kharoshthi

taarim droni mein mila kharoshthi mein likha ek kaagj ka tukada (doosari se paaainchavi sadi isavi)

sindhu ghaati ki chitralipi ko chhod kar, kharoshthi Bhaarat ki do praacheenatam lipiyon mein se ek hai. yeh daaeain se baaeain ko likhi jaati thi. samraat ashok ne shaahabaajagadhi aur manasehara ke abhilekh kharoshthi lipi mein hi likhvaae hain. iske prachalan ki desh aur kaalaparak seemaaeain braahmi ki apeksha sankuchit raheen aur bina kisi pratinidhi lipi ko janm diye hi desh se iska lop bhi ho gaya. braahmi jaisi doosari parishkrut lipi ki vidyamaanata athva desh ki baaeain se daahine likhne ki svaabhaavik pravrutti sambhavat: is lipi ke vilupt hone ka kaaran raha ho.

anukram

naam ki vyutpatti

praarambh mein iske padhne ka prayaas karanevaale Europeeya vidvaanon ne ise baiktriyn, indo-baiktro-paali ya eriyno-paali jaise naam diye the. kharoshthi naam lalitvisvaar mein ullikhit 64 lipiyon ki soochi mein hai. iske naam ki vyutpatti ke sambandh mein anek mat hain jinmein sarvaadhik maanya prajaluski ka hai. unke mataanusaar kharoshthi ka mool kharapost (ookharapost ookharoshth) hai. post Irani bhaasha ka vah shabd hai. jiska arth 'khaal' hota hai. mahaamaayoori mein uttarapashchim Bhaarat ke ek nagaradeta ka naam kharapost aaya hai. cheeni parampara ke anusaar iska aavishkaar rishi kharoshth ne kiya tha. lipi ke naam se vyutpatti chaahe jo ho, ismein sandeh naheen ki is desh mein yeh uttarapashchim se I aur kuchh kaal tak, ashok ke atirikt, maatr videshi raajakulon dvaara unke hi prabhaav ke kshetr mein prayukt hokar unke saath hi samaapt ho gayi.

kharoshthi lipi ke udaaharan

kharoshthi lipi ke udaaharan prastarashilpon, dhaatunirmit patron, bhaandon, sikkon, moortiyon tatha bhoorjapatr aadi par upalabdh hue hain. kharoshthi ke praacheenatam lekh takshashila aur chaar (pushkalaavati) ke aaspaas se mile hain, kintu iska mukhya kshetr uttari pashchimi Bhaarat evam poorvi Afghanistan tha. Mathura se bhi kuchh kharoshthi abhilekh praapt hue hain. inke atirikt dakshin Bhaarat, ujjain tatha Mysore ke siddaapur se bhi kharoshthi mein likhe sfut akshar ya shabd mile hain. mukhya seema ke uttar evam uttar poorvi pradeshon se bhi kharoshthi lekhonvaale sikke, moortiyaaain tatha kharoshthi mein likhe hue praacheen granth upalabdh hue hain. E. poo. ki chauthi, teesari shataabdi se isa ki teesari shataabdi tak uttarapashchim Bhaarat mein Mathura tak kharoshthi ka prachalan raha. kushaanayug ke baad is lipi ka Bhaarat se baahar cheeni turkistaan mein pravesh hua aur kam se kam ek shataabdi vah vahaaain jeevit rahi.

kharoshthi ke udbhav ke sambandh mein sarvaadhik prachalit mat hai ki hakhamani shaasakon ko paristhitivsh pehle asooriya aur baabul mein prayukt honevaali aramai () lipi ko shaasan sambandhi kaaryon ke liye apanaana pada aur unke shaasan ke saath hi uttarapashchim Bhaarat mein iska pravesh hua. aavashyakataavash kuchh bhaarateeyon ko ise seekhana pada, kintu baad mein braahmi ke siddhaanton ke aadhaar par ismein parivartan hue aur is prakaar kharoshthi ka janm hua. mukhya roop se Bhaarat ke Iran dvaara adhikrut pradesh mein iska prachaar, praacheen faarasi shabd dipi (likhna) evam isse udbhoot dippati shabdon ka ashok ke abhilekhon mein prayog, deerghasvaron ka abhaav, Irani aahat sikkon par braahmi aksharon ke saath kharoshthi aksharon ki vidyamaanata tatha kuchh kharoshthi varnon ka aramai ke varnon se saamya evam anekon ke aramai varnon se udbhav ki pratipaadyata is mat ke poshak tatv hain.

kharoshthi lipi ki kuchh visheshataaeain

pratyek vyanjan mein a ki vidyamaanata, deerghasvaron evam svaramaatraaon ka abhaav, anya svaramaatraaon ka rijudandon dvaara vyakteekaran, vyanjanon ke poorv pancham varnon ke liye savantr anusvaar ka prayog tatha sanyuktaaksharon ki alpata kharoshthi lipi ki kuchh visheshataaeain hain.

iski visheshataaon evam varnon ke ghaseet svaroop se siddh hota hai ki yeh lipikon aur vyaapaariyon aadi ki lipi thi kintu kharoshthi mein likhi khotaan se praapt paandulipi se iske ek doosare parishkrut roop ka astitv bhi siddh hota hai, jiska prayog shaastron ke lekhan mein hota tha.

Kharosthi a.svg a Kharosthi i.svg i Kharosthi u.svg u Kharosthi e.svg A Kharosthi o.svg O Kharosthi ri.svg ri
Kharosthi k.svg k Kharosthi kh.svg kh Kharosthi g.svg g Kharosthi gh.svg gh
Kharosthi c1.svg ch Kharosthi ch.svg chh Kharosthi j.svg j Kharosthi ny.svg nya
Kharosthi tt.svg t Kharosthi tth.svg th Kharosthi dd.svg d Kharosthi ddh.svg dh Kharosthi nn.svg n
Kharosthi t.svg t Kharosthi th.svg th Kharosthi d.svg the Kharosthi dh.svg dh Kharosthi n.svg na
Kharosthi p.svg p Kharosthi ph.svg f Kharosthi b.svg b Kharosthi bh.svg bh Kharosthi m.svg m
Kharosthi y.svg ya Kharosthi r.svg r Kharosthi l.svg l Kharosthi v.svg va
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Kharosthi kk.svg Kharosthi ttth.svg ṭaáaah

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