khel

bachapan ka khel.association football, oopar dikhaaya gaya hai, ek team khel hai jo saamaajik kaaryon ko bhi pradaan karta hai.

khel, kai niyamon evam rivaajon dvaara sanchaalit hone waali ek pratiyogi gatividhi hai. khel saamaanya arth mein un gatividhiyon ko kaha jaata hai, jahaan pratiyogi ki shaareerik kshamata khel ke parinaam (jeet ya haar) ka ekamaatr athva praathamik nirdhaarak hoti hai, lekin yeh shabd dimaagi khel (kuchh card khelon aur board khelon ka saamaanya naam, jinmein bhaagya ka tatv bahut thoda ya naheen ke baraabar hota hai) aur masheeni khel jaisi gatividhiyon ke liye bhi prayog kiya jaata hai, jismein maanasik teekshnata evam upakaran sambandhi gunavatta bade tatv hote hain. saamaanyat: khel ko ek sangathit, pratispardhaatmak aur prashikshit shaareerik gatividhi ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya gaya hai, jismein pratibaddhata tatha nishpakshata hoti hai. kuchh dekhe jaane vaale khel is tarah ke game se alag hote hai, kyonki khel mein uchch sangathanaatmak star evam laabh (jaroori naheen ki vah maudrik hi ho) shaamil hota hai. uchchatam star par adhiktar khelon ka sahi vivran rakha jaata hai aur saath hi unka adyatan bhi kiya jaata hai, jabki khel khabaron mein viflataaon aur upalabdhiyon ki vyaapak roop se ghoshana ki jaati hai.

jin khelon ka nirnaya niji pasand ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai, ve saundarya pratiyogitaaon aur shareer saushthav kaaryakramon jaise anya nirnayamoolak gatividhiyon se alag hote hain, khel ki gatividhi ke pradarshan ka praathamik kendra moolyaankan hota hai, na ki pratiyogi ki shaareerik visheshata. (haalaanki donon gatividhiyon mein "prastuti" ya "upasthiti" bhi nirnaayak ho sakti hain).

khel aksar keval manoranjan ya iske peechhe aam tathya ko ujaagar karta hai ki logon ko shaareerik roop se svasth rahane ke liye vyaayaam karne ki aavashyakta hai.

haalaanki ve hamesha safal naheen hote hai, khel pratiyogiyon se khel bhaavana ka pradarshan karne aur virodhiyon evam adhikaariyon ko sammaan dene va haarne par vijeta ko badhaai dene jaise vyavahaar ke maanadand ke paalan ki ummeed ki jaati hai.

anukram

vyutpatti

"khel" ("sport") shabd ki puraane French shabd desport (desport) se utpatti hui hai, jiska arth "avakaash" hai.

itihaas

2sari shataabdi AD, maayran ke diskobolos ke roman peetal ki katauti.

praapt kalaakrutiyon aur dhaanchon se pata chalta hai ki cheen ke log lagbhag 4000 isa poorv se khel ki gatividhiyon mein shaamil the.[1] aisa prateet hota hai ki cheen ke praacheen kaal mein jimnaastik ek lokapriya khel tha. tairaaki aur machhali pakadna jaise khelon ke saath kai khel poori tarah se viksit aur niymabaddh the inka sanket faraahon ke smaarakon se milta hai.[2] misr ke anya khelon mein bhaala feink, oonchi kood aur kushti bhi shaamil thi. faaras ke praacheen khelon mein jaurakhaaneh (Zourkhaneh) jaisa paaramparik Irani maarshal Art ka yuddh kaushal se gahra sambandh tha.[3] anya khelon mein faarasi mool ke polo aur khel mein savaaron ka dvandvayuddh shaamil hain.

praacheen yoonaani kaal mein kai tarah ke khelon ki parampara sthaapit ho chuki thi aur grees ki sainya sanskruti aur khelon ke vikaas ne ek doosare ko kaafi prabhaavit kiya. khel unki sanskruti ka ek aisa pramukh ang ban gaya ki yoonaan ne olympic khelon ka aayojan kiya, jo praacheen samay mein har chaar saal par peloponesas ke ek chhote se gaanv mein olanpiya naam se aayojit kiye jaate the.[4]

praacheen olanpiks se vartamaan sadi tak khel aayojit kiye jaate rahe hain aur unka viniyman bhi hota raha hai. audyogikeekaran ki vajah se viksit aur vikaasasheel deshon ke naagrikon ke avakaash ka samay bhi badha hai, jisse naagrikon ko khel samaarohon mein bhaag lene aur darshak ke roop mein maidaanon tak pahunchane, ethaletik gatividhiyon mein adhik se adhik bhaageedaari karne aur unki pahunch badhi hai. maas media aur vaishvik sanchaar maadhyamon ke prasaar se ye pravruttiyaan jaari raheen. vyavasaayikta ki pradhaanata hui, jisse khelon ki lokapriyta mein vruddhi hui, kyonki khel prashansakon ne radio, television aur Internet ke maadhyam se vyaavasaayik khilaadiyon ke khel ka behatareen aanand lena shuroo kiya. iske alaava vyaayaam aur khel mein shaukiya bhaageedaari ka aanand lene ka rivaaj bhi badha.

nai sadi mein, nae khel, pratiyogita ke shaareerik pahaloo se aage jaakar maanasik ya manovaigyaanik pahaloo ko badhaava de rahe hain. electronic khel sangathan din par din lokapriya hote ja rahe hain.

kriyaaen, jahaan parinaam gatividhi par nirnaya se nirdhaarit hota hai, unhein pradarshan ya pratispardha maana jaata hai.

khel bhaavana

khel bhaavana ek drushtikon hai, jo imaanadaareepoorvak khelne, team ke saathiyon aur virodhiyon ke prati shishtaachaar baratne, naitik vyavahaar aur satyanishtha dikhaane tatha jeet ya haar mein badppan ke pradarshan ki prerana deta hai.[5][6]

khel bhaavana ek aakaanksha ya lokaachaar ko abhivyakt karti hai ki gatividhi ka aanand khud gatividhi hi uthaaye. khel patrakaar graantalaind Rice ka prasiddh kathan hai ki "yeh aham naheen hai ki tum haare ya jeete, aham yeh hai ki tumane khel kaisa khela", aadhunik olympic bhaavana ki abhivyakti iske sansthaapak piyre di kaubirteen ne is prakaar ki hai ki "sabse mahatvapoorn baat hai...jeetna naheen, balki ismein hissa lena" ye is bhaavana ki vishisht abhivyakti hain.

khel mein svasth pratispardha aur jaanboojhkar aakraamak hinsa ke beech ki rekha ko paar karne se hi hinsa paida hoti hai. athlete, coach, prashansak, kabhi abhibhaavak kabhi-kabhi gumaraah vafaadaari, prabhutv, krodh, ya utsav ke taur par logon aur sampatti ko hinsa ki bheint chadha dete hain. raashtreeya aur antararaashtreeya khel pratiyogitaaon mein huradang aur gundaagardi aam baat ho gayi hai aur yeh ek badi samasya ban gayi hai.

vyaavasaayikta

aadhunik khelon ke niyam, jatil hote hain aur inka atyadhik aayojan hota hai.

khel ke manoranjan vaale pahaloo, maas media ke prasaar aur avakaash ke liye samay badhne ke saath-saath khelon mein vyaavasaayikta badhi hai. iski vajah se kuchh-kuchh sangharsh ke haalaat bhi paida hue hain, jahaan bhugataan ka check manoranjak pahaluon se jyaada aham ho jaata hai ya jahaan khelon ko jyaada se jyaada munaafedaar aur lokapriya banaane ki koshish ki jaati hai aur is tarah kuchh mahatvapoorn paramparaaen lupt hoti jaati hain.

khel ke manoranjan pahaloo ka matlab yeh bhi hai ki khilaadiyon aur mahilaaon ko aksar celebrity ki haisiyat haasil hoti hai.

raajaneeti

samay ke saath khel aur raajaneeti ne ek-doosare ko kaafi prabhaavit kiya hai.

jab dakshin Africa mein rangabhed sarkaari neeti thi, khelon se jude kai log, vishesh roop se ragbi union mein aam sahamati se ek drushtikon apnaaya gaya ki unhein vahaan pratispardhaatmak khelon mein hissa naheen lena chaahiye. kuchh logon ko lagta hai ki rangabhed ki neeti ke khaatme mein iska ek prabhaavi yogadaan tha, jabki doosaron ko lagta hai ki yeh kaafi lambe samay tak chal sakta tha aur aur apna sabse bura prabhaav dikha sakta tha.[7]

[[1936 ke barlin mein aayojit greeshmakaaleen olanpik|1936 ke barlin mein aayojit greeshmakaaleen olanpik]] ek misaal tha, shaayad peechhe mudkar aatmanireekshan karne ka, jahaan ek vichaaradhaara viksit hui, jisne prachaar-prasaar ke maadhyam se khud ko majaboot karne ke liye aayojan ka upayog kiya.

aadhunik khel mein motareekaran ka aagaman hua hai.

Ireland ke itihaas mein, gelik khel saanskrutik raashtravaad se jude hue the. 20veen sadi ke madhya tak koi vyakti gelik football khelne, prakshepan, ya gelik ethaletik association (GAA) dvaara prashaasit khelon mein bhaag lene se roka ja sakta tha, agar vah british mool ke football ya anya khelon mein bhaag leta ya samarthan karta. haal tak GAA ne gelik sthaanon football aur ragbi union ke khelne par pratibandh jaari rakha tha. yeh pratibandh aaj bhi laagoo hai, lekin krok park mein football aur ragbi khelne ki anumati dene ke liye kuchh sanshodhan kiya gaya. jabki lainsadaaun road ko punarviksit kiya ja raha hai. haal tak niyam 21 ke tahat, GAA ne bhi british suraksha balon aur RUC ke sadasyon par gerik khel khelne par pratibandh laga diya tha, lekin 1998 mein gud fraaide samjhaute ke baad is pratibandh ko hataaya ja saka.

khel kaaryakalaap ke dauraan, ya iski reporting mein kai baar raashtravaad ubhar kar saamane aa jaata hai. raashtreeya dalon mein bhaag lene vaale khilaadi ya kameintetar aur darshak pakshapaatapoorn drushtikon apnaate hain. kai avsaron par aisa tanaav khilaadiyon ya maidaan ke bheetar ya baahar ke darshakon ke beech hinsak jhadpon ko janm (football yuddh dekh sakte hain) deta hai. khel ke buniyaadi moolyon ke vipreet ye pravrutiyaan apne hit aur pratiyogiyon ke manoranjan ke liye apnaai jaati rahi hain.

shaareerik kala

jimnaastiks

khel ki kala ke saath kai samaanataaen hain. aais sketing va taai chi aur udaaharan ke liye daansasport, aise khel hain jo kalaatmak najariye ke kareeb hote hain. isi prakaar, kalaatmak jimnaastik, shareer saushthav, paarkaaavar, pradarshan kala, yog, bausabaul, dresej, Pak kala jaisi gatividhiyon mein khel aur kala donon ke tatv dikhte hain. shaayad iska sabse achha udaaharan bul faaiting (saandon se ladna) hai, jinki khabarein samaachaar patron ke kala pannon mein chhaapi jaati hain. vastut: kuchh sthitiyon mein khel, kala ke itne kareeb hota hai ki vah sambhavat: khel ki prakruti se sambandhit ho jaata hai. uparokt "khel" ki paribhaasha ek gatividhi ka vichaar vyakt karti hai, jo saamaanya prayojanon ke liye naheen hoti, udaaharan ke liye daudna keval kaheen pahunchane ke liye naheen hota, balki apne liye daudna hai, jaise ki ham daudne mein saksham hain.

yeh saundarya moolyabodh ke aam vichaar ke kareeb hai, jo vastu ke saamaanya upayog se nikle vishuddh kaaryakaari moolya se oopar hai. jaise, saundaryabodh waali manabhaavan car vah naheen hai jo A se bi ko milti hai, balki jo anugrah, shishtata aur karishme se hamein prabhaavit karti hai.

usi tarah, unchi kood jaise khel ke pradarshan mein sirf baadhaaon se bachane ya nadiyon ko paar karne ki gatividhi hamein prabhaavit naheen karti. ismein dikhi yogyata, kaushal aur shaili se ham prabhaavit hote hain.

kala aur khel ke beech sanbhavat: spasht sampark praacheen grees ke samay se hai, jab jimnaastik aur kaalistheniks (calisthenics) ne pratibhaagiyon dvaara pradarshit shaareerik gathan, shakti aur 'eret' saundarya ki saraahana shuroo ki. kaushal ke roop mein 'kala' aadhunik arth praacheen greek shabd 'arete se sambandhit hai. is daur mein kala aur khel ki niktata olanpik khelon ke jariye dikhi, jaisa ki humne khel aur kalaatmak upalabdhiyon donon ke samaarohon, kavita, moortikla aur vaastukala mein dekha hai.

takaneek

khel mein praudyogiki ki ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai, chaahe usaka kisi athlete ke svaasthya ke liye upayog kiya jaaye ya ethaleets ki takaneek ya upakaran ki visheshataaon ke roop mein.

upakaran choonki khel aur adhik pratispardhi ho gaye hain, isliye behtar upakaranon ki jaroorat badhi hai. nai takaneek ke prayog se golf club, football helamet, besabaul ke balle, football ki geind, hockey skets aur anya upakaranon mein ullekhaneeya badlaav dekhe gaye hain.

svaasthya poshan se lekar choton ke ilaaj tak, samay ke saath maanav shareer ke gyaan mein badhottari hone ke kaaran ek khilaadi ki sambhaavnaaen bhi badhi hain. athlete ab jyaada umr ka hone ke baavajood khelne mein saksham hain, unke chot jaldi theek ho rahe hain aur pichhli peedhiyon ke ethaleeton ki tulana mein adhik prabhaavi dhang se prashikshit ho rahe hain.

anudesh praudyogiki ke vikaas ne khelon mein anusandhaan ke liye naye avsar paida kiye hain. ab khel ke pahaluon ka vishleshan sambhav hai, jinhein pehle pahunch se baahar samjha jaata tha. gati ke chitr lene se lekar khilaadi ki gati ya unnat computer simuleshan ko pakadne se model bhautik sthitiyon ko kaid karne mein saksham hone ke kaaran athlete ke kriyaakalaapon ko samajhne aur unamein sudhaar karne ki kshamata paida hui hai.

shabdaavali

sho jamping, ek ghudsavaari khel.

british angreji mein khel ki gatividhiyaan saamaanya sanjnyaa "khel" ke roop mein chihnit hain. ameriki angreji mein "khel" ka adhik istemaal kiya jaata hai. angreji ki sabhi boliyon mein, "khel" ek se adhik vishisht khelon ke liye istemaal kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke taur par, "footabaul aur tairaaki, mere pasandeeda khel hain", sabhi angreji bolne vaalon ko svaabhaavik lagega jabki "main khel ka aanand leta hoon", uttari amerikiyon ko "main khelon ka aanand leta hoon" ki tulana mein kam svaabhaavik lagega.

"khel" shabd ka upayog kabhi-kabhi shaareerik gatividhi ke star ke alaava sabhi pratispardhaatmak gatividhiyon ke liye kiya jaata hai. dakshata vaale khel aur motaravaale khel donon hi shaareerik gatividhi pradarshit karte hain, jaise dakshata, khilaadeepan aur yahaan tak ki oonche star par peshevar praayojan bhi shaareerik roop se khele jaane vaale khelon se jude hote hai. hava ke khel, biliyrds, brij, shataranj, motorcycle daud aur paavaraboting, sab antararaashtreeya olanpik samiti dvaara khel ke roop mein maanyata praapt hain, kyonki IOC dvaara maanyata praapt antararaashtreeya khel sanghon ki association mein unki prashaasakeeya nikaayon ka pratinidhitv hota hai.[8]

darshak khel

khel pratibhaagiyon ke liye manoranjan ka ek roop hone ke baavajood bahut saare khel darshakon ke saamane khele jaate hain. jyaadaatar peshevar khel kisi tarah ke 'theatre', ek stadium, maidaan, golf course, daud track, ya khuli sadak par aam janta ke dekhne ke praavadhaan (aksar iski keemat bhi chukaani padti hai.) ke tahat khele jaate hain.

Australian rools football

khel mein ab bade TV darshakon ya radio shrotaaon ko bhi aakarshit kiya jaata hai, kyonki pratidvandvi prasaarak kuchh khelon ke prasaaran 'adhikaar' ke liye badi raashi ki boli lagaate hain. football vishv cup, vishv ke laakhon-karodon TV darshakon ko aakarshit karta hai, jaise 2006 ke final ne akele poori duniya mein 700 million darshakon ko aakarshit kiya. sanyukt raajya America mein NFL ki championship khel- super baaul- varsh ka sabse jyaada dekhe jaane vaale television prasaaranon mein se ek ban gaya. super baaul ravivaar ek tarah se America mein raashtreeya avakaash ban jaata hai aur darshakon ki sankhya itni jyaada hoti hai ki 2007 mein prati 30 second ke slaut ke liye 2.6 million dollar ki dar se vigyaapan mile.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/s' not found.

Sports ke baare mein, vikipeediya ke bandhuprakalpon par aur jaane:
Wiktionary-logo-en.png shabdakosheeya paribhaashaaen
Wikibooks-logo.svg paathya pustakein
Wikiquote-logo.svg uddharan
Wikisource-logo.svg mukt strot
Commons-logo.svg chitr evam media
Wikinews-logo.svg samaachaar kathaaen
Wikiversity-logo-en.svg gyaan saadhan
  • khel ki rooparekha
  • khilaadiyon ki soochi
  • khel upasthiti ke aankadon ki soochi
  • peshevar khel league ki soochi
  • khel ki samayarekha
sambandhit vishay
  • kaumbait khel
  • viklaang khel
  • faindom
  • khel ka itihaas
  • bahu-khel pratiyogita
  • raashtreeya khel
  • raashtravaad aur khel
  • olanpik khel
  • adhiprekshak khel
  • pratyaabhooti
  • film mein khel
  • khel ke prashaasi nikaaya
  • khel prasaaran
  • khel club
  • khel coaching
  • khel upakaran
  • khel jakhm
  • khel league upasthiti
  • khel vipnan
  • logon ke naam par khel sharton
  • mahilaaon ke khel

sandarbh

aage padhein