kilimanjaaro

Kilimanjaro

Kibo Summit of Kilimanjaro
ooainchaai 5,895 mi (19,341 fut)[1]
udagrata 5,882 mi (19,298 fut) Ranked 4th
soocheeyan Seven Summits
Volcanic Seven Summits
Country highest point
Ultra
Prominence
sthiti
Kilimanjaro is located in Tanzania
Kilimanjaro
Tanzania
nirdeshaank 3°a4′a33″aS 37°a21′a12″aE / 3.07583°aS 37.35333°aE / -3.07583; 37.35333Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 3°a4′a33″aS 37°a21′a12″aE / 3.07583°aS 37.35333°aE / -3.07583; 37.35333{{#coordinates:}}: cannot have more than one primary tag per page
sthal naksha Kilimanjaro map and guide by Wielochowski[2]
bhoovijnyaaan
prakaar Stratovolcano
pichhla visfot None in recorded history
aarohan
saralatam maarg Hike

kilimanjaaro, apne teen jvaalaamukheeya shanku, kibo, mavenji, aur shira ke saath poorvottar tanjaaniya mein ek nishkriya straitojvaalaamukhi hai aur Africa ka uchchatam parvat hai jiski oonchaai samudra tal se 5,895 meter ya 19,341 fut hai (uharoo shikhar / kibo shikhar).[3] kilimanjaaro parvat duniya ka sabse ooncha mukt-khada parvat hai aur saath hi saath vishv ka chautha sabse ubhara parvat hai jo aadhaar se 5,882 meter ya 19,298 fut ooncha hai.

anukram

naam

kilimanjaaro naam ka sateek arth aur utpatti agyaat hai. maana jaata hai ki yeh svaahili shabd kilima (arth "pahaad") aur kichaaga shabd jaaro, jiska anuvaad "safedi" hai ka ek sanyojan hai, jisse vhaait maaunten naam ki utpatti hui. ek aur maanyata hai ki chaaga/kichaaga mein "jaaro" ka arth hai 'hamaara' aur isliye kilimanjaaro ka matlab hai hamaara pahaad. yeh chaaga vaasiyon se liya gaya hai jo is pahaad ki talahati mein rahate hain.

yeh agyaat hai ki kilimanjaaro naam kahaan se aaya hai, lekin kai siddhaant maujood hain. Europeeya khojakartaaon ne 1860 tak is naam ko apna liya tha aur bataaya ki yeh iska svaahili naam tha,[4] aur kilimanjaaro ko do bhaagon mein khandit kiya jaata hai, ek hai kilima ("pahaadi, chhota pahaad" ke liye svaahili shabd) aur doosra jaaro[5] jiska mool, siddhaanton ke anusaar badalta rahata hai - kuchh logon ke anusaar yeh praacheen svaahili shabd hai jiska arth safed ya chamak hai,[6] ya gair-svaahili mool ke anusaar yeh kichaaga bhaasha se aaya hai, shabd jaaro ka arth hai "kaaravaan". in sabhi ke saath samasya yeh hai ki ve is baat ki vyaakhya naheen kar sakte hain ki kyon pahaad ke liye uchit shabd milima ke bajaay alpaarthak kilima shabd ka upayog kiya gaya hai. yeh naam ek sthaaneeya hansi-majaak ka hissa ho sakta hai, jo "jaaro ki chhoti pahaadi" ko afreeki mahaadveep ka sabse bada pahaad sandarbhit karta hai, kyonki yeh paas ka shahar hai aur guide bataate hain ki yeh jaaro logon ki pahaadi hai. ek alag drushtikon ke tahat yeh maana jaata hai ki yeh kichaaga kilmanaare ya kiliajaao se aaya hai jiska arth hai "jo pakshiyon/teindue/kaaravaan ko paraajit karta hai". lekin is siddhaant se is tathya ki vyaakhya naheen hoti ki kichaaga mein kilimanjaaro ka 19veen sadi ke madhya mein Europe mein isse pehle prayog naheen kiya gaya tha.[4]

1880 ke dashak mein, yeh parvat, jiski jarman vartani svaahili naam ke ghatakon ke anusaar us samay Kilima-Ndscharo thi, jarman poorv Africa ka ek hissa ban gaya jab kaarl peetars ne sthaaneeya mukhiyaaon ko sandhiyon par hastaakshar karne ke liye manaaya (ek aam kahaani ki mahaaraani Victoria ne is parvat ko apne pautr kaisar vilhem dviteeya ko diya tha sahi naheen hai).[7] 1889 mein kibo shikhar ka naam haans maayer dvaara "kaisar-vilhem-spitje" ("kaisar vilhem shikhar") rakha gaya, jab is shikhar par 5 October 1889 ko pehli baar chadhaai ki gayi.[4] is naam ka prayog 1918 tak kiya gaya, jab pratham vishv yuddh ke baad jarman upaniveshon ko british saamraajya ko de diya gaya. jab british prashaasit tangaanyika ko 1961 mein apni svatantrata praapt hui, to is shikhar ka naam "uhuroo shikhar" rakha gaya, jiska svaahili mein arth hota hai "svatantrata shikhar".

jarman poorvi Africa mein "kilima-jaaro" ke saath aitihaasik maanachitr, 1888

svaahili mein ki-upasarg ke kai antarnihit arth hain. praacheen ka-alpaarthak sanjnyaa upasarg ko (jise ab sirf kadogo ke roop mein hi paaya jaata hai - kuchh had tak), ki varg ke saath vilay kar diya gaya. iska ek anya arth hai jiske tahat yeh kisi bhi adviteeya cheej ka varnan karta hai: kilima, ek ekal shikhar, jo milima ke vipreet hai aur jo ek parvat shrrunkhala ya asamatal desh ka adhik varnan karta hai. kai anya parvaton mein bhi yeh upasarg laga hua hai, jaise ki kilima bogo (bhains parvat) jo kenya mein nairobi ke bilkul uttar mein sthit hai. viklaang logon ko bhi isi shreni mein rakha jaata hai, jo utana alpaarthak vichaar naheen hai; balki ek adviteeya sthiti jismein ve hain: ek andha ya bahara vyakti, kipofu aur kijivi . yeh upasarg "ki-" kisi bhi tarah se apamaanajanak arth naheen darshaata hai. kichaaga mein kibo naam ka arth hai "dhabbedaar" jo barfeele maidaanon mein dikhne waali chattaanon ko sandarbhit karta hai.

bhoovijnyaaan

kilimanjaaro parvat Africa ka sabse ooncha parvat hai aur saat shikharon mein chautha sabse ooncha hai. yeh duniya mein sabse lamba mukt-khada pahaad hai, jiska uhuroo shikhar 5,895 mi (19,341 fut) AMSL (ausat samudra tal se oopar) hai.

kilimanjaaro ki rachana teen alag-alag jvaalaamukheeya shankuon se hui hai: kibo 5,895 mi (19,341 fut); mavenji 5,149 mi (16,893 fut) aur shira 3,962 mi (13,000 fut). uhuroo shikhar, kibo ke jvaalaamukhi vivr par sarvochch shikhar hai.

kilimanjaaro ek vishaal straitojvaalaamukhi hai jo kareeb ek meeliyn saal pehle gathit hona shuroo hua tha, jab laava rift ghaati se bahana shuroo hua. iski teen chotiyon mein se do, mavenji aur shira vilupt hain jabki kibo (sabse oonchi choti) nishkriya hai aur fir se foot sakti hai. pichhla pramukh visfot 360000 saal pehle dinaankit kiya gaya hai, jabki sabse haal ki gatividhi ko sirf 200 saal pehle darj kiya gaya.

haalaanki yeh nishkriya hai, kilimanjaaro mein dhoomrachhidr hain jo kibo ke mukhya shikhar par vivr mein gas utsarjit karte hain. vaigyaaniko ne 2003 mein nishkarsh nikaala ki pighla hua maigma shikhar ke vivr ke bas 400 mi (1,310 fut) neeche hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] ateet mein kibo par kai bhooskhalan aur vikhandan hue hain, jisse ek baar western breech ka nirmaan hua.

aakaash se dekha gaya kilimanjaaro parvat

maanachitran

kilimanjaaro ke aarambhik nakshe ko 1963 mein british sarkaar ke pravaasi sarvekshan nideshaalaya (DOS 422 Y742) dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya. ye havaai fotograafi par aadhaarit the jinhein aaraeef dvaara 1959 mein kiya gaya tha. ye 1:50,000 ke paimaane par the aur inki samochch rekha 100 foot ke antaraal par thi. ye ab upalabdh naheen hai. paryatak maanachitran ko pehli baar England mein 1989 mein aayudh sarvekshan dvaara prakaashit kiya gaya jo mool DOS maanachitran par aadhaarit tha (1:100,000, 100 foot antaraal, DOS 522). yeh ab upalabdh naheen hai. EWP ne 1990 mein paryatak soochana ke saath ek naksha nirmit kiya (1:75,000, 100 meter samochch antaraal, 1:20,000 aur 1:30,000 paimaane par kramash: kibo aur mavenji ka inaset maanachitr aur 50 meter samochch antaraal). pichhle kuchh varshon mein, kai anya gunon vaale vibhinn maanachitr upalabdh ho gaye hain.[2]

3di root maanachitr.[8]

kilimanjaaro ke oopar treking maarg

vahaan chhah[9] aadhikaarik chadhaai maarg[10] hain jisse kilimanjaaro parvat par chadhaai ki ja sakti hai, unke naam hain: maraangu, rongai, lemosho,[11] shira, umbve aur machaame. sabhi maargon mein, machaame[12] kaafi manoram hai, haalaanki pahaad par iski chadhaai kaafi khadi hai, jise chhah ya saat dinon mein poora kiya ja sakta hai.[13] rongaai sabse aasaan shivir maarg hai aur maraangu bhi apekshaakrut aasaan hai, lekin aavaas jhopadiyon mein hota hai. parinaamasvaroop, yeh maarg bahut vyast ho jaata hai aur chadhne aur utarane ka maarg samaan hai.

maachaame maarg par saavadhaani ki soochana
chitr:UhuruPeak.jpg
uharoo shikhar par chinh, parvataarohiyon ko yeh sanket dete hue ki ve sheersh par pahunch gaye hain.

jo log kilimanjaaro par chadhaai karna chaahate hain unhein upayukt shodh karne ki salaah di jaati hai[14] aur yeh sunishchit karne ke liye kaha jaata hai ki ve uchit roop se lais hain aur shaareerik roop se saksham hain. haalaanki yeh chadhaai takaneeki roop se utani chunauteepoorn naheen hai jitni himaalaya ke shikhar ki chadhaai karna, fir bhi unchaai, nimn taapamaan aur saamayik tej havaaen ise ek kathin aur khatarnaak chadhaai bana deti hain. jalavaayu-anukoolan jaroori hai aur iske baad bhi sabse anubhavi parvataarohi bhi tungata bimaari se kuchh had tak peedit hote hain.[15] kilimanjaaro shikhar itna ooncha hai ki us oonchaai par uchch tungata fuffuseeya shof (HAPE), ya uchch tungata pramastishk shof ghatit ho sakta hai.[16] sabhi parvataarohi kaafi asuvidha ka anubhav karte hain, aamtaur par shvaas alpata, haaipotharmiya aur sir dard aur yadyapi adhikaansh yuva, svasth log uhuroo shikhar par pahunch jaate hain, chadhaai karne vaale logon mein se adhikaansh kam oonchaai par hi ruk jaate hain.

kilimanjaaro par "fatah" karne vaale pratham Europeeya ke roop mein haans maayer ki yaad mein sthaapit smaarak.

uchch oonchaai par chadhaai karne vaale clubon ne, parvat par bitaae jaane vaale pratyek din ke liye shulk vasool kiye jaane par tanjaaniya ke adhikaariyon ki aalochna ki hai. isse parvataarohi samay aur paisa bachaane ke liye teji se chadhaai karne ke liye protsaahit honge, jabki uchit jalavaayu-anukoolan ki maang hai ki kisi bhi uchch chadhaai karne ke liye deri ko apnaaya jaata hai.

pahaad ke aas-paas tanjaaniyaai chikitsa sevaaon ne haal hi mein paryatakon ki badhti aamad par chinta vyakt ki hai[kab?] jo kilimanjaaro ko jaahira taur par ek aasaan chadhaai samajhte hain. haalaanki, maamala yeh naheen hai. kai vyaktiyon ko apne prayaas ke dauraan mahatvapoorn dhyaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai aur kai ko to majabooran apni chadhaai ko tyaagana padta hai. is maamale mein ek jaanch ne nishkarsh nikaala hai ki tanjaaniya jaane vaale paryatakon ko aksar chadhaai karne vaale samoohon mein shaamil hone ke liye protsaahit kiya jaata hai bina yeh bataae ki iske liye shaareerik svasthata ki anivaaryata kitni mahatvapoorn hai, haalaanki kai saamagri vikreta aur tour oparetar shikhar tak pahunchane ki uchch safalta dar ka dikhaava karte hain. kilimanjaaro raashtreeya udyaan se pata chalta hai ki parvataarohiyon ka keval 30% vaastav mein uharoo shikhar par pahunchata hai jabki adhikaansh parvataarohi uharoo se 300 meter neeche, gilman point par ya uhuroo se 200 meter neeche staila point se vaapas aa jaate hain. kilimanjaaro ko aksar kam aanka jaata hai kyonki yeh ek takaneeki chadhaai naheen hai. haalaanki, kai parvataarohi kilimanjaaro ko shaareerik roop se bahut hi kathin chadhaai maanate hain.

kuchh logon ka anumaan hai ki mount evarest ki tulana mein kilimanjaaro par chadhaai karte samay adhik logon ne apni jaan ganvaai hai jabki evarest par apekshaakrut bahut kam parvataarohiyon ne chadhaai ka prayaas kiya hai [sandarbh?]. August 2007 mein ek hi saptaah ke bheetar chaar parvataarohiyon ki mrutyu ho gayi aur is ghatna ne is baat ko aur siddh kiya ki chadhaai ko laaparavaahi se naheen liya jaana chaahiye. kai log (parvataarohi, bhaarik aur guide) pratyek varsh pahaad par mar jaate hain. in mrutakon mein adhikaansh bhaarik hote hain jo haaipotharmiya se maare jaate hain. parvataarohi pahaad ki khadi dhaalon se gir jaate hain aur chattaanon ki skhalan ne bhi parvataarohiyon ki jaan li hai. is kaaran se, ero gleshiyr se gujarane vaale maarg ko kai varshon ke liye band kar diya gaya tha. ise haal hi mein[kab?] fir se khola gaya hai, lekin park ke adhikaari us maarg ko na apnaane ki salaah dete hain aur parvataarohiyon se kehte hain ki ve apni jimmedaari se us par chadhaai kar sakte hain. ero gleshiyr maarg par chadhaai karne ke liye, parvataarohiyon ko subah tadke hi nikal jaana chaahiye aur chattaani satah ko madhya dopahar se pehle paar kar lena chaahiye kyonki jab sooraj nikal aata hai, to gair-himaachhaadit chattaani skhalan kaafi aam ho jaati hai.

adviteeya vanaspati

aakaash dweep hone ke naate, kilimanjaaro mein kai sthaanik prajaatiyaan pai jaati hain, jismein shaamil hain tasauk charaagaah mein vishaal ground sel (dendrosenesiyo) aur alpaain jalavaayu mein anukoolit anya paudhe.

kilimanjaaro mein jangali prakaar ki vanaspati ki ek badi vividhta pai jaati hai jo 3,000 mi (9,843 fut) ki oonchaai seema se oopar pai jaati hai, jahaan 1,200 se adhik sanvahani vruksh prajaatiyaan maujood hain. parvateeya osoti jungle dakshini naam dhaal par hote hain. kaisiporiya aur juniperas van shushk uttari dhalaan par ugate hain. 4,100 mi (13,451 fut) par sabaelpaain erika van, Africa mein sarvochch oonchaai vaale aakaash van ka pratinidhitv karte hain. is bruhad jaiv vividhta ke vipreet, sthaanikta ka star kam hai. haalaanki, kheti vaale nichle kshetron ki gahari ghaatiyon mein van avashesh sujhaav dete hain ki ateet mein kilimanjaaro par ek samruddh jangali vanaspatiyon ka failaav tha, jahaan seemit kshetr waali prajaatiyaan pai jaati theen jinhein anyatha keval istarn aark pahaadon par dekha gaya hai. kilimanjaaro par sthaanikta ke nimn star ka kaaran kam oonchaai vaale jangalon ka vinaash ho sakta hai, na ki pahaad ki apekshaakrut kam aayu. kilimanjaaro ke jangalon ki ek anya visheshata hai baans kshetr ki kami, jo poorvi Africa ke samaan uchch varsha vaale anya sabhi oonche pahaadon par maujood hoti hai. sinrundineriya alpina ko bhains aur haathiyon dvaara pasand kiya jaata hai. kilimanjaaro par ye mahaashaakaahaari uttari dhalaan par paae jaate hain, jahaan lambe baans ke kshetr ke liye yeh kshetr shushk hai. unhein, nam dakshini dhaal van se sthalaakruti aur manushyon ke maamale mein baahar rakha gaya hai, jinhonne talahati mein kam se kam 2000 saal se kheti ki hai. jaivik aur ajaivik kaarakon ki yeh paraspar kriya na keval kilimanjaaro par baans kshetr ki kami ko samjha sakti hai balki vividhta ki paddhati aur sthaanikta ke liye sambhav spashteekaran pradaan kar sakti hai. agar sahi hai to kilimanjaaro ke jungle, afreeki sthalaakruti par jaanvaron aur manushyon, donon ke astitv ke vistrut aur deerghakaalik prabhaav ka ek spasht udaaharan pesh karte hain.

kilimanjaaro vanaspati chitr deergha.[17]

bhautik visheshataaen

moshi shahar, kilimanjaaro kshetr se dekha gaya kilimanjaaro parvat

kilimanjaaro apne aadhaar se uthata hai aur moshi ke najdeek maidaanon se lagbhag 5,100 mi (16,732 fut).

kibo bhi lagbhag ek samamit shanku se chhaaya hua hai jiski khaai dakshin ki or 180 se lekar 200 meter tak nikli hai. ye kagaar ek 2.5 kimi chaude kaaldera ko paribhaashit karte hain.[18] is kaaldera ke bheetar ek aantarik kretar hai, rauyash kretar. is aantarik kretar ka naam dau॰ richrd rauyash ke naam par rakha gaya. is naam ko tangaanyika sarkaar dvaara 1954 mein diya gaya aur usi samay sarkaar ne rauyash ko kilmanjaro par 25veen baar chadhne ke liye ek svarn padak se sammaanit kiya. rauyash ne kilimanjaaro par 65 baar chadhaai ki aur kretar ki sateek oonchaai sthaapit karne mein madad ki.[19][20] rauyash kretar ke bheetar aish pit sthit hai. khud rauyash kretar jvaalaamukhi raakh ke lagbhag 400 fut (120 mi) oonche tibbe se ghira hai.[21]

1880 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein kibo shikhar poori tarah barf se dhaka hua tha jahaan se muhaane ka himnad pashchimi aur dakshini dhalaanon se girta hai aur aatanrik shanku ke alaava, poora kaaldera dafan tha. himnad barf, western breech ke maadhyam se bhi bahti hai.[22]

uttari barf ke maidaan se liye gaye barf ke parikshan se sanket milta hai ki "kilimanjaaro ke him" (urf gleshiyr) ki aadhaar umr 11,700 varsh ki hai.[23][24] him ka ek satat failaav jo kareeb 400 varg kilometer par faila hua hai, usane is parvat ko himaachhaadan ki adhiktam avadhi ke dauraan dhake rakha aur jo mavenji aur kibo shikhar tak vistaarit tha.[25]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kilimanjaaro kshetr
  • furtaveinglar gleshiyr
  • tanjaaniya mein jvaalaamukhi ki soochi
  • mount kenya - ek vinsht straitojvaalaamukhi kenya mein 200 meal (322 kimi) uttar.
  • rebamaan gleshiyr

sandarbh

  1. "Kilimajaro Guide - Kilimanjaro 2010 Precise Height Measurement Expedition". http://www.mountkilimanjaroguide.com/kilimanjaro-height.html. abhigman tithi: 16 May 2009.
  2. a aa EWP (2009). Kilimanjaro Map and tourist Guide [map], 4th edition, 1:75,000 with 1:20,000 and 1:30,000 insets, EWP Map Guides. Cartography by EWP. ISBN 0-906227-66-6.
  3. the Kilimanjaro 2008 Precise Height Measurement Expedition. "Precise Determination of the Orthometric Height of Mt. Kilimanjaro". http://www.fig.net/pub/fig2009/papers/ts08c/ts08c_fernandes_teamkili2008_3438.pdf. abhigman tithi: May 12, 2009.
  4. a aa i hachinsan, J.A.: kilimanjaaro ka matlab
  5. "kilima-jaaro" (1907 mein vaikalpik naam), the nutaal enasaaiklopeediya, 1907, FromOldBooks.com, 2006, vebapej: FOB-Njaro .
  6. "SRTM tanjaaniya imejej" (kilimanjaaro ya kilima jaaro varnan), naasa, 28 August 2005, vebapej: naasa-tanjaaniya .
  7. brigs, Phillip (1996): "tanjaaniya ki guide; 2 sanskaran." braid gaaids.
  8. 3 di maanachitr
  9. kilimanjaaro maarg sinhaavalokan
  10. "Kilimanjaro routes". http://www.kilimanjaroroutes.com/.
  11. "3 Dimensional Lemosho Route Map". http://www.climbkili.com/3d-routes/9-day-lemosho/.
  12. "3 Dimensional Machame Route Map". http://www.climbkili.com/3d-routes/7-day-machame/.
  13. R. Stoppelenburg. "Climbing Kilimanjaro on the Machame Route". http://www.expeditiekilimanjaro.nl/route.php.
  14. R. Stoppelenburg. "Prepare yourself for the Kilimanjaro climb". http://www.expeditionkilimanjaro.com/preparation.php.
  15. Muza, SR; Fulco, CS; Cymerman, A (2004). "Altitude Acclimatization Guide.". US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report (USARIEM-TN-04-05). http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/7616. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-05.
  16. Cymerman, A; Rock, PB. Medical Problems in High Mountain Environments. A Handbook for Medical Officers. USARIEM-TN94-2. US Army Research Inst. of Environmental Medicine Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division Technical Report. http://archive.rubicon-foundation.org/7976. abhigman tithi: 2009-03-05.
  17. kilimanjaaro vanaspati chitr deergha
  18. madhya-poorv aur Africa ke gleshiyr - Africa ke himnad. James eti yang, stefan haastenaraath. USGS vyaavasaayik paape 1386-G 3. G58 prushth http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386g/africa.pdf
  19. http://www.richardreusch.com/testimonials.php
  20. the power of parapas: faaind meening, leev laungar. richrd J laaidar. prushth 13.
  21. on thin aais. mark boven. 2005. ISBN 0-8050-6443-5 . pej 342. kilmanjaro parvat ka anveshan. naksha.
  22. madhya-poorv aur Africa ke himnad - Africa ke himnad. James eti yang, stefan haastenaraath. USGS vyaavasaayik paape 1386-G 3. prushth G61, G62 http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386g/africa.pdf
  23. on thin aais. mark boven. 2005. ISBN 0-8050-6443-5. pej 380.
  24. kilimanjaaro aais kor rikaard: ushnakatibandheeya Africa mein holoseen jalavaayu parivartan ke saakshya. vigyaan. khand 298. 18 202 October. 592 pej. http://www.geo.umass.edu/climate/doug/pubs/thompson_etal_sci02.pdf
  25. madhya-poorv aur Africa ke himnad - Africa ke himnad. James eti yang, stefan haastenaraath. USGS vyaavasaayik paape 1386-ji 3. prushth G59 http://pubs.usgs.gov/pp/p1386g/africa.pdf

atirikt pathan

  • J.A. hachinsan, "the meening of kilimanjaaro", tangaanyika nots aur rikaurds, 64 (1965), 65-67

baahya kadiyaan