen nagarapaalikaaen hua karti theen, jinhein baad mein vilay kar kocheen nagar nigam ki sthaapana ki gayi. nigam ka mukhyaalaya ernaakulam mein hai tatha mandaleeya kaaryaalaya paallaruti, idapalli, vaduthal evam vayatilla mein sthit hain. nagar ka saamaanya prashaasan krmik vibhaag parishad stainding samiti anubhaag dvaara dekha jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] anya vibhaagon mein nagar yojana, svaasthya, abhiyaantriki, kar evam lekha vibhaag aate hain. [22] nagar mein apashisht niptaan aur seevej prabandhan ke liye bhi nigam hi uttaradaayi hai. nagar mein dainik apashisht lagbhag 600 tan hota hai[krupaya uddharan jodein] jisk ek bada bhaag brahmapuram saueld vest plant dvaara kaarbanik khaad mein badal diya jaata hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] peya jal ki aapoorti periyaar nadi se Kerala jal praadhikran (Kerala vautar athauriti) dvaara kochi vautar varks vibhaag ke sahayog se ki jaati hai. [46] nagar ki vidyut aapoorti Kerala state ilektrisiti board dvaara ki jaati hai}. greater kocheen kshetr ke vikaas ke utthaan evam us par niyantran rakhane ka kaarya greater kocheen davalapament athauriti (jeeseedeee tatha goshri aailaind davalapament athauriti (jeeaaideee) dvaara kiya jaata hai. donon hi sarkaari sansthaaen hain tatha nagar ke avasanrachana vikaas mein kaaryasheel hain.

vidhi evam vyavastha

kochchi mein hi raajya ka Kerala uchch nyaayaalaya bhi sthit hai. raajya ki vidhi vyavastha Kerala city polees ki dekharekh mein rahati hai. is sanstha ke sarvottam adhikaari police aayukt hain, jo ek bhaarateeya police seva (I.pi.S) adhikaari hote hain. nagar ko vyavastha hetu paanch bhaagon mein baanta gaya hai, jinmein se pratyek ka ek circle adhikaari hota hai. saamaanya vyaaya vyavastha ke atirikt polees seva yaataayaat polees, naarkotiks prakoshth, rauet haurs, sashastr rijrv kaimps, jila aparaadh record bureau tatha mahila polees station bhi chalaati hai. [47] yahaan Kerala sarkaar ke gruh mantraalaya ke adheen kaaryarat 19 police station hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]. inke alaava kendreeya anveshan bureau ki ek bhrashtaachaar virodhi shaakha bhi nagar mein sthit hai. kendreeya audyogik suraksha bal ki teen skvaidrans nagar ki vibhinn raajya va kendra sarkaari bhaari udyogon, vimaanakshetr evam bandargaah kshetron ko paryaapt suraksha upalabdh karaate hain. anya pramukh kendra sarkaari kaaryaalayon mein raashtreeya anveshan ejensi, daayarektaret of revenyu intelijens, bhaarateeya kastams vibhaag nagar mein ek pramukh bandaragaa: hone ke kaaran sthit hain. raashtreeya aparaadh record bureau (enaseeaarabi), kochchi ke aankadon ke anusaar bhaarateeya panel code ke antargatt aparaadhon mein 2009 ke mukaabale 2010 mein 193.7 % badhottri darj ki gayi hai. poore raajya mein aparaadh dar 424.1 ke mukaabale 1,897.8 darj ki gayi hai.[48] haalaanki kochchi police adhikaariyon ka kehna hai ki hatya va apaharan jaise bade aparaadhon mein nagar mein raajya ke anya shaharon ki apeksha kami ankit ki gayi hai. [49][50]varshaakaal mein tamil naadu raajya ke tirunelaveli ke niktavarti tiruttu gram (choron ka gaanv) se badi sankhya mein yojanaabaddh tareeke badi sankhya mein choron ke samooh nagar mein aate hain va choriyaan karte hain.[51] haal ke samay mein Kerala police ne kochchi ke vibhinn aavaasi sanghon (rejident esosiyeshans) ki sahaayata se in choriyon ki rokathaam hetu prayaas tej kiye hain.[52] is gaanv ke choron ke utpaaton se prabhaavit hokar film nirdeshak John entoni ne ek malayalam film 'tiruttu graamam ' ka nirmaan abhineta mammooti ke saath kiya hai. is film mein mammooti ne ek abhyast lutere chor ki bhoomika ki hai. [53]

arth vyavastha

chitr:Cochinshipyard.jpg
kocheen shipyaard

kochchi ko Kerala raajya ki vaanijyik rajdhani maana jaata raha hai.[54] kochchi mein hi kocheen stock ekscheinj bhi sthaapit hai, jo ki Kerala ka ekamaatr stock ekscheinj hai. Bhaarat ka chautha sabse bada niji-sector ka bank yaheen alyuva mein sthit hai. ek bada online trading kendra hone ke kaaran hi yahaan SEBI ne apna sthaaneeya kaaryaalaya bhi khola hai. [55]

vidyut, taaja jal, lambi tatarekha, baikavaatars, achhi banking suvidhaaon, ek bade bandargaah ki upasthiti, kantenar traans-shipmeint terminal evam ek antarraashtreeya havaai hab aise kuchh kaarak hain jinhonne nagar ki evam niktavarti ilaakon ki audyogik pragati mein tvaran ka kaarya kiya hai. [39] haal ke varshon mein nagar ne bhaari nivesh anubhav kiya hai; jiske chalte kochchi Bhaarat ke teji se pragati karte dviteeya varg mahaanagaron mein gina jaane laga hai.[56][57] kochchi mahaanagareeya kshetr se upaja raajasv raajya ki aay mein bhaari yogadaan deta hai.[58][59] yeh jila raajya ke sakal gharelu utpaad ka sarvaadhik, 14.47% yogadaan deta hai. [60] nirmaan evam vinirmaan se 37%, vyaapaar, paryatan evam hauspitailiti milaakar aur 20% yogadaan dete hain. yahaan ke pradhaan vyaapaaron mein nirmaan, vinirmaan, jahaaj-nirmaan, seefood evam masaalon ka niryaat, parivhan evam jahaajaraani, soochana praudyogiki, paryatan, chikitsa sevaaen evam banking hain. kochchi ko vishv bank dvaara sansaar ke pradhaan audyogik nagaron mein vareeyata kram se 18vaan sthaan diya gaya hai. haalaanki 2009 ke ek ranking of ij too staart a vijnes (vyaapaar aarambh karne mein sahaayak) nagaron ki Bhaarat mein 17 vareeya shaharon mein kochchi ko antim dviteeya kathintam nagar arthaat 17 mein se 16vaan ka sthaan praapt hua tha. yeh sthaan Kolkata se oopar tha, jo 17vein sthaan par tha. [61]

The International Container Transshipment Terminal, at Vallarpadam

Kerala ke adhikaansh kshetron ki bhaanti ji, kochchi mein bhi apravaasi bhaarateeya parivaaraganon dvaara bheje gaye paise hi parivaar ki aay-srot hain.[62] nagar kendra se 17 ki.mi (11 meal) ki doori par uttar disha mein sthit eloor Kerala raajya ka sabse bada audyogik kshetr hai, jahaan 250 se adhik udyog evam nirmaaniyaan sthaapit hain. in ikaaiyon mein vibhinn prakaar ke madon, jaise rasaayan, petrorasaayan utpaad, keetanaashak, reyar arth dhaatu-utpaad, urvarak, jasta evam kromiym yaugik evam charm utpaadon ka nirmaan/ utpaadan hota hai. [63] Kerala ki sabse puraani urvarak evam rasaayan utpaadan nirmaani frtilaaijrs end kaimikls traavanakor li. (FACT) bhi kochchi mein hi sthit hai. [64] dakshin Bhaarat ki sabse badi tel-shodhan suvidha ambalaamugal mein bi.pi.si.L ki kochchi rifaainareej mein upalabdh hai. petronet indiya ne ab tak oorja evam indhan ki aavashyakta ke liye praakrutik gas ke aayaat evam bhandaaran hetu kochchi L.N.ji terminal ka nirmaan kaarya lagbhag poora hi kar liya hai.[65] inke sivaaya nagar mein vibhinn kendra sarkaari kaaryaalaya jaise kokonat davalapament board, kvaayar board of indiya tatha maireen prodakts eksport davalapament athauriti (MPEDA) ke mukhyaalaya bhi sthit hain.

kochchi rifaayanareej ki ofshor kochchi sthit S.pi.M suvidha.

nagar kendra se 19.9 kimi door sthit kalaamashsheri Kerala ka audyogik kendra kaha ja sakta hai. yahaan badi audyogik nirmaaniyaan jaise frtilaaijr end kaimikls traavanakor (faikt), H.M.ti, electronics udyog jaise infopaark, kinfra high-tech park aadi bhi shahar ke upashahari kshetr mein sthit hain. neera davalapament sentar ka mukhyaalaya bhi kalaamashsheri mein hi sthit hai. iske alaava yahaan kocheen vigyaan evam praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya bhi sthit hai.

Kerala ke anya sthaanon ki hi bhaanti yahaan ki sthaaneeya arth-vyavastha mein paryatan ka bhi vishesh yogadaan hai. kochchi jahaam sthit hai, vah ernaakulam jila Kerala mein bhraman karne vaale kul sthaaneeya paryatakon ki sankhya ke anusaar pratham sthaan par hai,[10] aur is prakaar se nagar ki arth-vyavastha mein iska yogadaan gahra hai. fort kochchi sthit paryatak enklev parisar evam anya paryatan sthalon, aitihaasik smaarakon tatha imaaraton, sangrahaalayon, aadi ke saath–saath vembanaad jheel tatha baikavaatars jaise praakrutik aakarshanon ke kaaran nagar dheron paryatakon ke aakarshan ka kendra raha hai. sthaaneeya nivaasiyon ke liye nagar mein badi sankhya mein sthit aspataalon evam chikitsa suvidhaaon ke maadhyam se rojgaar ka pradhaan srot upalabdh hota hai. kochchi bandargaah antarraashtreeya jalayaatriyon ke liye niyamit roop se upayog hone wala bada kendra hai.[66] nagar mein desh ki pratham maireena suvidha upalabdh hone se[67] kochchi mareena badi sankhya mein yaut-chaalakon ka aakarshan bana rahata hai. kochchi ki arth-vyavastha mein ek bada yogadaan yahaan ki teji se flati-foolati real-estate udyog ka bhi hai. yahaan bahut se chhote-bade rial-estate vyaapaariyon ne khoob kamaaya hai aur oonche lakshya praapt kiye hain.

bhaarati nausena ki dakshin naval kamaan ka mukhyaalaya kochchi nagar mein sthit hai. yeh bhaarateeya nausena ka praathamik prashikshan kendra hai.[68] kocheen shipyaard ka nagar mein bada aarthik yogadaan hai.[69][70] toppumapaadi sthit machhali-pakadne ke tat par chhote taur par ye vyavasaaya chaaloo hai tatha sthaaneeya evam aayaat baajaar hetu matsya aapoorti karta hai. kochchi ke varsh paryant chalne vaale haarbar ki kshamataaon ka adhik upayog karne hetu ek antarraashtreeya krooj terminal tatha kai maireenaaj ka nirmaan kaarya pragati par hai. [71][72]

kochchi mareena Bhaarat ka pratham aur abhi tak ekamaatr mareena hai.

The Kochi Marina is the first, and currently only marina in India]]

mukhya aakarshan

dach mahal

yeh mahal mool roop se purtagaaliyon dvaara banavaaya gaya aur kocheen ke raaja veer kerala varma ko bheint kiya gaya tha. baad mein dach ka is par adhikaar ho gaya. unhonne 1663 mein kile ki marammat karaai aur kile ko naya roop diya. is kile mein kocheen ke kai raajaaon ka raajyaabhishek hua tha. is kile mein raamaayan aur mahaabhaarat jaise mahaakaavyon se sambandhit peinting‍aas bani hui hai. mahaal

bolaghaatti mahal

is mahal ko dekhne ke liye badi sankhya mein paryatak yahaan aate hain. dach logon dvaara banavaaya gaya yeh mahal bolaghatti dweep par sthit hai. is mahal ko ab ek lakjari hotel mein tabdeel kar diya gaya hai. bolaghatti mein ek golf course bhi hai. yahaan par log piknik manaane bhi aate hai.

hil mahal

19veen shataabdi mein kochchi ke raaja dvaara yeh mahal banavaaya gaya tha. ab ise kerala puraatatv vibhaag ke sangrahaalaya mein parivrtit kar diya gaya hai. sangrahaalaya mein chitrakaari, nakkaashi aur raajakeeya vansh se sambandhit vastuon ko rakha gaya hain.

beshan bangala

indo-yuropiyn shaili mein bana yeh bangala 1667 E. mein banavaaya gaya tha. dach kile ke stromabarg beshan mein sthit hone ke kaaran iska naam beshan bangala pada. iski chhat mein taailein lagi huin hain aur baraanmada lakdi ka bana hua hai.

marine drive

kochchi ke samudra tat ke kinaare bana yeh sadak paryatakon ke saath sthaaneeya logon ko bhi bahut bhaata hai. yahaan se samudra ka najaara behad aakarshak lagta hai. 140 meter lambe is sadak ko behad khoobsoorat dhang se sajaaya gaya hai. red kaarapet ultra taail se bani is sadak ko shaanamugam road ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. marine drive ke aaspaas ka ilaaka behad khoobsoorat hai. yahaan hamesha fil‍aam ki shuting bhi hoti rahati hai.

cheraai beech

kochchi se 25 kimi door cheraai beech ki sundarata dekhte hi banti hai. naariyl aur khajoor ke pedon ke alaava paaramparik kerala ke makaan is beech ki khoobsoorti mein chaar chaand lagaate hai. yahaan dolfin machhaliyon ko dekha ja sakta hai.

sent fraansis church (sant fraansis girijaaghar)

1503 E. mein bana yeh church Bhaarat ka sabse puraana yooropiyn church hai. protesteint dach dvaara ise 1779 mein pun:sthaapit kiya gaya. 1795 mein angrejon ne ise enjalikn church mein tabdeel kar diya. kaha jaata hai ki vaasko di gaama ko is church mein dafnaaya gaya tha. baad mein uske avashesh ko Portugal le jaaya gaya tha.

aitihaasik sangrahaalaya

idaapalli mein sthit is sangrahaalaya mein Kerala ke itihaas ko moorti ke maadhyam se darshaaya gaya hai. sangrahaalaya ke baahar parashuraam ki pratima hai. use dekhkar lagta hai jaise vah aagantukon ka abhinandan kar rahi ho. kaha jaata hai ki parashuraam ne hi Kerala ki sthaapana ki thi.

pallipuram kila

yeh kila yooropiyn ki praacheenatam smaarakon mein ek hai. ise 1503 mein purtagaaliyon ne banavaaya tha. dach ne 1661 mein is kile par adhikaar kar liya aur traavanakor ke raajya ko 1789 mein bech diya tha.

pareekshit thanpuraan sangrahaalaya

is sangrahaalaya mein 19veen shataabdi ki peinting, praacheen mudraaen, pattharon ki moortiyaan, peinting ki pratilipiyaan, plaastar of peris aadi ko rakha gaya hai. kocheen ke shaahi parivaaron se judi anek vastuen bhi aapko yahaan dekhne ko mil jaaegeen.

kaanjiraamattam masjid

kochchi se 30 kimi ki doori par yeh pavitra masjid sthit hai. kaha jaata hai ki muslim sant shekh fareed ki kabragaah par iska nirmaan hua hai. January mein yahaan chandanaakoodam parv aayojit kiya jaata hai.

kaalaadi

yeh sthaan aathaveen shataabdi ke mahaan bhaarateeya daarshanik aadi‍ shankaraachaarya ki janmabhoomi hai. shankaraachaarya ki yaad mein yahaan do mandir banaae gaye hain. ek mandir dakshinaamoorti aur doosra devi shaarada ko samarpit hai.

gamyata

vaayumaarg-

kocheen ka antarraashtreeya havaai adda Bhaarat ke pramukh shaharon se seedha juda hua hai. Indian Airways aur jet Airways ki flight se kochchi pahuncha ja sakta hai.

relamaarg-

eranaakulam mein do railway station hain. ek uttar aur doosra dakshin mein. yahaan se kochchi jaane ke liye bas ya taxi ki sevaaen li ja sakti hain. eranaakulam Bhaarat ke anek shaharon se railgaadiyon ke maadhyam se juda hua hai.

sadak maarg-

kochchi sadak maarg se anek paryatan kendron aur shaharon se juda hua hai. Bangalore se kochchi ki doori 565 kimi, Coimbatore se 223 kimi, Goa se 848 kimi, Madras se 694 kimi aur Mysore se 470 kimi hai. raajya parivhan nigam ki basein kochchi ke liye niyamit roop se chalti hain.

prasiddh vastuen

kochchi aur uske aaspaas ke kshetron se anek yaadagaar aur lokapriya vastuen khareedi ja sakti hain. mattanacheri, jiv street aur M ji rod khareedadaari ke liye prasiddh hain. mattanacheri se masaale, chai, kaafi aur smaarikaaen khareedi ja sakti hain. iske saath hi mukhote, peetal ki aakrutiyaan aur lakadiyon se bane shrrungaar ke bakse khareede ja sakte hain. yahaan se praacheen kaal ke bartan bhi khareede ja sakte hain. maalaabaar mein masaalon ki dukaanon se taaje masaalon ki khareedadaari ki ja sakti hai.

bhraman samay

September se May ki avadhi kochchi ke paryatan ke liye sabse upayukt maani jaati hai.

sandarbh

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