kiraataarjuneeyam

arjun Shiv ko pehchaan jaate hain aur natamastak ho jaate hain. (raaja ravi varma dvaaraa19veen shati mein chitrit)

kiraataarjuneeyam mahaakavi bhaaravi dvaara saataveen shati E. mein rachit mahaakaavya hai jise sanskrut saahitya mein mahaakaavyon ki 'vruhattrayi' mein sthaan praapt hai. mahaabhaarat mein varnit kiraataveshi Shiv ke saath arjun ke yuddh ki laghu katha ko aadhaar banaakar kavi ne raajaneeti, dharmaneeti, kootaneeti, samaajaneeti, yuddhaneeti, janajeevan aadi ka manoram varnan kiya hai. yeh kaavya vibhinn rason se otaprot hai kintu yeh mukhyat: veer ras pradhaan rachana hai.[1]

sanskrut ke chh: prasiddh mahaakaavya hain – bruhattrayi aur laghutrayi. kiraataarjanuyeeyam‌ (bhaaravi), shishupaalavadham‌ (maagh) aur naishadheeyacharitm‌ (shreeharsh)– bruhattrayi kahalaate hain. kumaarasambhavam‌, raghuvansham aur meghadootam (teenon kaalidaas dvaara rachit) - laghutrayi kahalaate hain.[2]

kiraataarjuneeyam‌ bhaaravi ki ekamaatr upalabdh kruti hai, jisne ek saangopaang mahaakaavya ka maarg prashast kiya. maagh-jaise kaviyon ne usi ka anugaman karte hue sanskrut saahitya bhandaar ko is vidha se samruddh kiya aur ise nai ooainchaai pradaan ki. kaalidaas ki laghutrayi aur ashvaghosh ke buddhacharitm‌ mein mahaakaavya ki jis dhaara ka darshan hota hai, apne vishisht gunon ke hote hue bhi usamein vah vishdata aur samagrata naheen hai, jiska sootrapaat bhaaravi ne kiya. sanskrut mein kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ki kam se kam 37 teekaaeain hui hain, jinmein mallinaath ki teeka ghantaapath sarvashreshth hai. san 1912 mein kaarl kaippalar ne haaravard oriyeintal series ke antargat kiraataarjuneeyam ka jarman anuvaad kiya. angreji mein bhi iske bhinn-bhinn bhaagon ke chh: se adhik anuvaad ho chuke hain.

anukram

keeraataarjuneeyam ki katha

raajaneeti aur vyavahaar-neeti mein bhaaravi ke vishesh rujhaan ke chalte yeh yuktiyukt hi tha ki ve kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ka kathaanak mahaabhaarat se uthaate. unhonne vanaparv ke paaainch adhyaayon se paandavon ke vanavaas ke samay amogh astr ke liye arjun dvaara ki gayi Shiv ki ghor tapasya ke falasvaroop paashupataastr praapt karne ke chhote-se prasang ko uthaakar use athaarah sargon ke is mahaakaavya ka roop de diya.

jab yudhishthir kauravon ke saath sampann dyootakreeda mein sab kuchh haar gaye to unhein apne bhaaiyon evam draupadi ke saath 13 varsh ke vanavaas par jaana pada. unka adhikaansh samay dvaitavan mein beeta. vanavaas ke kashton se khinn hokar aur kauravon dvaara ki gayi saajish ko yaad karke draupadi yudhishthir ko aksar prerit karti theen ki ve yuddh ki taiyaari karein aur yuddh ke maadhyam se kauravon se apna raajapaath vaapas lein. bheem bhi draupadi ki baaton ka paksh lete hain.

guptachar ke roop mein hastinaapur bheje gaye ek vanechar (vanavaasi) se soochana milti hai ki duryodhan apne sammilit raajya ke sarvaangeen vikaas aur sudrudheekaran mein dattachitt hai, kyonki kapat-dyoot se hastagat kiye gaye aadhe raajya ke liye use paandavon se aashanka hai. paandavon ko bhi lagta hai ki vanavaas ki avadhi samaapt hone par unka aadha raajya bina yuddh ke vaapas naheen milega. draupadi aur bheem yudhishthir ko vanavaas ki avadhi samaapt hone ki prateeksha na kar duryodhan par turant aakraman ke liye ukasaate hain, lekin aadarshavaadi, kshamaasheel yudhishthir vyavahaar ki maryaada laaainghane ko taiyaar naheen.

udhar aa nikle vyaas salaah dete hain ki bhavishya ke yuddh ke liye paandavon ko abhi se shakti-sanvardhan karna chaahiye. unheen ke dvaara bataae gaye upaaya ke anusaar arjun shastraastr ke liye indr (apne auras pita) ko tap se prasann karne ke liye ek yaksh ke maargadarshan mein himaalaya-sthit indrakeel parvat ki or chal padte hain. vahaan ek aashram banaakar ki gayi tapasya ke falasvaroop apsaraaon aadi ko bhejkar pareeksha lene ke baad Indra ek vruddh muni ke vesh mein upasthit hote hain aur tapasya ke naashavaan laukik lakshya ko ni:saar bataate hue paramaarth ki mahatta ka nidrshan karte hain. arjun iski kaat mein kauravon dvaara kiye gaye chhal evam anyaaya ka lekha-jokha prastutakar shatru se pratishodh lene ki anivaaryata, saamaajik kartavya-paalan tatha anyaaya ke pratikaar ka tark dekar Indra ko santusht kar dete hain. falasvaroop Indra apne vaastavik roop mein prakat hokar arjun ko manorath-poorti ke liye Shiv ki tapasya karne ki salaah dete hain.

arjun fir se ghor, niraahaar tapasya mein leen ho jaate hain. arjun indrakeel ke liye ek ajnabi tapasvi hai, jata, valkal aur mrugacharm to uske paas hain lekin saath hi shareer mein kavach bhi hai, yajnyaopaveet ki jagah pratyancha-samet gaandeev dhanush hai, do vishaal tarakas hain aur ek uttam khadg bhi. use munidhrm-virodhi samajhakar vahaaain ke anya tapasvi aatankit hain aur shankar ke paas nivedan ke liye pahuainch jaate hain.uske kram mein Shiv ji kiraaton ki sthaaneeya janajaati ke senaapati ka vesh dhaaranakar kiraataveshadhaari apne ganon ki sena lekar arjun ke paas pahuainch jaate hain. tabhi 'mook' naam ka ek daanav arjun ki tapasya ko devataaon ka kaarya samajhakar, vishaal shookar ka shareer dhaaranakar, usako maarane ke liye jhapatata hai. Shiv aur arjun donon dvaara ek saath chalaae gaye ek-jaise baan se us sooar ki ihaleela samaapt ho jaati hai. Shiv ka baan to uske shareer ko bedhata hua dharati mein dhains jaata hai aur arjun jab apna baan uske shareer se nikaalne jaate hain to Shiv apne ek gan ko bhejkar vivaad khada kara dete hain. parinaamat: donon ke beech yuddh aarambh ho jaata hai. arjun ganon ki sena ko to baan-varsha se bhaagane ko majaboor kar dete hain par Shiv ke saath hue yuddh mein paraast ho jaate hain. paraajaya se hataash arjun kiraat-senaapati ke vesh mein Shiv ko pahachaanakar samarpan kar dete hain, jisse prasann hokar Shiv prakat hote hain aur paashupataastr pradaanakar usaka prashikshan dete hain. is tarah arjun ka mantavya poora hone ke saath mahaakaavya-vidha ke bhi saare mantavya siddh ho jaate hain.

neeti

kiraat veshadhaari Shiv ke is lokottar mithk se itar is prasang ki apni ek vishisht janajaateeya abhivyanjana bhi hai, jo is kaavya ko vartamaan bhaavabodh ke kareeb laati hai. yudhishthir aur guptachar bane vanechar ke beech ghatit samvaad mein vanechar ki jo atoot svaamibhkti, adamya nirbheekata aur uchch raajaneetik samajh saamane aati hai, vah vanavaasiyon ke prati bhaaravi ki pakshabharata mein sandeh ki koi gunjaaish naheen chhodti. vanechar shuroo mein hi spasht kar deta hai—

kriyaasu yuktairnrupachaarachakshusho na vanyachaneeya: prabhavoऽnujeevibhi:.
atoऽrhasi kshantumasaadhu saadhu va hitan manohaari ch durlabhan vach:. 1.4.
s kinsakha saadhu na shaasti yoऽdhipan hitaann ya: sanshrrunute s kinprabhu:.
sadaaऽnukooleshu hi kurvate ratin nrupeshvamaatyeshu ch sarvasanpad: .1:5.
(kisi kaarya ke liye niyukt karmachaari dvaara svaami ko dhokha naheen diya jaana chaahiye. astu, main priya ya apriya aapko jo bhi bataaooain, uske liye kshama kareinge. vastut: aisi vaani, jo hitkaari bhi ho aur manohar bhi lage, durlabh hai. vah mantri kaisa jo uchit (kintu apriya laganevaali) salaah na de, aur vah raaja kaisa jo hitkaari (kintu kathor) baat na sun sake. raaja aur mantri mein paraspar anukoolata (poorn vishvaas) hone par hi raajya ke prati sabhi prakaar ki samruddhiyaan anurakt hoti hain.)

is poore prakaran ke aarambh mein draupadi ki baaton ke samarthan mein bheem dvaara yudhishthir ke prati kuchhaek neetivchan kahe gaye hain. unheen mein se ek neeche uddharit hai:

sahasa viddheet na kriyaamavivek: paramaapadaan padam.
vrunute hi vimrushyakaarinan gunalubdhaa: svayamev sampad: .30. (kiraataarjuneeyam, dviteeya sarg)

(kisi kaarya ko bina soche-vichaare anaayaas naheen karna chaahiye. vivekaheenata aapadaaon ka param aashray hai. gunon ki lobhi sanpadaaen achhi prakaar se vichaar karne vaale ka svayamev varan karti hain, arthaat uske paas swayam chali aati hain.)

kaavyasaundarya evam arthagaurav

bhaaravi apne arth-gaurav (gahan bhaav-sampada) ke liye jaane jaate hain—'upama kaalidaasasya bhaaraverarthagauravam‌'. is arth-gaurav se mel khaati ek vidgdh bhaasha aur abhivyakti-kaushal unki sampada hai. raajaneeti aur vyavahaar-neeti sahit jeevan ke vividh aayaamon mein unki asaadhaaran paith hai. aadarsh aur vyavahaar ke dvandv tatha yathaarth jeevan ke atirekon ke samaahaar se arjit santulan unke lekhan ko 'samastalokaranjak' banaata hai. lekin bhaaravi moolat: jeevan ki vidanbanaaon aur visangatiyon ke kavi hain, unka saamana karte hain aur unke khuradure yathaarth ke beech sangati bithaane ka prayaas karte hain. kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ke pehle sarg mein draupadi aur doosare mein bheem dvaara yudhishthir ko duryodhan ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana ke liye ukasaane aur yudhishthir dvaara use aneetipoorn bataakar asveekaar kar dene ke kram mein bhaaravi ne raajaneeti ke do chhoron ke beech ke dvandv par bahut saarthak vimarsh prastut kiya hai. isi tarah gyaarahavein sarg mein moksh ke sthaan par shakti aur prabhuta ke liye kiye ja rahe arjun ke tap ko indr dvaara garhit bataae jaane par, arjun ke pratyuttar ke roop mein bhaaravi ne jeevan-vyavahaar mein anyaaya ke pratikaar, laukik safalta, yash aur aatm-sammaan ke mahatva par jo gambheer vichaar diye hain ve svasth ihalaukik jeevan ka ek santulit aadarsh ka chitr upasthit karte hain.

bhaasha par apne apratim adhikaar ke chalte chitrakaavya ke jis bhaashik chamatkaar (kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ke pandrahavein sarg mein) ki parampara bhaaravi ne shuroo ki, unke baad ke kaviyon ke liye vah kasauti ban gayi aur maagh (shishupaalavadham‌) mein jaakar vah charamotkarsh par pahuainchi.

nimnalikhit panktiyon mein chitraalankaar dekhiye-

na nonanunno nunnono naana naanaanana nanu.
nunnoऽnunno nanunneno naanena nunnanunnanut.
anuvaad : he naana mukh vaale (naanaanan)! vah nishchit hi (nanu) manushya naheen hai jo jo apne se kamjor se bhi paraajit ho jaaya. aur vah bhi manushya naheen hai (na-ana) jo apne se kamjor ko maare (nunnono). jiska neta paraajit na hua ho vah haar jaane ke baad bhi aparaajit hai (nunnoऽnunno). jo poornanat: paraajit ko bhi maar deta hai (nunnanunnanut) vah paaparahit naheen hai (naanena).

isi prakaar nimnalikhit shlok ko dhyaan se dekhiye. ise sarvatobhadr (sabhi taraf se sundar) kehte hain. ismein pehli pankti ko baayein se padhiye ya daayein se- samaan hai. isi tarah sabhi panktiyon ke pratham akshar (maatra sahit) leejiye ya antim akshar leejiye - 'devaakaani milta hai.

devaakaanini kaavaade
vaahikaasvasvakaahi va .
kaakaarebhabhare ka ka
nisvabhavyavyabhasvani .

ek anya shlok dekhiye. ismein mahaayamak alankaar hai. ek hi pad (vikaashameeyurjagateeshamaargana) chaar baar aaya hai kintu arth bhinn-bhinn hain.

vikaashameeyurjagateeshamaargana vikaashameeyurjagateeshamaarganaa: .
vikaashameeyurjagateeshamaargana vikaashameeyurjagateeshamaarganaa: .

sanrachana

keeraataarjuneeyam mein 18 sarg hain.

kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ke pehle sarg mein draupadi aur doosare mein bheem dvaara yudhishthir ko duryodhan ke viruddh yuddh ki ghoshana ke liye ukasaane aur yudhishthir dvaara use aneetipoorn bataakar asveekaar kar dene ke kram mein bhaaravi ne raajaneeti ke do chhoron ke beech ke dvandv par bahut saarthak vimarsh prastut kiya hai. teesare sarg mein vyaas kaurav paksh ke bheeshm, dron, karn-jaise dhurandharon ko paandavon dvaara Ajay bataate hue 13 saal ki avadhi mein har tarah se shakti-sanvardhan karne aur bhavishya ke avashyambhaavi yuddh ki taiyaari ke liye usaka upayog karne ki salaah dete hain. iske liye ve arjun ko uchch koti ke shastraastr hetu tapasya se Indra ko prasann karne ke liye prerit karte hain aur apne saath laae ek yaksh ko bhi chhod jaate hain jo arjun ko Indra ki tapasya ke liye upayukt sthaan tak le jaaega. chauthe sarg mein yaksh ke maargadarshan mein arjun ki dvaitavan se himaalaya tak ki yaatra ka sajeev evam rochak varnan hai, jismein sharad ritu ki thir aur sanyat prakruti aur uske saath ghule-mile jan-jeevan ka ullaas naana roopon mein tarangit hai. paaainchavaaain sarg yaksh ke saath arjun ke yaatra-prasang se giriraaj himaalaya ke parvateeya pradesh ke vishd, alankaarik varnan ki chhata se deept hai.

chhathe sarg ka varnya vishay hai : arjun ki aaainkhon se dekhi indraneel ki apratim shobha, vahaaain pahunchakar arjun dvaara tap ka praarambh, prakruti ke vibhinn upaadaanon ka tap mein sahayog, vahaaain tainaat vanadevon dvaara amaraavati pahahuainchakar indr ko soochit karna, Indra dvaara devaanganaaon ko unke sahachar gandharvon ke saath vahaaain jaakar apne haav-bhaav aur saundarya se arjun ki tapasya mein vighn daalne ka aadesh dena, taaki unki nishtha ki pareeksha ho sake. saatavein sarg mein apsaraaeain tatha unke sahachar gandharv poore ullaas-vilaas ke saath aakaash maarg se vishesh prakaar ke haathiyon aur rathon par savaar Dave ganga ke kinaare-kinaare amaraavati se indrakeel tak ki yaatra karte hain. indrakeel ke paas neeche utarakar ve pruthvi-ganga ke ramya tat par apni maaya se gandharv-nagari jaisa divya shivir bana lete hain. aathavaaain sarg mein apsaraaeain apne shiviron se van-vihaar ke liye niklati hain. yahaaain se shrungaar ras ka rang chadhna shuroo hota hai, jo isi sarg mein varnit jal-kreeda mein gaadha hota hai aur navein sarg mein madya-paan ke saath sampann kaam-keli mein apni paraakaashtha par pahuainch jaata hai. dasavaaain sarg apsaraaon dvaara arjun ka dhyaan kheenchakar use tapasya se chyut karne ke abhiyaan aur usaki asafalata ka hai.

gyaarahavein sarg mein vayovruddh muni ke vesh mein indr ke aagaman aur unke dvaara tapasya ke saansaarik lakshya ki nissaarata ka nidrshan hai jiske pratyuttar mein arjun laukik jeevan ke moolyon, praathamiktaaon ka apna aakhyaan rachate hain. is sarg ke ant mein arjun ke tark se santusht devaraaj apne svaroop mein prakat hokar uske lakshya ke anuroop Shiv ki aaraadhana ka upadesh dete hain. baarahavein sarg mein arjun ghor tapasya aarambh kar dete hain jisse ghabaraakar anya sanyaasi shankar ke paas ja pahunchate hain. shankar kiraat ka vesh dharakar arjun se milte hain. terahavein sarg mein arjun aur kiraat roopadhaari Shiv donon sookar roopadhaari (mook daanav) par teer se aakraman karte hain.

kiraataarjuneeyam‌ ke antim paaainch sarg (14 se 18) apni gan-sena ke saath kiraataveshadhaari Shiv aur arjun ke beech yuddh ko samarpit hain. 15vein sarg mein , jismein yuddh ka yeh charan aata hai, bhaaravi ne chitrakaavya (alankaarik chhand) ka prayogakar mahaakaavya ke daayare ke bheetar ek nai parampara ka sootrapaat kiya hai.

teeka

kiraataarjuneeyam samaalochakon ko atipriya hai. is par 42 se adhik teekaaeain hain.

sandarbh

  1. Amaresh Datta, ed. (2006), The Encyclopaedia Of Indian Literature Volume One (A To Devo), Sahitya Akademi, p. 462, ISBN 978-81-260-1803-1
  2. Har 1983, p. iii

inhein bhi dekhein

  • vruhattrayi
  • paashupataastr

baahari kadiyaaain