khagol shaastr

chandr sambandhi khagol shaastr: yeh bada kretar hai dedalas. 1969 mein chandrama ki pradakshina karte samay Apollo 11 ke chaalak-dal (kroo) ne yeh chitr liya tha. yeh kretar pruthvi ke chandrama ke madhya ke najdeek hai aur iska vyaas (diameter) lagbhag 93 kilometer ya 58 meal hai.

khagol shaastr, ek aisa shaastr hai jiske antargat pruthvi aur uske vaayumandal ke baahar hone waali ghatnaaon ka avlokan, vishleshan tatha usaki vyaakhya (explanation) ki jaati hai. yeh vah anushaasan hai jo aakaash mein avalokit ki ja sakane waali tatha unka samaavesh karne waali kriyaaon ke aarambh, badlaav aur bhautik tatha raasaayanik gunon ka adhyayan karta hai.

beesaveen shataabdi ke dauraan, vyaavasaayik khagol shaastr ko avalokik khagol shaastr tatha kaalpanik khagol tatha bhautik shaastr mein baaaintane ki koshish ki gayi hai. bahut kam aise khagol shaastri hai jo dono karte hai kyonki dono kshetron mein alag alag praveenataaon ki aavashyakta hoti hai, par jyaadaatar vyaavasaayik khagolashaastri apne aap ko dono mein se ek paksh mein paate hai.

khagol shaastr jyotish shaastr se alag hai. jyotish shaastr ek chhadm-vigyaan (Pseudoscience) hai jo kisi ka bhavishya grahon ke chaal se jodkar bataane ki koshish karta hai. haalaaainki donon shaastron ka aarambh bindu ek hai fir bhi ve kaafi alag hai. khagol shaastri jahaaain vaigyaanik paddhati ka upayog karte hain jabki jyotishi keval anumaan aadhaarit gananaaon ka sahaara lete hain.

parichay

khagoliki brahmaand mein avasthit aakaasheeya pindon ka prakaash, udbhav, sanrachana aur unke vyavahaar ka adhyayan khagoliki ka vishay hai. ab tak brahmaand ke jitne bhaag ka pata chala hai usamein lagbhag 19 arab aakaash gangaaon ke hone ka anumaan hai aur pratyek aakaash ganga mein lagbhag 10 arab taare hain. aakaash ganga ka vyaas lagbhag ek lakh prakaashavarsh hai. hamaari pruthvi par aadim jeev 2 arab saal pehle paida hua aur aadmi ka dharati par avatan 10-20 lakh saal pehle hua.

vaigyaaniko ke anusaar is brahmaand ki utpatti ek mahaapind ke visfot se hui hai. soorya ek ausat taara hai jiske nau mukhya grah hain, unamein se pruthvi bhi ek hai. is brahmaand mein har ek taara soorya sadrush hai. bahut-se taare to aise hain jinke saamane apna soorya anu (kan) ke baraabar bhi naheen thaharata hai. jaise soorya ke grah hain aur un sabko milaakar ham saur parivaar ke naam se pukaarate hain, usi prakaar harek taare ka apna apna parivaar hai. bahut se log samajhte hain ki soorya sthir hai, lekin sampoorn saur parivaar bhi sthaaneeya nakshatr pranaali ke antargat prati second 13 meal ki gati se ghoom raha hai. sthaaneeya nakshatr pranaali aakaash ganga ke antargat prati second 200 meal ki gati se chal rahi hai aur sampoorn aakaash ganga doorasth baahya jyortimaalaaon ke antargat prati second 100 meal ki gati se vibhinn dishaaon mein ghoom rahi hai.

