khanij vigyaan

khanij vigyaan (angreji:minralauji) bhoovijnyaaan ki ek shaakha hoti hai. ismein khanijon ke bhautik aur raasaayanik gunon ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai. vigyaan ki is shaakha ke antargat khanijon ke nirmaan, banaavat, vargeekaran, unke paae jaane ke bhaugolik sthaanon aur unke gunon ko bhi shaamil kiya gaya hai. iske maadhyam se hi khanijon ke prayog aur upayog ka bhi adhyayan isi mein kiya jaata hai. vigyaan ki anya shaakhaaon ki bhaanti hi iski utpatti bhi kai hajaar varsh poorv hui thi. vartamaan khanij vigyaan ka kshetr, kai doosari shaakhaaon jaise, jeev vigyaan aur raasaayaniki tak vistrut ho gaya hai. yoonaani daarshanik sukaraat ne sabse pehle khanijon ki utpatti aur unke gunon ko siddhaant roop mein pratut kiya tha, haalaanki sukaraat aur unke samakaaleen vichaarak baad mein galat siddh hue lekin us samay ke anusaar unke siddhaant nae aur aadhunik the. kintu ye kehna bhi atishyokti na hoga ki unki avadhaaranaaon ke kaaran hi khanij vikaas ki jatiltaaon ko sulajhaane mein sahayog mila, jis kaaran aaj uske aadhunik roop se vigyaan samruddh hai. 16veen shataabdi ke baad jarman vaigyaanik jaurjiys egrikola ke athak prayaason ke chalte khanij vigyaan ne aadhunik roop lena shuroo kiya.


anukram

itihaas

khanij vigyaan ke baare mein aaranbhik lekhan, visheshakar ratn aadi ke baare mein praacheen bebeeloniya, praacheen yoonaan-rom saamraajyon, praacheen cheen aur praacheen Bhaarat ke sanskrut mein upalabdh pauraanik saahitya mein milta hai.[1] is vishay par upalabdh pustakon mein plaaini the eldar ki naichurailis historiya hai, jismein vibhinn khanijon ka varnan hi naheen kiya gaya hai, varan unke kai gunon ka bhi byaura diya hai. jarman punarjaagaran visheshagya jaurjiys egrikola ne di re maitelika (dhaatuon par, 1556) aur di naichyura fausiliym (shailon ki prakruti par, 1546) jaise kai granth diye hain, jinmein is vishay par vaigyaanik pahaluon par vichaar kiya gaya hai. Europe mein punarjaagaran uparaant ke yug mein khanijon aur paashaanon ke kramabaddh aur suvyavasthit vaigyaanik adhyayanon ka vikaas hua.[2] khanij vigyaan ke aadhunik roop ka aadhaar 17veen shataabdi mein sookshmadarshi yantr ke aavishkaar kristalograafi ke siddhaanton aur shailon ke anubhaag kaaton ke namoonon ka sookshm adhyayan par hua.[2]

khanijon ke gunon ka adhyayan aur unka vargeekaran unki bhautik visheshataaon par nirbhar karta hai. khanij ki kathorata ki jaanch ke liye mauskel test kiya jaata hai. kisi khanij ki kathorata ya komalata is baat par nirbhar karti hai ki iski aantarik sanrachana mein paramaanuon ka vinyaas kaisa hai.

aadhunik khanij vigyaan

chailkolaait, ek taamr ayask khanij

itihaas mein dekhein to, khanij vigyaan moolat: shail-ghatak khanijon ke vargeekaran (taiksonaumi) par hi kendrit raha hai. antarraashtreeya khanijvijnyaaan sangathan (I.M.A) ek antarraashtreeya sangathan hai, jiske sadasya vishisht raashtron ke pratinidhi khanijshaastri hote hain. iske kriyaakalaapon mein khanijon ka naamakaran (naye khanij evam khanij naam aayog ke sahayog dvaara), gyaat khanijon ke paaye jaane ke sthaan, aadi aate hain. varsh 2004 ke aankadon ke anusaar I.M.A dvaara maanyata praapt khanijon ki 4,000 kismein hain. aur inmein se lagbhag 150 ko saamaanya, anya 50 ko praasangik aur shesh ko durlabh se atyant durlabh kaha ja sakta hai.

haal ke kuchh varshon mein hue vikaas se saamane aayi takaneekon (jaise nyootraun-vivrtan) aur upalabdh tej ganan kshamata jo aadhunik computeron aur atyant ekyuret parmaanu-paimaane simuleshan dvaara kristal vyavahaar ke adhyayan se samarthit hai; vigyaan ne inaurgainik raasaayaniki evam saulid state bhautiki ke kshetr mein gahan adhyayan hetu S shaakha ko pruthak kiya hai. fir bhi ismein ab bhi paashaan-nirmaan mein lage khanijon ki kristal sanrachana par dhyaan kendrit rakha hai. is shaakha ke vikaas ke mein khanijon va unke prakaaryon ke parmaanu-paimaane par adhyayan par prakaash daala hai. is shaakha ke antargat khanijon ke kai prakaar ke adhyayan kiye jaate hain:

bhautik khanij vigyaan

bhautik khanijshaastr mein khanijon ke bhautik gunon par vishesh dhyaan diya jaata hai. bhautik gunon ka varnan unki pehchaan, vargeekaran, shrenigt karne mein vishesh sahayogi rahata hai. ismein nimn binduon par gaur kiya jaata hai:[3]

  • kristal sanrachana
  • kristal gun
  • jode
  • kleevej
  • aabha
  • varn
  • dhaariyaan
  • kathorata
  • spesifik graiviti

raasaayanik khanij vigyaan

jaivakhanij vigyaan

drushti-sambandhi khanij vigyaan

kristal sanrachana

nirmaan kaarak

prayog

varnanaatmak khanij vigyaan

ditrminetiv khanij vigyaan

ab tak chaar hajaar se adhik khanijon ki khoj ho chuki hai. inmein se adhiktar aise hain, jo ab kam ya bahut kam paae jaate hain. maatr 150 khanij hi aise hain, jo vartamaan mein badi maatr mein paae jaate hain. kuchh aise bhi khanij hain, jo kabhi kisi avsar ya praakrutik ghatna par hi paae jaate hain, inki sankhya 50 se 100 ke beech hai. khanijon ke baare mein yahi kaha ja sakta hai ki ye keval pruthvi ki satah par paae jaane vaale tatv hi naheen hain, varan bhoogarbh mein, saagar mein, vaataavaran mein bhi milte hain. kai khanij svaasthya ke liye bhi laabhadaayak hote hain.

sandarbh

  1. Needham, Volume 3, 637.
  2. a aa needhaam, khand truteeya, pru.636
  3. raimsdel, 164
  • needhaim josaf (1986) science end sivilaaijeshan in China: khand-3. taaipei: kevs books li.
  • raimsdel, levis S (1963) ensaaiklopeedeeya amerikaana: antarraashtreeya sanskaran khand-19. new yaurk: amerikaana kaurp.

baahari sootr