kila

Rajasthan ke kumbhalagadh ka kila - yeh Asia ke sabse bade kilon mein se ek hai.

shatru se suraksha ke liye banaae jaanevaale vaastu ka naam kila ya durg hai. inhein 'gadh' aur 'kot' bhi kehte hain. durg, patthar aadi ki chaudi deevaalon se ghira hua vah sthaan hai jiske bheetar raaja, sardaar aur sena ke sipaahi aadi rahate hai. nagaron, sainik chhaavaniyon aur raajapraasaadon suraksha ke liye kilon ke nirmaan ki parampara ati praacheen kaal se chali aa rahi hai. aadhunik yug mein yuddh ke saadhanon aur ran-kaushal mein vruddhi tatha parivartan ho jaane ke kaaran kilon ka mahatva samaapt ho gaya hai aur inki koi aavashakata naheen rahi.

anukram

parichay evam itihaas

vaidikkaaleen saahitya mein puron ka jis roop mein ullekh hai usase gyaat hota hai ki un dinon durg se ghiri bastiyaaain hua karti theen.

rigved tak mein durg ka ullekh hai. dasyuon ke 96 durgon ko Indra ne dhvast kiya tha. manu ne chhah prakaar ke durg likhe hain-

  • (1) dhanudurg, jiske chaaron or nirjal pradesh ho,
  • (2) maheedurg, jiske chaaro or tedhi medhi jameen ho,
  • (3) jaladurg (abdurg), jiske chaaron or jal ho,
  • (4) vruksh durg, jiske chaaro or ghane bruksh hon,
  • (5) naradurg jiske chaaron or sena ho aur
  • (6) giridurg, jiske chaaron or pahaad ho ya jo pahaad par ho.

mahaabhaarat mein yudhishthir ne jab bheem se poochha hai ki raaja ko kaise pur mein rahana chaahiye tab bheeshm ji ne ye hi chhah prakaar ke durg ginaae hain aur kaha hai ki pur aise hi durgon ke beech mein hona chaahiye. manusmruti aur mahaabhaarat donon mein kosh, sena, astr, shilpi, braahman, vaahan, trun, jalaashaya ann ityaadi ka durg ke bheetar rahana aavashyak kaha gaaya hai. agnipuraan, kalkipuraan aadi mein bhi durgon ke uparyukt chhah bhed batalaae gaye hain.

puraataatvik utkhanan se mohanajodado, hadppa, roopad aadi pura-aitihaasik nagaron ke jo avashesh prakaash mein aae hain unase gyaat hota hain ki un dinon nagaron ke do khand hote the; ek khand ooainche praacheeron se ghira hota tha. aitihaasik kaal ke kile ke praacheenatam avashesh raajagruh mein pattharon se bane praacheer ke roop mein praapt hue hain. paataliputr ke kile ke jo kuchh thode se chinh mile hain, unase aisa jaan padta hain ki praacheeron ke nirmaan mein lakdi ka prayog kiya gaya tha. mauryakaal mein megaasthaneej naamak jo yavan raajadoot aaya tha usane is kile ka vishd varnan kiya hain. usane likha hai ki paataliputr nagar nau meal lamba aur lagbhag do meal chauda hai jo chaaron or 600 haath chaudi aur 30 haath gahari khaaainin se ghira hai. iske chaaron or kaath ki sudrudh deevaar banaai gayi hai jismein 500 burj hain aur 64 majaboot faatak lage hain. kaushaanbi ke utkhanan mein kile ki deevaar ke jo anshaprakaash mein aae hain, ve pakki iton se jade hue hain. raajaghaat (Varanasi) ke utkhanan mein ganga ke kinaare kachchi mitti ke thos praacheer ke ansh prakaash mein aae the. kintu in sabse praacheen kilon ka poorn svaroop saamane naheen aata. eran (jila saagar, madhya pradesh) mein, jo gupt kaal mein ek prasiddh nagar tha, kaafi door tak durg ke avashesh mile hain. unke adhyayan se gyaat hota hai ki us nagar ko is prakaar basaaya gaya tha ki nadiyaaain khaain ka kaam dein. teen or se vah veena nadi se ghira hua tha, chauthi or do anya chhoti nadiyaaain theen, jo nagar ke pashchimi bhaag mein bahti theen aur chauthi or veena nadi mein girti theen. nadiyon dvaara bane is praakrutik khaai ke bheetar durg ka praacheer tha jo kadaachit‌ ekdam khadi deevaaron se bana tha aur unamein ooainchi gol burjiyaaain rahi hogi.

kautilya ke arthashaastr ke anusaar chhote kilon ko sangrahan, unase bade ko dronamukh aur sabse bade kilon ke do roop bataae gaye hain-

(1) akrutrim, arthaat‌ jal, parvat, van aadi se surakshit aur
(2) krutrim, itan patthar aadi se bane.

shilpashaastr ke anya granthon mein inka vistrut roop mein nimnalikhit samoohon mein vibhaajan kiya gaya hai-

1. parvateeya durg - nagaradurg (k) praatanr (kh) girismeepak tatha (g) guhaadurg
2. jaladurg (k) antardveepeeya (kh) sthaladurg
3. dhaanvanadurg (k) niroodak (kh) airan
4. vanadurg (k) khaajan (kh) stanb gahan
5. maheedurg (k) paaridh (kh) pank tatha (g) mruddurg
6. nrudurg (k) sainyadurg (kh) sahaayadurg
7. mishradurg - (parvatavanya)
8. daivadurg

madhyakaal

Bhaarat ke madhyakaaleen kilon ke sambandh mein baatein kuchh adhik vistaar se gyaat hoti hain. saamaanyat: kilon ki deevaarein badi chaudi tatha ooainchi banaai jaati theen jinmein beech mein ooainchi burje tatha vishaal faatak hote the. is kaal ke chhoti-chhoti pahaadiyon par banaae gaye kile bahut badi sankhya mein paae jaate hain. Rajasthan tatha dakshini Bhaarat ke kile praaya: pahaadiyon par hi banaae gaye hain aur kuchh kile meelon ki paridhi mein bane hain, jo kile pahaadiyon par bane hain unamein dohari-teehari chahaaradeevaariyaaain hain. sabse ooainchi chahaaradeevaari ke bheetar mukhya durg hota tha. praaya: kilon ki paridhi mein nagar tatha mukhya durg donon hi rahate the. mukhya durg ke ek or ooainchi pahaadi ya nadi ka kinaara hota tha. durganirmaan karaate samay un maargon ki raksha par vishesh dhyaan diya jaata tha jinse hokar shatru kile mein aa sakte the ya aakraman kar sakte the. saamaanya roop se kile ke nirmaan ke liye kisi ooainchi pahaadi ko chuna jaata tha jiski dhaaloo chattaanon par pahuainchana kathin hota tha. jis or se shatru ke chadh aane ki aashanka hoti thi us or ki chattaanon ko kaatkar aisa dhalavaaain maarg bana diya jaata tha jisse ek hi deevaar dvaara usaki raksha ho jaati thi aur doosari pahaadi bilkul seedhi aur khadi hoti thi. kaheen-kaheen in dhalavaaain maargon mein chaar se lekar saat tak drudh dwaar bane hote the. kilon ki baahari deevaar samatal bhoomi par banaai jaati theen, jisko chaudi aur gahari deevaar ki raksha khaaiyon dvaara surakshit kiya jaata tha. yadi kila nadi ke kinaare sthit hota to ek or se nadi uske raksha karti theen aur shesh aur khaaiyaaain. khaaiyaaain uthavaaain pul dvaara paar ki jaati thi, jaisa aagare ke kile mein hai. yadi kila pahaadi par hota tha to usaki baahari deevaaron ki raksha bhi isi prakaar hoti thi, jaisi jinji tatha golakunda mein hain. daulataabaad ke mukhya kile ke pravesh dwaar ki raksha gahari khaaiyon dvaara ki jaati thi jinmein sadaiv paani bhara rahata tha. beedar mein nagar ke chaaron or khaaiyon ke atirikt kilon ke rakshaarth tehari jaladaar khaaiyaaain banaai gayi theen. kuchh kilon ki deevaaron ki motaai 31 se 35 feet tak hai, visheshakar un deevaaron ki jo samatal bhoomi par banaai gayi hain. pahaadi kilon mein pahaadi ko dhalavaaain bana diya jaata tha. ye deevaarein andar tatha baahar ki or patthar ke bade-bade tukadon se banaai jaati thi aur in donon ke beech maarg praaya: mitti se bhar diya jaata tha. kuchh kilon mein dohari deevaarein rakhi gayi theen jinke beech bahut kam doori hai aur andaravaali deevaar se kaafi ooainchi hai, jaisa golakunda tatha tugalakaabaad aur Agra ke kilon mein hai. deevaar ko garagajon ya burjon dvaara aur bhi drudh bana diya jaata tha.

kile ki raksha morcha bandeevaali deevaaron se hoti thi. inmein praaya: aakaar mein saadhe teen inch chaude teen foot ooainche samaanaantar jharokhe hote the. chittaud ke kile mein ye jharokhe 3.5 inch chaude tatha 3 foot ooainche aur tugalakaabaad ke kile mein 6 inch chaude tatha 6 foot ooainche hain. Delhi ke puraane kile mein jharokhon ki teen aur tugalakaabaad mein chaar panktiyaaain hain. praaya: kilon mein chhaati tak ooainche parakote itan dvaara pun: nirmit hue hain jinmein se bahut se oopar ki or vargaakaar hai jinhein sambhavat: goli barasaane ke uddeshya se banaaya gaya hoga. Bijapur, fatahapur seekari tatha Agra jaise kuchh kilon mein jharokhon ke baahari bhaag mein goli chalaane ke liye sainikon raksha ke hetu patthar ki chhatariyaaain bani hui hain.

drudhta ki drushti se kile ke faatakon mein bhi vibhinnata dikhaai deti hain, yadyapi ye praaya: bade, bhaari bharakam evam drudh banaae jaate the. kuchh kilon mein teen-teen faatakon ki vyavastha ki gayi hai jinke madhya aaaingan bhi hain, jaise jinji tatha daulataabaad mein. daulataabaad ke kile mein teenon dvaaron mein se sabse baahari dwaar mein do darvaaje hain, ek to pravesh ke sthaan par aur doosra aaaingan mein khulata hai aur in donon ke beech ka sthaan meharaabadaar maarg ban jaata hai.

kilon ke darvaaje bhaari tatha drudh lakdi ke banaae jaate the jo 6 inch tak mote hote the. peechhe ki or lakdi ke majaboot belanon dvaara darvaaje ko aur bhi drudh bana diya jaata tha. baahar ki or in lakdi ke dvaaron par praaya: dhaatu ki nukeeli mekhein, jo vibhinn aakaar ki tatha 3 inch se 13 inch tak lambi hoti theen, lagaai jaati theen, taaki haathi takkar maar maarkar dwaar tod na daalein. darvaaje ke ek pat par ek khidki bhi laga di jaati theen jo aakaar mein 3 foot chaudi tatha 4 foot ooainchi hoti theen. is khidki mein bhi nukeeli mekhein thonk di jaati theen. darvaaja band karne ke baad ek bhaari moosali is or se us or tak han di jaati theen jisse dwaar bilkul na hil sakein. Bijapur ke kile ke shaahapur dwaar mein tatha ahamadanagar ke kile mein bhi yahi vyavastha thi. kile ke avarodh ke samay darvaaje ke samaksh ek bhaari janjeer is sire se us sire tak daal di jaati thi. durgon mein jal tatha khaadya saamagri ka paryaapt prabandh hota tha. thos chattaanon ka kaatkar bade bade jalakund bhi bana diye jaate the taaki varshaakaal mein paani ekatr ho jaae aur aakraman ke samay kile ke nivaasiyon ko paani ki koi kami na ho. jeevan ki sabhi suvidhaaeain in kilon mein upalabdh rahati theen aur se kile chhote-mote sundar nagar ka roop dhaaran kiye rahate the.

East India company ne Europeeya aur bhaarateeya kilon ke mishrit roop ke kile Madras aur Calcutta mein banavaae the.

anya deshon mein

Bhaarat ke baahar anyatr kile ka itihaas adhik praacheen naheen hai. vahaaain kile ka praacheenatam aur vishaal roop cheen ki deevaar ke roop mein dekhne mein aata hai. isa se lagbhag dhaai sau varsh poorv chin vansh ke samraat shih-haang-tsi ne cheen desh ki seema par chaaron or ek atyant vishaal, lambi, chaudi aur majaboot praacheer ka nirmaan aarambh karaaya tha. praacheen yoonaan aur rom mein bhi kilon ka nirmaan hua tha aur unka apna mahatva tha kintu Europe mein kilon ka itihaas madhya yug se hi aarambh hota hai. praacheenakaal kile nagaron ki pratirksha ke uddeshya se bante the kintu madhyakaaleen kile taapuon, pahaadiyon, daladal ke madhya sookhi bhoomi evam anya durgam sthaanon par banaae jaane lage. jahaaain kaheen praakrutik pratirksha ke sthaan praapt naheen the, khaai khod li jaaya karti thi. poorv ke deshon ke kilon ne bhi kroosedon (dharmayuddhon) ke sainikon ko atyadhik prabhaavit kiya jiske falasvaroop unhonein apne kilon ki nirmaanavidhi mein uchit unnati ki. baarood ke aavishkaar ne Europe mein kilon ke nirmaan ki aavashyakataaon mein aur bhi parivartan kar diye.

Europe ki saamanti pratha mein kilon ko vishesh sthaan praapt hua. aingalo-saiksan yug ke kilon mein vaastukala sambandhi koi visheshata naheen theen. kintu 11veen sadi isvi mein naarmenayug ke kilon mein khaas taur par vaastukala ki or dhyaan diya jaane laga. shaarpashaayar ke stokase kaisil aur vaaravikshaayar ke kenilvarth kaisil us samay ki vaastukala ke bade hi sundar udaaharan hain. in kilon ki vishesh inki khaaiyaaain evam inke kai kai khandon ke bhavan hain.

Bhaarat ke pramukh durg

  • Delhi ka laal kila
  • Agra ka laal kila
  • gvaaliyr ka kila
  • maandoo ka kila
  • chittauragadh kila
  • kot ka kila (Rajasthan)
  • Jodhpur ka kila (Rajasthan)
  • amber ka kila (Rajasthan)
  • Bikaner kila
  • kishnagadh ka kila
  • Bijapur ka kila
  • golakunda ka kila (aandhrapadesh)
  • Warangal ka kila (aandhrapadesh)
  • fort William (pashchimi Bengal)
  • fort seint William (Madras)
  • daman aur deev ka kila
  • daulataabaad ka kila
  • rohataas gadh ka kila
  • bhaanagadh ka kila

sandarbh granth

  • sar Sayyed Ahmad khaaain : aasaaroossanaadeed;
  • shukl, dvijeindranaath : bhaarateeya vaastushaastr
  • rijvi : khiljeekaaleen Bhaarat;
  • tugalakakaaleen Bhaarat, bhaag 1;
  • di Cambridge history ov India, bhaag 3, 4;
  • brown parsi : Indian aarkitekchar;
  • Ferguson, James : A short history ov Indian aind istarn aarkitekchar;
  • feshar, sar bainistar : A history ov aarkitekchar aan the kan pairetiv methad;
  • Sydney taaya: di kaisils och great Britain ;
  • A history ov fortifikeshan, di straagaholds ov India.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain