khadeeboli

khadi boli se taatparya khadi boli hindi se hai jise bhaarateeya samvidhaan ne raajabhaasha ke roop mein sveekrut kiya hai. bhaashaavijnyaaan ki drushti se ise aadarsh (standard) hindi, urdoo tatha hindustaani ki mool aadhaar svaroop boli hone ka gaurav praapt hai. khadi boli pashchim ruhelakhand, ganga ke uttari doaab tatha Ambala jile ki upabhaasha hai jo graameen janta ke dvaara maatrubhaasha ke roop mein boli jaati hai. is pradesh mein Rampur, bijnaur, Meerut, mujaffaranagar, muraadaabaad, sahaaranapur, deharaadoon ka maidaani bhaag, Ambala tatha kalasiya aur bhootapoorv Patiala riyaasat ke poorvi bhaag aate hain.

khadi boli vah boli hai jispar brajabhaasha ya avadhi aadi ki chhaap na ho. theinth hindi. aaj ki raashtrabhaasha hindi ka poorv roop. iska itihaas shataabdiyon se chala aa raha hai. yeh parinishthit pashchimi hindi ka ek roop hai.

anukram

parichay

'khadi boli' (ya khari boli) vartamaan hindi ka ek roop hai jismein sanskrut ke shabdon ki bahulata karke vartamaan hindi bhaasha ki srushti ki gayi aur faarasi tatha arabi ke shabdon ki adhikta karke vartamaan urdoo bhaasha ki srushti ki gayi hai. doosare shabdon mein, vah boli jispar braj ya avadhi aadi ki chhaap na ho, theinth hindeen. khadi boli aaj ki raashtrabhaasha hindi ka poorv roop hai. yeh parinishthit pashchimi hindi ka ek roop hai. iska itihaas shataabdiyon se chala aa raha hai.

jis samay musalmaan is desh mein aakar bas gaye, us samay unhein yahaaain ki koi ek bhaasha grahan karne ki aavashyakta hui. ve praay: Delhi aur uske poorabi praanton mein hi adhikta se base the aur brajabhaash tatha avadhi bhaashaaeain, klisht hone ke kaaran apna naheen sakte the, isaliye unhonne Meerut aur uske aaspaas ki boli grahan ki aur usaka naam khadi (khari?) boli rakha. isi khadi boli mein ve dheere dheere faarasi aur arabi shabd milaate gaye jisse ant mein vartamaan urdoo bhaasha ki srushti hui. vikrami 14veen shataabdi me pehle-pahal ameer khusaro ne is praanteeya boli ka prayog karna aarambh kiya aur usamein bahut kuchh kavita ki, jo saral tatha saras hone ke kaaran sheegra hi prachalit ho gayi. bahut dinon tak musalmaan hi is boli ka bolachaal aur saahitya mein vyavahaar karte rahe, par peechhe hinduon mein bhi iska prachaar hone laga. 15veen aur 16 veen shataabdi mein koi koi hindi ke kavi bhi apni kavita mein kaheen kaheen iska prayog karne lage the, par unki sankhya praay: naheen ke samaan thi. adhikaansh kavita baraabar avadhi aur vrajabhaasha mein hi hoti rahi. 18veen shataavdhi mein hindu bhi saahitya mein iska vyavahaar karne lage, par padya mein naheen, keval gadya mein; aur tabhi se maanon vartamaan hindi gadya ka janm hua, jiske aachaarya munshi sadaasukhalaal, lalloo ji laal aur sadal mishr maane jaate hain. jis prakaar musalmaanon ne ismein faarasi tatha arabi aadi ke shabd bharakar vartamaan urdoo bhaasha banaai, usi prakaar hinduon ne bhi usamein sanskrut ke shabdon ki adhikta karke vartamaan hindi prastut ki. idhar thode dinon se kuchh log sanskrutaprachur vartamaan hindi mein bhi kavita karne lag gaye hain aur kavita ke kaam ke liye usi ko khadi boli kehte hain.

vartamaan hindi ka ek roop jismein sanskrut ke shabdon ki bahulata karke vartamaan hindi bhaasha ki aur faarasi tatha arabi ke shabdon ki adhikta karke vartamaan urdoo bhaasha ki srushti ki gayi hai.

saahityik sandarbh

saahityik sandarbh mein braj, avadhi aadi boliyon mein saahitya ka paarthakya karne ke liye aadhunik hindi saahitya ko khadi boli saahitya ke naam se abhihit kiya jaata hai. yeh bhaaratavarsh ki sarvaadhik prachalit, saral tatha bodhagamya bhaasha hai. Bihar, jhaarakhand, uttarapradesh, uttaraanchal, Madhya Pradesh, chhatteesagadh, Rajasthan, Himachal pradesh evam Haryana hindi (khadi boli) bhaashaabhaashi raajya hain. parantu inke atirikt sudoor dakshin ke kuchh sthaanon ko chhodkar iska prachaar nyoonaadhik samast desh mein hai.

naamakaran

khadi boli anek naamon se abhihit ki gayi hai yatha-hindui, hindavi, dakkhini, dakhani ya dakani, rekhata, hindostaani, hindustaani aadi. dau॰ griyrsan ne ise varnaakyular hindustaani tatha dau॰ suneeti Kumar chatarji ne ise janapadeeya hindustaani ka naam diya hai. dau॰ chatarji khadi boli ke saahityik roop ko saadhu hindi ya naagari hindi ke naam se abhihit karte hain. parantu dau॰ griyrsan ne ise haai hindi ka abhidhaan pradaan kiya hai. iski vyaakhya vibhinn vidvaanon ne bhinn bhinn roop se ki hai. in vidvaanon ke maton ki nimnaankit shreniyaaain hai-

  • (1) kuchh vidvaan khadi boli naam ko bajrabhaasha saapeksh maanate hain aur yeh pratipaadan karte hain ki lalloo ji laal (1803 E.) ke bahut poorv yeh naam brajabhaasha ki madhurata tatha komalata ki tulana mein us boli ko diya gaya tha jisse kaalaantar mein aadarsh hindi tatha urdoo ka vikaas hua. ye vidvaan khadi shabd se karkashata, katuta, kharaapan, khadaapan aadi grahan karte hain.
  • (2) kuchh log ise urdoo saapeksh maankar usaki apeksha ise prakrut shuddh, graameen theth boli maanate hain.
  • (3) anek vidvaan khadi ka arth susthit, prachalit, susanskrut, parishkrut ya paripakva grahan karte hain.
  • (4) anya vidvaan uttari Bhaarat ki okaaraant pradhaan braj aadi boliyon ko padi boli aur iske vipreet ise khadi boli ke naam se abhihit karte hain, jabki kuchh log rekhata shaili ko padi aur ise khadi maanate hain. khadi boli ko khari boli bhi kaha gaya hai. sambhavat: khadi boli shabd ka sarvapratham prayog lalloo ji laal dvaara premasaagar mein kiya gaya hai. kintu is granth ke mukhaprushth par khari shabd hi mudrit hai.

khadi boli ki utpatti tatha iske sambandh mein vibhinn mat

atyant praacheen kaal se hi himaalaya tatha vindhya parvat ke beech ki bhoomi aaryaavart ke naam se prakhyaat hai. isi ke beech ke pradesh ko madhya pradesh kaha jaata hai jo bhaarateeya sanskruti tatha sabhyata ka keindrabindu hai. sanskrut, paali tatha shauraseni praakrut vibhinn yugon mein is madhyadesh ki bhaasha thi. kaalakram se shauraseni praakrut ke pashchaat is pradesh mein shauraseni apabhransh ka prachaar hua. yeh kathya (bolachaal ki) shauraseni apabhransh bhaasha hi kaalaantar mein kadaachit khadi boli (hindi) ke roop mein paarint hui hai. is prakaar khadi boli ki utpatti shauraseni apabhransh se maani jaati hai, yadyapi is apabhransh ka vikaas saahityak roop mein naheen paaya jaata. bhoj aur hammeeradev ke samay se apabhransh kaavyon ki jo parampara chalti rahi uske bheetar khadi boli ke praacheen roop ki jhalak dikhaai padti hai. iske uparaant bhaktikaal ke aarambh mein nirgun dhaara ke sant kavi khadi boli ka vyavahaar apni sadhukkadi bhaasha mein kiya karte the.

kuchh vidvaanon ka mat hai ki musalmaanon ke dvaara hi khadi boli astitv mein laai gayi aur usaka moolaroop urdoo hai, jisse aadhunik hindi ki bhaasha arabi faarasi shabdon ko nikaalkar gadh li gayi. suprasiddh bhaashaashaastri, dau॰ griyrsan ke mataanusaar khadi boli angrejon ki den hai. mugal saamraajya ke dhvans se khadi boli ke prachaar mein sahaayata pahuainchi. jis prakaar ujadti hui Delhi ko chhodkar meer, insha aadi urdoo ke anek shaayar poorab ki or aane lage usi prakaar Delhi ke aaspaas ke hindu vyaapaari jeevika ke liye Lucknow, faijaabaad, prayaag, kaashi, Patna, aadi poorabi shaharon mein failane lage. inke saath hi saath unki bolachaal ki bhaasha khadi boli bhi lagi chalti thi. is prakaar bade shaharon ke baajaar ki bhaasha bhi khadi boli ho gayi. yeh khadi boli asli aur svaabhaavik bhaasha thi, maulaviyon aur munshiyon ki urdoo-A-mualla naheen. 19veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh ke sambandh mein ve likhte hain ki yeh samay hindi (khadeeboli) bhaasha ke janm ka samay tha jiska avishkaar angrejon ne kiya tha aur iska saahityik gadya ke roop mein sarvapratham prayog gilkraaist ki aajnyaa se lalloo ji laal ne apne premasaagar mein kiya.

lalloo ji laal aur pan॰ sadal mishr ko khadi boli ke unnaayak athva isko pragati pradaan karanevaala to maana ja sakta hai, parantu inhein khadi boli ka janmadaata kehna satya se yukt tatha tathyon se pramaanit naheen hai. khadi boli ki praacheen parampara ke sambandh mein dhyaanapoorvak vichaar karne par is kathan ki ayathaarthata svayamev siddh ho jaati hai.

musalmaanon ke dvaara iske prasaar mein sahaayata avashya praapt hui. urdoo koi svatantr bhaasha naheen balki khadi boli ki hi ek shaili maatr hai jismein faarasi aur arabi ke shabdon ki adhikta pai jaati hai tatha jo faarasi lipi mein likhi jaati hai. urdoo saahitya ke itihaas par dhyaan dene se yeh baat spasht pramaanit hai. anek musalmaan kaviyon ne faarasi mishrit khadi boli mein, jise ve 'rekhta' kehte the, kavita ki hai. yeh parampara 18veen 19veen shati mein Delhi ke antim baadshah bahaadurashaah tatha Lucknow ke antim navaab vaajidali shaah tak chalti rahi.

saadhaaranat: lalloo ji laal, sadal mishr, inshaaalla khaaain tatha munshi sadaasukhalaal khadi boli gadya ke pratishthaapak kahe jaate hain parantu inmein se kisi ko bhi iski parampara ko pratishthit karne ka saubhaagya praapt naheen hai. aadhunik khadi boli gadya ki parampara ki pratishtha ka shreya bhaarateindu babu harishchandr evam raaja shivprasaad sitaarehind ko praapt hai jinhonne apni rachanaaon ke dvaara ek saral sarvasammat gadyashaili ka pravartan kiya. kaalaantar mein logon ne bhaarateindu ki shaili adhik apnaai.

vastut: aadhunik hindi saahitya khadi boli ka hi saahitya hai jiske liye devanaagari lipi ka saamaanyat: vyavahaar kiya jaata hai aur jismein sanskrut, paali, praakrut aadi ke shabdon aur prakrutiyon ke saath desh mein prachalit anek bhaashaaon aur janaboliyon ki chhaaya apne tadbhav roop mein vartamaan hai.

yeh bhi dekhein