khanan

saraleekrut vishv khanan maanachitr

pruthvi ke garbh se dhaatuon, ayaskon, audyogik tatha anya upayogi khanijon ko baahar nikolana khanikrm ya khanan (mining) hain. aadhunik yug mein khanijon tatha dhaatuon ki khapat itni adhik ho gayi hai ki prati varsh unki aavashyakta karodon tan ki hoti hai. is khapat ki poorti ke liye badi-badi khaanon ki aavashyakta ka uttarottar anubhav hua. falasvaroop khanikrm ne vistrut injeeniyron ka roop dhaaran kar liya hai. isko khanan injeeniyri kehte hain.

sansaar ke anek deshon mein, jinmein Bhaarat bhi ek hai, khanikrm bahut praacheen samay se hi prachalit hai. vaastav mein praacheen yug mein dhaatuon tatha anya khanijon ki khapat bahut kam thi, isliye chhoti-chhoti Khan hi paryaapt thi. us samay ye khaanein 100 foot ki gaharaai se adhik naheen jaati theen. jahaaain paani nikal aaya karta tha vahaaain neeche khanan karna asambhav ho jaata tha; us samay aadhunik dhang ke panp aadi yantr naheen the.

anukram

parichay

kisi bhi prakaar ke khananavikaas ke liye khanan ke poorv ki do avasthaaeain -- poorvekshan (Prospecting) tatha gaveshana (Exploration) bahut mahatvapoorn hain. poorvekshan ke antargat khanijon tatha ayaskon ki khoj, nikshepon ka saamaanya adhyayan tatha khanan ki sambhaavnaaon ko sammilit kiya jaata hai. in tathyon ki jaankaari ke liye kin saadhanon ki sahaayata li jaaya, yeh us kshetr ki aavashyakaataaon par nirbhar karta hai. gaveshanaatmak kaarya ke antargat sanbhaavya nikshepon ka vistaar aur kshetr, unki ausat motaai, khanij ki sanbhaavya maatra tatha moolya, nikshepon ke antargat khanan yogya kshetron ka vitran, Khan ko kholne, viksit karne tatha khanan ko prabhaavit karanevaali avasthaaeain evam Khan ke vikaas ke liye upayukt vidhi ka nishchaya aadi mahatvapoorn tathya sammilit hain. gaveshana ke teen mukhya ang hain : taleeya gaveshana, vedhan (Drilling) tatha bhoomigat gaveshana.

khanikrm ke mukhya vibhaag

khanikrm ko mukhya roop se teen bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hain :

  • taleeya khanan (Surface mining),
  • jalodh khanan (alluvial mining) tatha
  • bhoomigat khanan (Underground mining).

taleeya khanan

taaainbe ki khuli Khan : chili ki yeh Khan vishv ki sarvaadhik paridhi waali evam doosari sabse gahari Khan hai.

is prakaar ke khanan mein dharaatal ke oopar jo pahaad aadi hain unako todkar khanij praapt kiye jaat hain, jaise choone ka patthar, baaloo ka patthar, grainaait, lauh ayask aadi. is vidhi mein mukhya kaarya patthar ko todna hi hain. shilaaeain kathorata, majabooti tatha drudhta mein bhinn hoti hain. jo shilaaeain komal hoti hain, unako todne mein koi kathinaai naheen hoti. aisi shilaaon ke udaaharan jipsam, cheeni mitti, selakhadi aadi hain. jin shilaaon mein dhaatueain milti hain ve atyant kathor hoti hain, jaise grainaait, daayoraait aadi. in shilaaon ko visfotak padaarthon dvaara toda jaata hain. praacheen tatha madhyakaaleen yugon mein khanan ki vidhiyaan nitaant anupayukt theen. dheere dheere khanan vidhiyon ka vikaas hua aur unamein baarood aadi ka upayog hone laga. vigat ek shataabdi mein daayanemaait, jelignaait, naaitroglisreen aadi aneek prakaar ke anyaaya visfotak padaarthon ka vikaas hua. khanan mein visfotak padaarthon ka upayog karne ke liye pehle shilaaon mein chhidr banaaya jaata hai tatha usamein ye visfotak jo kaaratoos ke roop mein milte hain, rakh diye jaate hain aur vidyutaddhaara ya fyooj lagaakar unamein aag laga di jaati hain. visfot ke saath hi patthar ke tukade tukade ho jaate hain. fir inko dhan aadi se todkar aur chhota kar liya jaata hai, jisse unhein hataane mein suvidha ho. pattharon mein chhidr banaane ke liya Jack haimar aadi anek prakaar ke vedhanayantron ka upayog kiya jaata hai. ye yantr sanpeedit vaayu athva kisi drav indhan dvaara sanchaalit hote hain. chhidron ki gaharaai 3-4 foot tak tatha vyaas 1-1/2 inch se lekar 2 1/2 inch tak hota hai. kabhi kabhi shilaatal par aise bahut se chhidr kar diye jaate hai aur sab mein visfotak kaaratoos bhar diye jaate hain tatha vidyut dvaara sabhi ko ek saath hi jala diya jaata hai, isse poore ka poora pahaad toot jaata hai. Bhaarat mein is prakaar ke taleeya khanan ke udaaharan choona patthar tatha lauh ayask aadi hain. pattharon ke hataane ke liye badi khaanon mein rel ki patariyaaain bichhaakar thelon ka upayog kiya jaata hai. is kaam mein yaantrik khurape bhi bade upayogi siddh hue hain. ye khurape un pattharon ko uthaakar bade truckon mein bhar dete hain. Bhaarat mein is prakaar ke khanan ki laagat 5 ru0 se lekar 9-10 ru0 prati tan tak padti hai. taleeya khanan mein 40-50 foot tak gaharaai ke patthar nikaale jaate hain.

khule hue gaddhon se khanan karke ayask tatha khanij nikaalne ki vidhi taaainba, loha, koyala, choona patthar tatha anya audyogik khanijon ke utkhanan mein prayukt hoti hai. kuchh anshon tak yeh vidhi sone, chaaaindi, jaste tatha seese ke khanan mein bhi sahaayak siddh hui hain. is prakaar ke khanan mein khudaai karanevaale vishaal yantr tatha ayask ya khanij ko laadakar Khan se baahar le jaanevaale yantr pramukh hai. khudaai ke liye shaktishaali yaantrik khurapon ka prayog hota hai. ye khurape visfot dvaara udaae hue pattharon ke tukadon ko truck athva maalagaadi ke dibbon mein bhar dete hain. kam doori ke liye khanan gaadiyon (cars), dibbon tatha truckon se kaam chal jaata hai aur adhik doori ke liye bhaari truckon ka upayog kiya jaata hai jo lade hue pattharon ko svachaalit dhang se kisi ek sthaan par ikattha kar dete hain.

khuli hui khanijon ke roop mein khanan karne se poorv us kshetr ki sthaalaakruti ke maanachitr banaae jaate hain aur fir khaaiyaaain, pareekshaanaatmak gaddhe tatha vedhan dvaara nikshep ki motaai tatha khanij ki upalabdh maatra ka nishchaya kiya jaata hai. paani ke nikaas ki dashaaon par bhi saavadhaani se vichaar kiya jaata hai. khanan kaarya praarambh hone par sabse pehle nikshepon par sthit mitti hataane ka kaam hota hain. kabhi kabhi badi khaanon ko kholne ke liye mitti hataane mein 2-3 varsh tak lag jaate hain. khanan kaarya choti se praarambh hota hai tatha ek ke baad ek sapaat beinchein tab tak kaati jaati hain jab tak talahati naheen aa jaati. aajkal aadhunik boring yantron ke aavishkaar ke falasvaroop 25-30 foot tak motaai ki beinchein kaatna saral ho gaya hain. in beinchon ke oopar halke truck tatha lohe ki patariyon par chalne vaale thelon ke aane jaane ka prabandh kiya jaata hai. saadhaaranataya bench banaane ke liye shilaaon mein kai chhidr kiye jaate hai tatha visfot karne ke liye lachakeeli visfotak topikaaon ka prayog kiya jaata hai. ek pound visfotak padaarth se 4 se 15 tan tak shilaaeain toot sakti hain. yeh maatra shilaaon ki drudhta par nirbhar karti hai.

Bhaarat mein khuli hui khaanon ke roop mein khanan ki pranaali mukhyat: choona patthar aadi ke liye bade star par prayukt hoti hai. jin khaanon se cement utpaadan ke liye choona patthar nikaala jaata hai, vahaaain 2000 tan tak ka dainik utpaadan asaamaanya naheen samjha jaata. Bihar, madhya pradesh tatha udeesa aadi mein lauh ayask ke utkhanan mein bhi isi vidhi ka upayog hota hai. anya ayaskon tatha khanijon ke atirikt is prakaar ki khanan pranaali koyale ke liye bhi vahaaain prayukt ki ja sakti hai jahaaain koyale ke staron ki gaharaai adhik na ho. is prakaar koyale ke star ki motaai se yadi us par sthit mitti ki motaai das guni tak adhik hoti hai to bhi is prakaar ka khanan aarthik drushti se upayukt hi samjha jaata hai.

jalodh khanan

kuchh praacheen nadiyon mein jo avasaad ekatrit hue hain unamein kabhi kabhi bahumoolya dhaatueain bhi nikshipt ho jaati hai. in avasaadon ko todkar dhaatuon ki praapti karna is prakaar ke khanan ke antargat aata hai. kabhi bhi ye dhaatueain nadi ki talahati mein milti hain aur kai baar inmein sone jaisi bahumoolya dhaatueain paryaapt maatra mein mil jaati hain. kuchh avasthaaon mein ye avasaad doosare nae avasaadon se dhak bhi jaate hain. tab unhein hataakar dhaatuon ki praapti ki jaati hai. vishesh paristhitiyon mein ye dhaatueain sanpeedit shailon (conglomerates) mein bhi ekatrit hui dekhi gayi hain. prakshaalan nikshapon (Placer deposits) ke khanan mein vishesh roop se ise prayukt kiya jaata hai. ye shilaaeain malava nirmit (detrital) hoti hain tatha inke kanon ka aakaar bhi bhinn hota hai. prakshaalan nikshapon ke pramukh upayogi khanij sona, tin, plaitinm tatha virl mittiyaaain hain. shilaaon mein in dhaatuon ki pratishat maatra bahut kam hoti hai. is vidhi mein ooainche dabaav par paani bade veg ke saath naajl se niklata hai aur shila par takaraata hai. paani ke takkar ke falasvaroop shila toot jaati hai tatha sookshm kanon mein vichhinn ho jaati hai. paani ki dhaara ke saath ye kan aage chal dete hain, jahaaain paani sloos bakson jinmein baadhak (baffle) pletein lagi rahati hain, pravaahit kiya jaata hai. baadhak pleton ke sameep bhaari dhaatueain ekatrit ho jaati hai tatha dhaatukanon se vihin paani vichhinn shila ko liye aage bah jaata hai.

jalodh khanan vidhi mein pramukh aavashyakta vishaal maatra mein jal ki hoti hai. paani ka dabaav 50 se 600 foot tak ho sakta hai. khanan ka moolya bhi kam hota hai, kyonki ismein paani se utpann shakti ke atirikt anya kisi shakti ki aavashyakta naheen hoti. is prakaar khanit padaarthon ki maap ghan gajon mein ki jaati hai. bade nikshepon ke khanan mein yaantrik saadhanon ka bhi upayog kiya jaata hai tatha kabhi kabhi is vidhi se 30 foot motaai ke nikshepon tak ka khanan hota hai. Bhaarat mein jalodh khanan vyavahaar mein naheen hai; kuchh kshetron mein ret chhaanakar tatha dhokar sona aadi praapt kiya jaata hai. Bihar mein svarnarekha nadi ke tat par rahanevaale nivaasi isi prakaar sone ki praapti kiya karte hai.

jalodh khanan ki ek anya vidhi mein ek vishesh prakaar ki yaantrik naukaaon ka bhi upayog hota hai. in naukaaon mein ghoomanevaali baaltiyon ki vyavastha rahati hai, jo talahati se baaloo ko kharonchakar naav par la deti hain. is baaloo ke saath hi anek apagharshi khanij bhi aa jaate hain jinko uparyukt vidhi dvaara pruthak kar liya jaata hai. barma aur malaaya ke tin kshetron ke prakshaapaalan nikshepon ke khanan mein yahi vidhi prayukt ki gayi hai. is khanan mein shakti ki aavashyakta tatha dhan ki laagat bhi yathesht padti hai. ye naukaaeain 20 foot ki gaharaai tak ki baaloo kharonch sakti hain. inmein prayukt baaltiyon ka samaaveshan 1 1/2 se 14 ghanafut tak ka hota hai.

bhoomigat khanan

un anek prakaar ke khanijon tatha ayaskon ke utkhanan mein bhoomigat khanan ka sahaara lena padta hai jinka khuli hui khaanon ke roop mein khanan, gaharaai par sthit hone ke kaaran, aarthik drushti se anupayukt athva asambhav hota hai. yadyapi bhoomigat khanan mein bhi badi poonji ki aavashyakta hoti hai, tathaapi in nikshepon ke khanan ke liye koi anya vikalp naheen hai. bhoomigat nikshep do prakaar ke ho sakte hain :

  • (1) jo star roop mein milte hain, jaise koyala tatha
  • (2) dhaatvik pattikaaeain.

in donon prakaar ke nikshepon ki prakruti nitaant bhinn hoti hai, isaliye inke khanan ki vidhiyaaain bhi suvidhaanusaar alag alag hoti hai. khaanon mein kaarya aarambh hone se pehle poorvekshan tatha gaveshanaatmak kaaryon ko saavadhaani se samaapt kar liya jaata hai. iske pashchaat Khan ka vikaas kaarya praarambh hota hai. sarvapratham koop (shaft) banaae jaate hain. inka vyaas 10-12 foot tak ho sakta hai. yadi nikshepon ki gairaai kam hoti hai to pravanakon ka hi nirmaan kar liya jaata hai. yadi aavashyakta hui to bhoomigat maarg tatha gailariyaaain bhi bana li jaati hain jin shilaaon se hota hua koop jaata hai, yadi ve sudrudh naheen hoti to ispaat, cement aadi ke astar ki bhi aavashyakta padti hai. bhoomigat khanan mein koopon ka bada mahatva hai, kyonki karmachaariyon ka Khan mein aana jaana, khanit padaarthon ka baahar aana, vaayu ka sanchaalan tatha Khan se paani baahar feinkane ke liye pumpon ka sthaapan inheen se sanchaalit hota hai. kisi bhi Khan mein kam se kam do koop avashya hote hain.

khanijon tatha ayaskon ko todne mein faavade, kudaali tatha sabbal athva yantron ya visfotak padaarthon ki sahaayata li jaati hai. prayatn is baat ka kiya jaata hai ki khanij ki adhikaadhik maatra nikaal li jaaya. kintu isse Khan mein shilaaon ka santulan bigadne lagta hai. yeh bahut kuchh anshon tak shilaaon ke lacheelepan tatha unki shakti par nirbhar karta hai. Khan mein shilaaon ka santulan bigadne se bachaane ke liye Khan ki deevaaron tatha chhat ko sahaare ki aavashyakta hoti hai. iske liye jis star par kaarya chal raha hai usamein stambh chhod diye jaate hai aur aaspaas se khanij nikaal liya jaata hai. kintu ismein khanij ki kaafi maatra ka hraas hota hai. isaliye aajkal prayatn yeh kiya jaata hai ki khaali sthaanon mein baaloo athva vaisa hi koi anya padaarth bhar diya jaaya tatha un stambhon ka khanij bhi nikaal liya jaaya. yeh vidhi adhikaansh bhaarateeya koyala khaanon mein prayukt hoti hai. iske atirikt, lakdi, loha, kankreet, patthar, int aadi bhi prayukt hote hai. khanij padaarth ko Khan se oopar laane ke liye pinjade ke aakaar ka jhoola, ispaat ke rasse tatha vaainding engine ki aavashyakta hoti hai. khaanon ke andar khanij ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan tak laane ke liye traaliyaaain prayukt hoti hain, jo adhiktar lohe ki patariyon par chalti hain. koop se hokar Khan ke karmachaari bhi Khan mein inheen jhoolon se utarate hain. kuchh khaanon mein seedhiyaaain bhi kaam mein aati hain, jaise kodarma (Bihar) ki abhrak khaanon mein.

bhoomigat khaanon mein upayukt prakaash tatha shuddh vaayu ke aavaagaman ka prabandh atyant aavashyak hai. adhikaansh khaanon mein ab vidyut prakaash upalabdh hai. abhrak aadi ki khaanon mein momabattiyaaain bhi prayukt hoti hai. vaayu ke aavaagaman ke liye vaayumaarg bade hone chaahiye tatha vaayu ka praakrutik pravaah naheen rukana chaahiye. kuchh sthitiyon mein iske liye kuchh yaantrik saadhanon ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai. ye yantr Khan mein shuddh vaayu ka sanchaalan karte hain.

Khan mein koop khodate samay, athva jalapatal aa jaane par, paani ka praakrutik pravaah praarambh ho jaata hai. yeh paani naali banaakar ek jagah le jaaya jaata hai tatha vahaaain se panp dvaara Khan se baahar nikaal diya jaata hai.

bhoomigat khaanon mein durghatanaaeain

bhoomigat khaanon mein durghatanaaeain bhi badi bhayaavani hoti hain. inmein aag lagana ek badi samasya hai. aag ki durghatanaaeain vishaakt gaison ke achaanak visfot se, visfotak padaarthon ke maadhyam se ya kisi anya kaaranavash ho sakti hain. koyale ki khaanon mein aag bujhaana bahut jatil hota hai. jhariya kshetr ki kuchh khaanon mein varshon se aag lagi hui hain, kintu abhi tak unako bujhaaya naheen ja saka hai. kuchh durghatanaaeain Khan ke baithane se ya usamein achaanak paani bhar jaane se ho jaaya karti hai. abhi gat 27 December 1975 ko dhanabaad se 27 kilometer door sthit chaasanaala koyala Khan ke 80 foot oopar sthit paani ke ek vishaal hauj mein akasmaat 8.35 meter chhed ho gaya aur paani badi teji ke saath bharne laga. falat: us samay Khan ke bheetar jo 372 majadoor kaam kar rahe the ve sab Khan ke bheetar hi pravaah mein fains gaye aur kisi prakaar nikaale na ja sake. is durghatanaaeain se pehle 1973 mein jitpur mein 40 majadoor mar gaye the. hajaareebaag ke pyori Khan mein hui durghatana 238 majadoor mare the. 1958 mein chanaakuti mein ek durghatana hui thi jismein 176 log mare the.

khanan injeeniyri ke aadhunik vikaas ke falasvaroop in durghatanaaon tatha anya sabhi samasyaaon ko kam karne ke yathaasaadhya sabhi prakaar ke prayaas kiye jaate hain. durghatana ki sthiti mein aapatkaaleen khanan sainya dal, jo poorn roop se susajjit rahata hai, dhan aur jan ki raksha mein apoorv sahayog deta hai. pratyek khanan kshetr me is seva ke liye keindron ki vyavastha rahati hai. chaasanaala ki durghatana mein paani ke nikaas ke liye anek deshon ne panpaadi yantr bhejkar sahaayata ki.

khaanon ka kaam suchaaru roop se sanchaalit hota rahe iske liye deshon ki sarkaarein kaanoon banaati hai. in kaanoonon mein karmachaariyon ki suraksha unke svaasthya, khanan mein upayukt vidhiyon ka upayog tatha anya sambandhit vishay rahate hain. shramikon ke kalyaan ke liye bhi pratyek desh mein aur lambe samay se Bhaarat mein bhi, yojanaaeain kaaryaanvit ki ja rahi hain, jisse unke sukh, suvidha aur suraksha ke saadhanon mein vruddhi ho.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain