keshav

keshav ka svachitran (1570 E)

keshav ya keshavadaas (janm (anumaanat:) 1555 vikrami aur mrutyu (anumaanat:) 1618 vikrami) hindi saahitya ke reetikaal ki kavi-trayi ke ek pramukh stambh hain. ve sanskrut kaavyashaastr ka samyak parichay karaanevaale hindi ke praacheen aachaarya aur kavi hain.[1]

inka janm sanaadhya braahman kul mein hua tha. inke pita ka naam kaasheeraam tha jo odchha naresh madhukarashaah ke vishesh snehabhaajan the. madhukarashaah ke putr mahaaraaj indrajeet Singh inke mukhya aashrayadaata the. ve keshav ko apna guru maanate the. rasikpriya ke anusaar keshav odchha raajyaatargat tungaararaaya ke nikat betava nadi ke kinaare sthit odchha nagar mein rahate the.[2]

anukram

jeevan parichay

aachaarya keshavadaas ka janm 1546 isvi mein orachha mein hua tha. ve sanaadhaya braahman the. unke pita ka naam pan kaasheenaath tha. orachha ke raajadarabaar mein unke parivaar ka bada maan tha. keshavadaas swayam orachha naresh mahaaraaj raamasinh ke bhaai indrajeet Singh ke darabaari kavi, mantri aur guru the. indrajeet Singh ki or se inhein ikkees gaanv mile hue the. ve aatmasammaan ke saath vilaasamaya jeevan vyateet karte the.[3]

keshavadaas sanskrut ke udbhat vidvaan the. unke kul mein bhi sanskrut ka hi prachaar tha. naukar-chaakar bhi sanskrut bolte the. unke kul mein bhi sanskrut chhod hindi bhaasha mein kavita karna unhein kuchh apamaanajanak-sa laga -

bhaasha bol na jaanaheen, jinke kul ke das.
tin bhaasha kavita curry, jadamati keshav das..

keshav bade bhaavuk aur rasik vyakti the. kaha jaata ki ek baar vrudhdaavastha mein ve kisi kuen par baithe the. vahaan paani bharne ke liye I hui kuchh striyon ne unhein Baba kehkar sambodhan kiya. is par unhonne nimn doha kaha -

keshav kesani asi curry, bairihu jas na karaahin.
chandravadan mrugalochani Baba kahi kahi jaahin..

samvat 1608 ke lagbhag jahaangeer ne orachha ka raajya veer Singh Dave ko de diya. keshav kuchh samay tak veer Singh ke darbaar mein rahe, fir gangaatat par chale gaye aur vaheen rahane lage.

1618 isvi mein unka dehaavasaan ho gaya.

rachanaaen

keshavadaas rachit praamaanik granth nau hain : rasikpriya, kavipriya, nakhashikh, chhandamaala, raamachandrika, veerasinhadev charit, ratanabaavani, vijnyaaanageeta aur jahaaaingeer jasachandrika. rasikpriya keshav ki praudh rachana hai jo kaavyashaastr sambandhi granth hain. ismein ras, vrutti aur kaavyadoshon ke lakshan udaaharan diye gaye hain. iske mukhya aadhaaragranth hain - naatyashaastr, kaamasootr aur rudrabhatt ka shrrungaaratilk. kavipriya kaavyashiksha sambandhi granth hai jo indrajeetasinh ki rakshita aur keshav ki shishya praveenaraaya ke liye prastut kiya gaya tha. yeh kaviklpalataavrutti aur kaavyaadarsh par aadhaarit hai. raamachandrika unka sarvaadhik prasiddh mahaakaavya hai jiski rachana mein prasannaraaghav, hanumannaatak, kaadanbari aadi kai grantho se saamagi grahan ki gayi hain. ratanabaavani mein madhukarashaah ke putr ratanasen, veerasinh charit mein indrajeetasinh ke anuj veerasinh tatha jahaaaingeer jasachandrika ka yashogaan kiya gaya hai. vijnyaaanageeta mein prabodhachandrodaya ke aadhaar par rachit anyaapadeshik kaavya hai.

kaavyagat visheshataaen

keshav alankaar sanpradaayavaadi aachaarya kavi the. isaliye svaabhaavik tha ki ve bhaamah, udbhat aur dandi aadi alankaar sanpradaaya ke aachaaryon ka anusaran karte. inhonne alankaaron ke do bhed maane hain, saadhaaran aur vishisht. saadhaaran ke antargat varnan, varnya, bhoomishri-varnan aur raajyashri-varnan aate hai jo kaavyakalpalataavrutti aur alankaarashekhar par aadhaarit hain. is tarah ve alankaarya aur alankaar me bhed naheen maanate. alankaaron ke prati vishesh ruchi hone ke kaarana kaavyapaksh dab gaya hai aur saamaanyat: ye sahrudaya kavi naheen maane jaate. apni klishtata ke kaaran ye kathin kaavya ke pret kahe gaye hain. vishisht prabandhakaavya raamachandrika prabadhanirvaah, maarmik sthalon ki pehchaan, prakrutivrnan aadi ki drushti se shreshth naheen hai. parampara paalan tatha adhikaadhik alankaaron ko samaavisht karne ke kaaran varnanon ki bharamaar hai. chahal-pahal, nagarashobha, saajasajja aadi ke varnan mein inka man adhik rama hai. sanvaadon ki yojana mein, naatakeeya tatvon ke sannivesh ke kaaran, inhein vishesh safalta mili hai. prabandhon ki apeksha muktakon mein inki saralata adhik sthalon par vyakt hui hai.

varnya vishay

rasikpriya ki ek paandulipi mein raadha aur Krishna ka chitran (1634 E)

keshav darabaari kavi the. anya darabaari kaviyon ki bhaanti unhonne bhi apne aashrayadaata raajaaon ka yashogaan kiya hai. veer Singh Dave charit aur jahaangeer jas chandrika unki aisi hi rachanaaen hain.

keshav ka doosra roop aachaarya ka hai. kavi-priya aur rasik-priya mein inhonne sanskrut ke lakshan, granthon ka anuvaad kiya aur udaaharan svaroop apni kavitaaon ki rachana ki.

Ram chandrika ka vishay Ram-bhakti hai kintu keshav kavi pehle the, bhakt baad mein. at: unamein bhakti-bhaavana ki apeksha kaavya-chamatkaar ke pradarshan ki bhaavana adhik hai.

vigyaan geeta mein keshav ne vairaagya se sambandhit bhaavanaaon ko vyakt kiya hai.

prakruti chitran

raajadarabaaron ki saaj-sajja ke beech rahane ke kaaran keshav ki pravrutti prakruti mein naheen rahi. unka prakruti-chitran dosh-poorn hai. usamein parampara ka nirvaad adhik hai, maulikta aur naveenata kam. varnan karne mein kaheen-kaheen keshav ne kaal aur sthaan ka bhi dhyaan naheen rakha hai.

alankaaron ke bojh se dabi prakruti apna sahan saundarya kho baithi hai. prakruti ke sambandh mein keshav ki kalpanaaen kaheen-kaheen par badi asangat aur aruchikr ho gayi hain. Arun soorya ko kaapaalik kaal ka rakt se bhara kapaal bana dena kase ka chakar prateet hoga -

kai sonit kalit kapaal yeh,
kill kapaalik kaal ko.

samvaad yojana

darabaari kavi hone ke kaaran keshav mein raajadarabaaron ki vaakpatuta vartamaan thi. at: sanvaadon ki yojana mein unhein asaadhaaran safalta mili. unke samvaad atyant aakarshak hain. unamein raajadarabaaron jaisi haajir-javaabi aur shishtata hai. unke dvaara charitron ka uddhaatan sundar dhang se hua hai. janak-vishvaamitr samvaad, love-kush samvaad, seeta-hanumaan samvaad isi prakaar ke samvaad hain.

'angad-raavan-samvaad' ke antargat ek uttar-pratyuttar dekhiye -

raavan-

geind kareun main khail ki, har-giri keshodaas.
sees chadhaae aapne, kamal samaan sahaas..

angad-

jaiso tum kahat uthaayo ek girivr,
aise koti Kapil ke baalak uthaavaheen.
kaate jo kahat sees kaatan ghanere ghaagh,
magar ke khele kaha bhat-pad paavaheen..

paanditya-pradarshan

aachaarya keshavadaas uchchakoti ke vidvaan the. at: unke kaavya mein kalpana aur mastishk ko yog adhik hai. unka dhyaan jitna paanditya-pradarshan ki or tha utana bhaav-pradarshan ki or naheen. paanditya-pradarshan ki isi pravrutti ke kaaran kuchh aalochakon ne keshav ko hrudaya-heen kavi kaha hai, kintu yeh aarop poornat: satya naheen, kyonki paanditya pradarshan ke saath-saath keshav ke kaavya mein aise anekaanek sthal hain jahaan unki bhaavukata aur sahrudayataapoorn saakaar ho uthi hai.

ashok vaatika mein hanumaan ji seeta ji ko raamachandr ji ki mudrika dete hain. mudrika ke prati seeta ji ka kathan kitna bhaavapoorn hai-

shri pur mein ban madhya hai, too mag curry aneeti.
kahi mundari ab tiyn ki, ko kari hain parateeti..

bhaasha

keshav ne apne kaavya ka maadhyam brajabhaasha ko banaaya, parantu brajabhaasha ka jo dhala hua roop soor aadi asht chhaap ke kaviyon mein milta hai vah keshav ki kavita mein naheen. keshav sanskrut ke prakaand pandit the, at: unki bhaasha sanskrut se atyadhik prabhaavit hai. unhonne sanskrut ke tatsam shabdon ko hi naheen, sanskrut ki vibhktiyon ko bhi apnaaya hai, kaheen-kaheen to unke chhandon ki bhaasha sanskrut hi jaan padti hai-

raamachandr pad padman vrundaarak vrundaabhivandaneeyam.
keshavamati bhootanaya lochanan chanchareekaayate..

keshav ki bhaasha mein bundelakhandi bhaasha ka bhi kaafi mishran milta hai. khaarak (chhohaara), thorila (khoonti), dugai (daalaan), gauramadaain (indradhanush) aadi jaise bundeli shabdon ka prayog baraabar unke kaavya mein hua. avadhi bhaasha ke shabdon ka bhi prayog milta hai. jaise - ihaan, uhaan, dikhaau, rijhaau aadi.

keshav ne kaheen-kaheen to shabdon ko gadh liya hai. jaise - chaap se chaapakeeya. aprachalit shabdon ke prayog mein bhi unhonne poori tarah svachhandata se kaam liya. jaise - aalok (kalank), launch (rishvat), naari (samooh) aadi. jal ke arth mein vish shabd ka prayog keshav ki bhaasha mein hi milta hai -

vishmaya yeh godaavari, amrutan ko fal deti.
keshav jeevan haar ko, dukh ashesh har leti..

sanskrut aur bundelakhandi ke atyadhik prabhaav, lambi-lambi shabd-yojana aprachalit shabdon ke prayog aadi ke kaaran keshav ki bhaasha mein kaheen-kaheen atyant vilshtata aa gayi hai.

keshav ki bhaasha ka saamaanya roop apekshaakrut sugam hai. usamein kahaavaton aur muhaavaron ka bhi yatha-sthaan prayog hua hai. laaj marana kahaavat ka ek prayog dekhiye -

kahi keshav aapani jaangh ughaari ke,
aapahi laajan ki marii.

shaili

keshav ki shaili par unke vyaktitv ki chhaap spasht drushtigochar hoti hai is sambandh mein unhonne apne kisi poorv kavi ka anusaran naheen kiya. anek kaviyon ki kavitaaon ke beech unki kavita ko saralata se pahichaana ja sakta hai.

sankshep mein keshav ki shaili praudh aur gambhir hai. paanditya-pradarshan ke kaaran vah kuchh durooh ho gayi hai.

ras

keshav das ji ne apne kaavya mein anek sthalon par vividh rason ki utkrusht vyanjana ki hai, kintu mukhyat: ve shrrungaar aur veer ras ke kavi hain. shrrungaar ke donon pakshon ko unhonne apnaaya hai. veerochit utsaah ke maarmik varnan mein to ve apni saani naheen rakhate. shatrughn ke baanon se moorhit love ke liye vilaap karti hui seeta ke prati kush ka kathan kitna utsaahapoorn hai _

ripuhin maari sanhaaridl yam te lehun chhudaaya.
lavahin milai hon dekhihon maata tere paaya..

chhand

chhandon ke vishay keshav ka gyaan apaar tha. jitne prakaar ke chhandon ka prayog unhonne kiya hindi saahitya mein kisi ne naheen kiya. raamachandrika mein to chhandon ki vividhta is seema tak pahunch gayi hai ki vidvaanon ne use shabdon ka ajaayabaghar kah diya hai. keshav ne svat: likha hai -

raamachandr ki chandrika baranati haun bahu chhand.

keshav ki chhand yojana sanskrut saahitya ki chhand yojana hai. unhonne kavita, savaiya, doha aadi chhandon ka bhi safalataapoorvak upayog kiya hai.

alankaar

keshav ko alankaaron se vishesh moh tha unke anusaar -

jadapi sujaati sulachhani, subaran saras suvrutt
bhooshan vin na viraajaheen kavita banita bhitt..

at: unki kavita mein vibhinn alankaaron ka prayog sarvatr dikhaai deta hai. alankaaron ke bojh se kavita ke bhaav dab se gaye hain aur paathak ko keval chamatkaar haath lagta hai.

jahaan alankaar-yojana prati keshav ko kathor aagrah naheen hai, vahaan unki kavita atyant hrudayagraahi aur saras hain. upama-alankaar ka ek udaaharan dekhiye- dasharath-maran ke uparaant bharat jab mahal mein pravesh karte hain to ve maataaon ko vruksh viheen lataaon ke samaan paate hain.

mandir maatu vilok akeli.
jyon binu vruksh viraajat belly..

saahitya mein sthaan

keshav daasaji hindi saahitya ke pratham aachaarya hain. hindi mein sarv pratham unhonne hi kaavya ke vibhinn angon ka shaastreeya paddhati se vivechan kiya. yeh theek hai ki unke kaavya mein bhaav paksh ki apeksha kala paksh ki pradhaanata hai aur paanditya pradarshan ke kaaran unhein kathin kaavya ke pret kah kar pukaara jaata hai kintu unka mahatva bilkul samaapt naheen ho jaata. aachaarya raamachandr shukl ke shabdon mein keshav ki rachana mein sur, tulasi aadi ki si saralata aur tanmayata chaahe na ho par kaavyaangon ka vistrut parichay kara kar unhonne aage ke liye maarg khola. keshavadaas ji vastut: ek shreshth kavi the. soor aur tulasi ke pashchaat hindi-kaavya-jagat mein unheen ki hi ganana ki jaati hai-

soor soor tulasi sasi udugan keshavadaas.
abake kavi khadyot sam jah-tah karat prakaash..

chitr veethika


sandarbh

yeh bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain