khilaafat aandolan

khilaafat aandolan (1919-1924) Bhaarat mein mukhyat: musalmaanon dvaara chalaaya gaya raajaneetik-dhaarmik aandolan tha. is aandolan ka uddeshya Turkey mein khaleefa ke pad ki pun:sthaapana karaane ke liye angrejon par dabaav banaana tha.

parichay

san 1908 E. mein Turkey mein yuva Turkey dal dvaara shaktiheen khaleefa ke prabhutv ka unmoolan khaleefat (khaleefa ke pad) ki samaapti ka pratham charan tha. iska bhaarateeya musalmaan janta par naganya prabhaav pada. kintu, 1912 mein Turkey-itaalavi tatha baalkan yuddhon mein, Turkey ke vipaksh mein, Britain ke yogadaan ko islaami sanskruti tatha sarv islaamavaad par prahaar samajhakar bhaarateeya musalmaan Britain ke prati uttejit ho uthe. yeh virodh Bhaarat mein british shaasan ke viruddh rosharoop mein parivrtit ho gaya. is uttejana ko abulakalaam aajaad, jafar Ali khaaain tatha mohammad Ali ne apne samaachaarapatron al-hilaal, jameendaar tatha kaamared aur hamadard dvaara bada vyaapak roop diya.

pratham mahaayuddh mein Turkey par Britain ke aakraman ne asantosh ko prajvalit kiya. sarkaar ki damananeeti ne ise aur bhi uttejit kiya. raashtreeya bhaavana tatha muslim dhaarmik asantosh ka samanvaya aarambh hua. mahaayuddh ki samaapti ke baad raajaneetik svatvon ke badle Bhaarat ko raulat bill, damanachakr, tatha jaliyaanavaala baag hatyaakaand mile, jisne raashtreeya bhaavana mein aag mein ghi ka kaam kiya. akhil bhaarateeya khilaafat committee ne jamiytaul-ulema ke sahayog se khilaafat aandolan ka sangathan kiya tatha mohammad Ali ne 1920 mein khilaafat ghoshanaapatr prasaarit kiya. raashtreeya aandolan ka netrutv Gandhi ji ne grahan kiya. Gandhi ji ke prabhaav se khilaafat aandolan tatha asahayog aandolan ekaroop ho gaye. May, 1920 tak khilaafat committee ne mahaatma Gandhi ki ahinsaatmak asahayog yojana ka samarthan kiya. September mein Congress ke vishesh adhiveshan ne asahayog aandolan ke do dhyeya ghoshit kiye - svaraajya tatha khilaafat ki maaaingon ki sveekruti. jab November, 1922 mein Turkey mein mustafa kamaalapaasha ne sultaan khaleefa mohammad chaturth ko padachyut kar abdul majeed ko padaaseen kiya aur uske samast raajaneetik adhikaar apahrut kar liye tab khilaafat committee ne 1924 mein virodhapradarshan ke liye ek pratinidhimandal Turkey bheja. raashtreeyataavaadi mustafa kamaal ne usaki sarvatha upeksha ki aur 3 March 1924 ko unhonne khaleefi ka pad samaapt kar khilaafat ka ant kar diya. is prakaar, Bhaarat ka khilaafat aandolan bhi apne aap samaapt ho gaya.

kaaran

Gandhi ne 1920-21 mein khilaafat aandolan kyon chalaaya, iske do drushtikon hain:-

  • ek varg ka kehna tha ki Gandhi ki uparokt rananeeti vyavahaarik avasaravaadi gathabandhan ka udaaharan tha. mohanadaas karamachand gaaaindhi ne kaha tha "yadi koi baahari shakti islaam ki pratishtha ki raksha ke liye aur nyaaya dilaane ke liye aakraman karti hai to vo use vaastavik sahaayata na bhi dein to uske saath unki poori sahaanubhooti rahegi "(Gandhi sampoorn vaangmaya - 17.527- 528). ve samajh chuke the ki ab Bhaarat mein shaasan karna angrejon ke liye aarthik roop se mahanga pad raha hai. ab unhein hamaare kachche maal ki utani aavashyakta naheen hai. ab sinthetik utpaadan banaane lage hain. angrejon ko Bhaarat se jo lena tha ve le chuke hain. ab ve jaayeinge. at: agar shaanti poorvak asahayog aandolan chalaaya jaae, satyaagrah aandolan chalaaya jaae to ve jaldi chale jaaenge. iske liye hindu-muslim ekta aavashyak hai. doosari or angrejon ne is raajaneetik gathabandhan ko todne ki chaal chali.
  • ek doosra drushtikon bhi hai. vah maanata hai ki Gandhi ne islaam ke paaramparik svaroop ko pahachaana tha. dharm ke oopari aavaran ko darakinaar karke unhonne hindu-muslim ekta ke svabhaavik aadhaar ko dekh liya tha. 12veen shataabdi se saath rahate rahate hindu-musalmaan sah-astitv seekh chuke the. dabang log donon samudaayon mein the. lekin fir bhi aam hind-musalmaan paaramparik jeevan darshan maanate the, unke beech ek saajhi viraajat bhi thi. unke beech aapasi jhagada tha lekin sabhyataamoolak ekta bhi thi. doosari or aadhunik pashchim se sabhyataamoolak sangharsh hai. Gandhi yeh bhi jaante the ki jo is shaitaani sabhyata mein samajh-boojhakar bhaageedaari naheen karega vah aadhunik drushti se bhale hi pichhad jaaega lekin paaramparik drushti se sthitprajnya kahalaayega.

inhein bhi dekhein