chandrama pruthvi ka ek upagrah hai jis par maanav ke kadam pahuainch chuke hain. is brahmaand mein sabse vismayakaari drushya hai- aakaash ganga (galaxy) ka drushya. raatri ke khule (jab chandrama na dikhaai de) aakaash mein pratyek manushya inhein nangi aaainkhon se dekh sakta hai. dekhne mein yeh halke safed dhueain jaisi dikhaai deti hai, jismein asankhya taaron ka baahulya hai. yeh aakaash ganga tedhi-medhi hokar bahi hai. iska pravaah uttar se dakshin ki or hai. par praat:kaal hone se thoda pehle iska pravaah poorvottar se pashchim aur dakshin ki or hota hai. dekhne mein aakaash ganga ke taare paraspar sambaddh se lagte hain, par yeh drushti bhram hai. ek doosare se sate hue taaron ke beech ki doori arabon meal ho sakti hai. jab sate hue taaron ka yeh haal hai to door door sthit taaron ke beech ki doori aisi gananaateet hai jise kah paana mushkil hai. isi kaaran se taaraaon ke beech tatha anya lambi dooriyaaain prakaashavarsh mein maapi jaati hain. ek prakaashavarsh vah doori hai jo doori prakaash ek lakh chhiyaasi hajaar meal prati second ki gati se ek varsh mein tay karta hai. udaaharan ke liye soorya aur pruthvi ke beech ki doori sava nau karod meal hai, prakaash yeh doori sava aath minute mein tay karta hai. at: pruthvi se soorya ki doori sava aath prakaash minute hui. jin taaron se prakaash aath hajaar varshon mein aata hai, unki doori humne paune saintaalis padm meal aaainki hai. lekin taare to itni itni doori par hain ki unase prakaash ke aane mein laakhon, karodon, arabon varsh lag jaata hai. is sthiti mein hamein in dooriyon ko meelon mein vyakt karna sambhav naheen hoga aur na kuchh samajh mein hi aaega. iseeliye prakaashavarsh ki ikaai ka vaigyaaniko ne prayog kiya hai.

maan leejiye, brahmaand ke kisi aur nakshatron aadi ke baad bahut door door tak kuchh naheen hai, lekin yeh baat antim naheen ho sakti hai. yadi uske baad kuchh hai to turant yeh prashn saamane aa jaata hai ki vah kuchh kahaaain tak hai aur uske baad kya hai? iseeliye humne is brahmaand ko anaadi aur anant maana. iske atirikt anya shabdon mein brahmaand ki vishaalata, vyaapakata vyakt karna sambhav naheen hai.

antariksh mein kuchh sthaanon par dooradarshi se gol guchhe dikhaai dete hain. inhein star klastar ya gleetyroolar star arthaat taara guchh kehte hain. ismein bahut se taare hote hain jo beech mein ghane rahate hain aur kinaare birl hote hain. teliskop se aakaash mein dekhne par kaheen kaheen kuchh dhabbe dikhaai dete hain. ye baadal ke samaan bade safed dhabbe se dikhaai dete hain. in dhabbon ko hi neehaarika kehte hain. is brahmaand mein asankhya neehaarikaaeain hain. unamein se kuchh hi ham dekh paate hain.

is aparimit brahmaand ka ati kshudr ansh ham dekh paate hain. aadhunik khojon ke kaaran jaise jaise doorabeen ki kshamata badhti jaati hai, vaise vaise brahmaand ke is drushyamaan kshetr ki seema badhti jaati hai. parantu vartamaan paridrushya mein brahmaand ki poori thaah maanav kshamata se bahut door hai.

khagol bhautiki ka aadhunik yug jarman bhautikvid kirchaak se aarambh hua. soorya ke vaataavaran mein sodiym, lauh, maigneshiym, kailshiym tatha anek anya tatvon ka unhonne pata lagaaya (san 1859). hamaare desh mein svargeeya professor meghanaad saaha ne soorya aur taaron ke bhautik tatvon ke adhyayan mein mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya hai. unhonne varnakramon ke adhyayan se khagoleeya pindon ke vaataavaran mein atyant mahatvapoorn khojein ki hain. aajkal hamaare desh ke do prakhyaat vaigyaanik dau॰ S. chandrashekhar aur dau॰ jayant vishnu naaraleekar bhi brahmaand ke rahasyon ko sulajhaane mein ulajhe hue hain.

bahut pehle koparniks, taaiko braahe aur mukhyat: kaiplar ne khagol vidya mein mahatvaparnoo kaarya kiya tha. kaiplar ne grahon ke gati ke sambandh mein jin teen niyamon ka pratipaadan kiya hai ve hi khagol bhautiki ki aadhaarashila bane hue hain. khagol vidya mein nyootan ka kaarya bahut mahatvapoorn raha hai.

brahmaand vidya ke kshetr mein pichhle kuchh varshon (lagbhag 45 varshon poorv) ki khojon ke falasvaroop kuchh mahatvapoorn baatein samaane I hain. vikhyaat vaigyaanik habal ne apne nireekshanon se brahmaandavidya ki ek nai prakriya ka pata lagaaya. habal ne sudoor sthit aakaash gangaaon se aanevaale prakaash ka pareekshan kiya aur bataaya ki pruthvi tak aane mein prakaash tarangon ka kanpan badh jaata hai. yadi is prakaash ka varnapat praapt karein to varnapat ka jhukaav laal rang ki or adhik hota hai. is prakriya ko dopalar prabhaav kehte hain. dhvani sambandhi dopalar prabhaav se bahut log parichit honge. jab ham prakaash ke sandarbh mein dopalar prabhaav ko dekhte hain to door se aanevaale prakaash ka jhukaav neele rang ki or hota hai aur door jaane vaale prakaash srot ke prakaash ka jhukaav laal rang ki or hota hai. is prakaar habal ke nireekshanon se yeh maaloom hua ki aakaash gangaaeain hamse door ja rahi hain. habal ne yeh bhi bataaya ki unki pruthvi se door hatne ki gati, pruthvi se unki doori ke anupaat mein hai. mount polomar vedhashaala mein sthit 200 inch vyaasavaale leins ki doorabeen se khagol shaastriyon ne aakaash gangaaon ke door hatne ki prakriya ko dekha hai.

doorabeen se brahmaand ko dekhne par hamein aisa prateet hota hai ki ham is brahmaand ke keindrabindu hain aur baaki cheejein hamse door bhaagati ja rahi hain. yadi anya aakaash gangaaon mein prekshak bheje jaaeain to ve bhi yahi paaenge ki is brahmaand ke kendra bindu hain, baaki aakaash gangaaeain hamse door bhaagati ja rahi hain. ab jo sahi chitr hamaare saamane aata hai, vah yeh hai ki brahmaand ka samaan gati se vistaar ho raha hai. aur is vishaal praaroop ka koi bhi bindu anya vastuon se door hatata ja raha hai.

habal ke anusandhaan ke baad brahmaand ke siddhaanton ka pratipaadan aavashyak ho gaya tha. yeh vah samay tha jab ki aainsateen ka saapekshavaad ka siddhaant apni shaishavaavastha mein tha. lekin fir bhi aainsateen ke siddhaant ko sauramandal sambandhi nireekshanon par aadhaarit nishkarshon ki vyaakhya karne mein nyootan ke siddhaanton se adhik safalta praapt hui thi. nyootan ke anusaar do pindon ke beech ki guru tvaakarshan shakti ek doosare par tatkaal prabhaav daalati hai lekin aainsateen ne yeh saabit kar diya ki paarasparik guru tvaakarshan ki shakti ki gati prakaash ki gati ke samaan teevr naheen ho sakti hai. aakhir yahaaain par aainsateen ne nyootan ke patra ko galat pramaanit kiya. logon ko aainsateen ka hi siddhaant pasand aaya. brahmaand ki utpatti ki teen dhaaranaaeain prastut hain----

1. sthir avastha ka siddhaant

2. visfot siddhaant (big bang siddhaant) aur

3. dolan siddhaant.

in dhaaranaaon mein doosari dhaarana ki mahatta adhik hai. is dhaarana ke anusaar brahmaand ki utpatti ek mahaapind ke visfot se hui hai aur isi kaaran aakaash gangaaeain hamse door bhaagati ja rahi hai. is brahmaand ka ulata chitr aap apne saamane rakhiye tab aapko brahmaand prasaarit na dikhaai dekar sakunchit hota hua dikhaai dega aur aakaash gangaaeain bhaagati hui na dikhaai dekar aati hui prateet hogi. at: kehne ka taatparya yeh hai ki kisi samay koi mahaapind raha hoga aur usi ke visfot hone ke kaaran aakaash gangaaeain bhaagati hui hamse door ja rahi hain. kvaasar aur palsar naamak nae taaron ki khoj se bhi visfot siddhaant ki pushti ho rahi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain