kho-kho

kho-kho khel

kho-kho ek bhaarateeya maidaani khel hai. is khel mein maidaan ke dono or do khambhon ke atirikt kisi anya saadhan ki jaroorat naheen padti. yeh ek anootha svadeshi khel hai, jo yuvaaon mein oj aur svasth sangharshasheel josh bharne wala hai. yeh khel peechha karne vaale aur pratirkshak, donon mein atyadhik tandurusti, kaushal, gati, oorja aur pratyutpannamati ki maang karta hai. kho-kho kisi bhi tarah ki satah par khela ja sakta hai.

anukram

parichay

kho-kho maidaani khelon ke sabse pracheenatam rupon mein se ek hai jiska udbhav praagaitihaasik Bhaarat mein maana ja sakta hai. mukhya rup se aatmaraksha, aakraman va pratyaakraman ke kaushal ko viksit karne ke liye iski khoj hui thi.

khokhaae ka janmasthaan Baroda kaha jaata hai. yeh Gujarat, Maharashtra, madhya pradesh aadi pradeshon mein adhik khela jaata hai, kintu Bhaarat ke anya pradeshon mein bhi iska prachaar ab badh raha hai. yeh khel saral hai aur ismein koi khatra naheen hai. purush aur mahilaaeain donon samaan roop se is khel ko khel sakte hain.

khokho khel mein na kisi geind ki aavashyakta hoti hai, na balle ki. iske liye keval 111 foot lambe aur 51 foot chaude maidaan ki aavashyakta hoti hai. donon aur das das foot sthaan chhodkar chaar chaar foot ooainche, lakdi ke do khanbhe gaad diye jaate hain aur in khanbhon ke beech ki doori aath baraabar bhaagon mein is prakaar vibhaajit kar di jaati he ki donon dalon ke khilaadi ek doosare ki viruddh dishaaon ki or munh karke apne apne niyat sthaan par baith jaate hain. pratyek dal ko ek ek paari ke liye saat saat minute diye jaate hain aur niyat samay mein us dal ko apni paari samaapt karni padti hai. donon dalon mein se ek ek khilaadi khada hota hai, peechha karanevaale dal ka khilaadi vipakshi dal ke khilaadi ko pakadne ke liye seeti bachaate hi daudta hai. vipakshi dal ka khilaadi pankti mein baithe hue khilaadiyon ka chakkar lagaata hai. jab peechha karanevaala khilaadi us bhaaganevaale khilaadi ke nikat aa jaata hai, tab vah apne hi dal ke khilaadi ke peechhe jaakar 'khokho' shabd ka uchchaaran karta hai to vah uthakar bhaagane lagta hai aur peechha karanevaala khilaadi pehle ko chhodkar doosare ka peechha karne lagta hai.

pehle is khel ka koi vyavasthit niyam na tha. khel ki lokapriyta ke saath iske niyam bante-bigdte rahe. 1914 E. mein pehli baar poona ke dakan jimkhaana ne anek maidaani khelon ke niyam lipibddh kiye aur unamein khokho bhi tha. tab se uske banaae niyam ke anusaar, thode sthaaneeya her-fer ke saath yeh khel khela jaata hai.

khokho ki pehli pratiyogita poona ke jimkhaane mein 1918 E. mein hui. fir san 1919 mein Baroda ke jimkhaane mein bhaarateeya star par pratiyogita ka aayojan hua. tab se samay samay par is khel ki akhil bhaarateeya star par pratiyogitaaeain, hoti rahati hain.

khel ka maidaan

kho-kho ka kreeda kshetr aayataakaar hota hai. yeh 29 X 16 meter hota hai. maidaan ke ant mein do aayataakaar hote hain. aayataakaar ki bhuja 16 meter aur doosari bhuja 2.75 mi. hoti hai. in donon aayataakaaron ke madhya mein do lakdi ke stambh hote hain. kendreeya gali 23.50 mi. lambi aur 30 sainteemeetar chaudi hoti hai.

shabdaavali

  • stambh ya post:-madhya len ke ant mein do stambh gaade jaate hai jo bhoomi se 1.20 se 1.25 sainteemeetar ke beech ooainche hote hain. inki paridhi 30 sainteemeetar se adhik naheen ho sakti.
  • kendreeya gali ya len:- donon stambhon ke madhya mein kendreeya gali hoti hai. yeh 23.50 mi. lambi aur sainteemeetar chaudi hoti hai.
  • kraus len:- pratyek aayataakaar 15 mi. lamba aur 30 sainteemeetar chauda hota hai vah kendreeya len ko samakon (90°) par kaatata hai. yeh swayam bhi do sarddhakon mein vibhaajit hota hai. ise kraus-len kehte hain.
  • stambh rekha:- kendra se gujarati hui kraus-len aur kendreeya len ke samaanaantar rekha ko stambh rekha kehte hain.
  • aayataakaar:- stambh rekha ka baahari kshetr aayataakaar kahalaata hai.
  • paridhiyaaain:- kendreeya len tatha baahari seema nishchit karne waali donon aayataakaaron ki rekhaaon se 7.85 mi. door donon paarshv rekhaaon ko paridhiyaaain kehte hain.
  • anudhaavak ya chejr:- vargon mein baithe khilaadi anudhaavak kahalaate hain. virodhi khilaadiyon ko pakadne ya chhoone ke liye bhaagane wala anudhaavak ya chejr sakriya anudhaavak kahalaata hai
  • dhaavak:- chejron ya dhaavakon ke virodhi khilaadi 'dhaavak' ya 'ranar' kahalaate hain.
  • kho dena:- achhi 'kho' dene ke liye sakriya dhaavak ko baithe hue dhaavak ko peechhe se haath se chhoote hi 'kho' shabd aur ooainche tatha spasht kehna chaahiye. chhoone aur 'kho' kehne ka samay ek saath hona chaahiye.
  • faaool:- yadi baitha hua ya sakriya dhaavak kisi niyam ka ullaghan karta hai to vah faaool hota hai.
  • disha grahan karna:- ek stambh se doosare stambh ki or jaana disha grahan karna hai.
  • muainh modna:- jab sakriya dhaavak ek vishesh disha ki or jaate samay apne kandhe ki rekha 90 ke kon se adhik disha ko mod leta hai to ise muainh modna kehte hain. yeh faaool hota hai.
  • nivrtan ya palatana:- kisi vishesh disha ki or jaata hua sakriya dhaavak jab vipreet disha mein jata hai to use nivrtan ya palatana kaha jaata hai. yeh faaool hota hai.
  • paanv baahar:- jab ranar ke donon paanv seemaaon se baahar bhoomi ko chhoo lein to uske paanv baahar maane jaate hain use aaoot maana jaata hai.

khel ke niyam

  • kreeda kshetr ko aakaar mein varnit anusaar chinhit hona chaahiye.
  • daudne ya chejr banane ka nirnaya toss dvaara kiya jaaega.
  • ek dhaavak (chejr) ke atirikt anya sabhi dhaavak vargon mein is prakaar bainthege ki do saath-saath baithe dhaavakon ka muainh ek or naheen hoga. naunva dhaavak peechha karne ke liye kisi ek stambh ke paas khada hoga.
  • sakriya dhaavak ke shareer ka koi bhi bhaag kendreeya gali se sparsh naheen karega. vah stambhon mein andar se kendreeya rekha paar naheen kar sakta.
  • 'kho' baithe hue dhaavak ke peechhe se sameep ja kar ooainchi aur spasht aavaaj mein deni chaahiye. baitha hua dhaavak bina 'kho' praapt kiye naheen uth sakta aur na hi vah apni taaaing ya bhuja faila kar sparsh praapt karne ki koshish karega.
  • yadi koi sakriya dhaavak us varg ki kendreeya gali se baahar chala jaae jis par koi dhaavak baitha hai ya yadi vah nishkriya dhaavak ki pakad chhod deta hai to sakriya dhaavak use kho naheen dega. koi sakriya dhaavak 'kho' dene ke liye vaapis naheen aa sakta.
  • niyam 4, 5 tatha 6 ka ullanghan faaool hota hai. is par sakriya dhaavak us disha ke vipreet jaane ke liye baadhya kiya jaaega jis disha mein vah ja raha rahi thi. nirnaayak ki seeti ke sanket ke saath sakriya dhaavak sanketit disha ki or chal dega. yadi is tarah ranar aaoot ho jaata hai to use aaoot naheen maana jaata.
  • sakriya dhaavak 'kho' dene ke pashchaat turant 'kho' paane vaale dhaavak ka sthaan grahan kar lega. kho dena aur saath baithe dhaavak ke lona ek saath hona chaahiye.
  • theek kho lene ke pashchaat yadi sakriya dhaavak ka pehla kdam saintar len ko chhoota ho to vah faaool naheen hai. yadi keindreeya len ko kraus kare to vah faaool hai.
  • disha lene ke pashchaat sakriya dhaavak pun: kraus line mein aakraman kar sakta hai aur is ko faaool naheen maana jaata.
  • sakriya dhaavak vah disha grahan karega jis or iska muainh ho muda ho arthaat jis or usane apne kandhe ki rekha ko moda tha.
  • sakriya dhaavak kisi ek stambh ki or disha grahan karne ke pashchaat stambh rekha ki usi disha mein jaaega jab tak vah kho naheen karta. sakriya dhaavak kendra gali se doosari or naheen jaaega jab tak ki vah stambh ke chaaron or baahar se na ghoom le.
  • yadi koi sakriya dhaavak stambh chhod deta hai to vah stambh chhodne vaale sthaan ki or waali kendreeya len par rahate hue doosare stambh ki disha mein jaaega.
  • sakriya dhaavak ka muainh sadaiv uske dvaara grahan ki gayi disha ki or rahega. vah apne muainh ko naheen modega. use kendreeya len ke samaanaantar kandhe ki rekha modne ki aajnyaa hogi.
  • dhaavak is prakaar baitheinge ki dhaavakon ke maarg mein rukaavat na pahuainche yadi aisi rukaavat se koi ranar aaoot ho jaata hai to use aaoot naheen maana jaaega.
  • disha grahan karne vaale aur muainh modne vaale niyam aayataakaar kshetr mein laagoo na honge.
  • paari ke dauraan sakriya dhaavak seema se baahar jaasakata hai parantu seema se baahar use disha lene aur muainh midne ke niyamon ka paalan karna hoga.
  • koi bhi ranar baithe hue dhaavak ko chhoo naheen sakta. yadi vah aisa karta hai to use chetaavani di jaati hai. yadi vah fir us harkat ko doharaata hai to use maidaan se baahar bhej diya jaata hai. abhipraaya yeh ki aaoot diya jaata hai.
  • yadi ranar ke donon pair seema se baahar hon to vah aaoot ho jaata hai.
  • yadi sakriya chejr bina kisi niyam ka ullanghan kiye ranar ko chhoo leta hai to ranar aaoot maana jaaega.
  • sakriya dhaavak niyam 4 se 14 tak ke kisi niyam ka ullanghan naheen kareinge. in niyamon ka ullanghan faaool maana jaata hai. yadi aise faaool ke kaaran koi ranar aaoot ho jaata hai to use aaoot naheen maana jaaega.
  • yadi koi sakriya dhaavak niyam 8 se 14 tak ke kisi niyam ka ullanghan karte hai to Umpire turant hi uchit disha lene aur kaarya karne ke liye baadhya

match sambandhi niyam

  • pratyek team mein khilaadiyon ki sankhya 9 hoti hai aur 8 khilaadi atirikt hote hain.
  • pratyek paari mein nau-nau minute chhoone tatha daudne ka kaam baari-baari se hota hai. pratyek match mein 4 paariyaaain hoti hai. do paariyon chhoone ki aur 2 paariyaaain daudne ki hoti hain.
  • ranar khelne ke kramaanusaar score ke paas apne naam darj karaaenge. paari ke aarambh mein pehle teen khilaadi seema ke andar honge. in teenon ke aaoot hone ke pashchaat teen aur khilaadi 'kho' dene se pehle andar aa jaaenge. jo is avadhi mein pravesh na kar sakeinge unhein aaoot ghoshit kiya jaaega. apni baari ke bina pravisht hone wala khilaadi bhi aaoot ghoshit kiya jaaega. yeh prakriya paari ke ant tak jaari rahegi. teesare ranar ko nikaalne wala sakriya dhaavak nae pravisht hone vaale ranar ka peechha naheen karega, vah 'kho' dega. pratyek team khel ke maidaan ke keval ek paksh se hi apne ranar pravisht karegi.
  • dhaavak tatha pratyek ranar samay se pehle bhi apni paari samaapt kar sakte hain. keval dhaavak ya ranar team ke kaptaan ke anurodh par hi Umpire khel rok kar paari samaapti ki ghoshana karega. ek paari ke baad 5 minute tatha do paariyon ke beech 9 minute ka break hoga.
  • dhaavak paksh ko pratyek ranar ke aaoot hone par ek ank milega. sabhi ranaron ke samay se pehle aaoot ho jaane par unke viruddh ek 'lona' de diya jaata hai. iske pashchaat vah team usi kram se apne ranar bhejegi. lona praapt karne ke liye koi atirikt ank naheen diya jaata hai. paari ka samay samaapt hone tak isi dhang se khel jaari rahegi. paari ke dauraan ranaron ke kram mein parivartan naheen kiya ja sakta.
  • knock aaoot paddhati mein match ke ant mein adhik ak praapt karne waali team ko vijayi ghoshit kiya jaaega. yadi ank baraabar hon to ek aur paari kheli jaaegi. yadi fir bhi ank baraabar rahein to taai brekar niyam ka prayog kiya jaaega. is sthiti mein yeh jruri naheen ki teemon mein vaheen khilaadi hon.
  • league pranaali mein vijeta team ko 2 ank praapt hogein. paraajit team ko shoonya ank tatha baraabar rahane ki dasha mein pratyek team ko ek ek ank diya jaaega. yadi league pranaali mein league ank baraabar ho to team athva teemein parchiyon dvaara pun: match kheleingi. aise match knock-aaoot pranaali ke aadhaar par khelein jaaenge.
  • yadi kisi kaaranavash match poora naheen hota hai to yeh kisi anya samay khela jaaega aur pichhle ank naheen gine jaaenge. match shuroo se hi khela jaaega.
  • yadi kisi ek team ke ank doosari team se 12 ya usase adhik ho jaaen to pehli team doosari team ko dhaavak ke rup mein peechha karne ko kah sakti hai. yadi doosari team is baar adhik ank praapt kar le to bhi usaka dhaavak banane ka adhikaar bana rahata hai.

match ke liye adhikaari

match ki vyavastha ke liye nimnalikhit adhikaari niyukt kiye jaate hain.

  • Umpire (do)
  • raifari (ek)
  • time-keepar (ek)
  • scorer (ek)

Umpire

Umpire lobby se baahar khada hoga aur kendreeya gali dvaara vibhaajit apne sthaan se khel ki dekh rekh karega. vah apne arddhak mein sabhi nirnaya dega. vah nirnaya dene mein doosare arddhak ke Umpire ki sahaayata kar sakta hai.

raifari

raifari ke karttavya is prakaar hai.

  • vah ampaayaron ki unke karttavya paalan mein sahaayata karega aur unamein mat bhed hone ki disha mein apna faisala dega.
  • vah khel mein baadha pahuainchaane vaale, asabhya vyavahaar karne vaale niyamon ka ullanghan karne vaale khilaadiyon ko dand deta hai.
  • vah niyamon ki vyaakhya sambandhi prashnon par apna nirnaya deta hai.

time-keepar

type-keepar ka kaam samay ka rikaard rakhana hai. vah seeti bajaakar paari ke aarambh ya samaapti ka sanket deta hai.

scorer

scorer is baat ka dhyaan rakhata hai ki khilaadi nishchit kram se maidaan mein utarate hain. vah aaoot hue ranaron ka rikaard rakhata hai. pratyek paari ke ant mein vah score sheet par ank darj karta hai aur dhaavakon ka score taiyaar karta hai. match ke ant mein vah parinaam taiyaar karta hai aur raifari ko sunaane ke liye deta hai.

kho-kho spardhaaeain

Bhaarat mein kho-kho ki mukhya spardhaaeain hain:

  • raashtreeya spardha
  • raashtreeya Kumar spardha
  • raashtreeya nimnastareeya Kumar spardha
  • aantarashaaleya (uchchmaadhyamik) spardha
  • aantarashaaleya (maadhyamik) spardha
  • aantarashaaleya praathamik spardha
  • raashtreeya mahila spardha
  • aantarvidyaapeeth spardha

sangathanon ke naam

  • bhaarateeya kho-kho mahaasangh (Kho-Kho Federation of India - K.K.F.I.)

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain