kesar

saifaran krokas
केसर का पौधा, लाल स्टिग्मा के साथ
kesar ka paudha, laal stigma ke saath
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
jagat: paadap
(ashrenikrut) enjiyosparm
(ashrenikrut) ekabeejapatri
gan: eaispairaagales
kul: irideshiyei
upakul: krokoediyei
prajaati: krokas
jaati: si. saitivs
dvipd naam
krokas saitivs
L.
Iran saffron threads.jpg
kesar ka pushp

kesar (saffron) ek sugandh denevaala paudha hai. iske pushp ki vartikaagr (stigma) ko kesar, kunkum, jaafaraan athva saifran (saffron) kehte hain. yeh iridesi (Iridaceae) kul ki krokas saitaaivas (Crocus sativus) naamak kshudr vanaspati hai jiska mool sthaan dakshin Europe hai, yadyapi iski kheti Spain, Italy, grees, turkistaan, Iran, cheen tatha Bhaarat mein hoti hai. Bhaarat mein yeh keval Jammu (kistavaar) tatha Kashmir (paamapur) ke seemit kshetron mein paida hoti hain. pyaaj tulya iski gutikaaeain (bulb) prati varsh August-September mein ropi jaati hain aur October-December tak iske patra tatha pushp saath nikalte hain.

kesar ka kshup 15-25 seinteemeetar ooaincha, parantu kaandaheen hota hai. pattiyaaain moolobhdav (radical), sainkari, lambi aur naaleedaar hoti hain. inke beech se pushpadand (scapre) niklata hai, jispar neelalohit varn ke ekaaki athva ekaadhik pushp hote hain. pankhudiyaaain teen teen ke do chakron mein aur teen peele rang ke punkeshar hote hain. kukshivrunt (style) naarang raktavarn ke, akhand athva khandit aur gadaakaar hote hain. inki oopar teen kukshiyaaain, lagbhag ek inch lambi, gahre, laal athva laalimaayukt halke bhoore rang ki hoti hain, jinke kinaare dantur ya lomash hote hain. kesar ki gandh teekshn, parantu laakshanik aur svaad kinchit katu, parantu ruchikr, hota hai.

iska upayog makkhan aadi khaadya dravyon mein varn evam svaad laane ke liye kiya jaata hain. chikitsa mein yeh ushnaveerya, uttejak, aartavajanak, deepak, paachak, vaat-kaf-naashak aur vedanaasthaapak maana gaya hai. at: peeditaartav, sardi jukaam tatha shir:shoolaadi mein prayukt hota hai.

kesar ka vaanaspatik naam krokas saitaaivas (Crocus sativus) hai. angreji mein ise saifaran (saffron) naam se jaana jaata hai. yeh iridesi (Iridaceae) kul ka kshudr vanaspati hai jiska mool sthaan dakshin Europe hai. 'iris' parivaar ka yeh sadasya lagbhag 80 prajaatiyon mein vishv ke vibhinn bhoo-bhaagon mein paaya jaata hai. vishv mein kesar ugaane vaale pramukh desh hain - France, Spain, Bhaarat, Iran, Italy, grees, Germany, Japan, roos, aastriya, turkistaan, cheen, Pakistan ke Quetta evam svitjralaind. aaj sabse adhik kesar ugaane ka shreya Spain ko jaata hai, iske baad Iran ko. kul utpaadan ka 80% in donon deshon mein ugaaya ja raha hai, jo lagbhag 300 tan prativrsh hai. Bhaarat mein kesar

kesar vishv ka sabse keemati paudha hai. kesar ki kheti Bhaarat mein Jammu ke kishtavaad tatha jannat-A-Kashmir ke paamapur (panpor) ke seemit kshetron mein adhik ki jaati hai. kesar yahaan ke logon ke liye varadaan hai. kyonki kesar ke foolon se nikaala jaata sone jaisa keemati kesar jiski keemat baajaar mein teen se saadhe teen lakh rupaye kilo hai. parantu kuchh raajaneetik kaaranon se aaj usaki kheti buri tarah prabhaavit hai. yahaan ki kesar halki, patali, laal rang waali, kamal ki tarah sundar gandhayukt hoti hai. asli kesar bahut mahangi hoti hai. Kashmiri mongara sarvotam maani gayi hai. ek samay tha jab Kashmir ka kesar vishv baajaar mein shreshthatam maana jaata tha. uttar pradesh ke chaubatiya jile mein bhi kesar ugaane ke prayaas chal rahe hain. videshon mein bhi iski paidaavaar bahut hoti hai aur Bhaarat mein iski aayaat hoti hai.

Jammu-Kashmir ki rajdhani shreenagar se sirf 20 kilometer ki doori par ek chhote shahar panpor ke kheton mein sharad ritu ke aate hi khushaboodaar aur keemati jadi-booti 'kesar' ki bahaar aa jaati hai. varsh ke adhiktar samay ye khet banjar rahate hain kyonki 'kesar' ke kand sookhi jameen ke bheetar panap rahe hote hain, lekin barf se dhaki chotiyon se ghire bhoori mitti ke maidaanon mein sharad ritu ke alasaaye soorya ki roshani mein sharad ritu ke ant tak ye khet baingani rang ke foolon se saj jaate hain. aur is rang ki khushboo saare vaataavaran mein basi rahati hai. in kesar ke baingani rang ke foolon ko haule-haule chunate hue Kashmiri log inhein saavadhaani se tod kar apne thailon mein ikttha karte hain. kesar ki sirf 450 gram maatra banaane ke liye kreeb 75 hajaar fool lagte hain. kesar ka paudha

'kesar' ko ugaane ke liye samudratal se lagbhag 2000 meter ooaincha pahaadi kshetr evam sheetoshn sookhi jalavaayu ki aavashyakta hoti hai. paudhe ke liye domat mitti upayukt rahata hai. yeh paudha kali nikalne se pehle varsha evam himpaat donon bardaasht kar leta hai, lekin kaliyon ke nikalne ke baad aisa hone par poori fasal chaupat ho jaati hai. madhya evam pashchimi Asia ke sthaaneeya paudhe kesar ko kand (balb) dvaara ugaaya jaata hai.

kesar ka paudha sugandh denevaala bahuvarsheeya hota hai aur kshup 15 se 25 semi (aadha gaj) ooncha, parantu kaandaheen hota hai. ismein ghaas ki tarah lambe, patale va nokadaar patte nikalte hain. jo moolobhdav (radical), sainkari, lambi aur naaleedaar hoti hain. inke beech se pushpadand (scapre) niklata hai, jis par neelalohit varn ke ekaaki athva ekaadhik pushp hote hain. aprajaayi hone ki vajah se ismein beej naheen paae jaate hain. pyaaj tulya kesar ke kand / gutikaaeain (bulb) prati varsh August-September maah mein boe jaate hain, jo do-teen maheene baad arthaat November-December tak iske patra tatha pushp saath nikalte hain. iske pushp ki shushk kukshiyon (stigma) ko kesar, kunkum, jaafaraan athva saifran (saffron) kehte hain. ismein akele ya 2 se 3 ki sankhya mein fool nikalte hain. iske foolon ka rang baingani, neela evam safed hota hai. ye fool keepanuma aakaar ke hote hain. inke bheetar laal ya naarangi rang ke teen maada bhaag paae jaate hain. is maada bhaag ko vartika (tantu) evam vartikaagr kehte hain. yahi kesar kahalaata hai. pratyek fool mein keval teen kesar hi paae jaate hain. laal-naarangi rang ke aag ki tarah damakate hue kesar ko sanskrut mein 'agnishaakha' naam se bhi jaana jaata hai.


in foolon mein pankhudiyaaain teen-teen ke do chakron mein aur teen peele rang ke punkeshar hote hain. kukshivrunt (style) naarang raktavarn ke, akhand athva khandit aur gadaakaar hote hain. inke oopar teen kukshiyaaain, lagbhag ek inch lambi, gahre, laal athva laalimaayukt halke bhoore rang ki hoti hain, jinke kinaare dantur ya lomash hote hain.

in foolon ki itni tej khushboo hoti hai ki aaspaas ka kshetr mahak uthata hai. kesar ki gandh teekshn, parantu laakshanik aur svaad kinchit katu, parantu ruchikr, hota hai. iske beej aayataakaar, teen konon vaale hote hain jinmein se golakaar meengi niklati hai. 'kesar ko nikaalne ke liye pehle foolon ko chunakar kisi chhaayaadaar sthaan mein bichha dete hain. sookh jaane par foolon se maada ang yaani kesar ko alag kar lete hain. rang evam aakaar ke anusaar inhein - maagara, lachhi, guchhi aadi shreniyon mein vargeekat karte hain. 150000 foolon se lagbhag 1 kilo sookha kesar praapt hota hai.


'kesar' khaane mein kadva hota hai, lekin khushboo ke kaaran vibhinn vyanjanon evam pakavaanon mein daala jaata hai. iska upayog makkhan aadi khaadya dravyon mein varn evam svaad laane ke liye kiya jaata hain. garm paani mein daalne par yeh gahra peela rang deta hai. yeh rang kairetinauyad varnak ki vajah se hota hai. yeh ghulanasheel hota hai, saath hi atyant peela bhi. pramukh varnako mein kairotin, laaikopin, jiyaajainthin, krosin, pikekrosin aadi paae jaate hain. ismein istar keeton evam vaashpasheel sugandh tel bhi kuchh maatra mein milte hain. anya raasaayanik yaugikon mein taarapeen eldihaaid evam taarapeen elkohal bhi paae jaate hain. in raasaayanik evam kaarbanik yaugikon ki upasthiti kesar ko anmol aushadhi banaati hai. kesar ki raasaayanik banaavat ka vishleshan karne par pata chala hain ki ismein tel 1.37 pratishat, aardrata 12 pratishat, pikroseen naamak tikt dravya, sharkara, mom, prateen, bhasm aur teen rang dravya paaen jaate hain. anek khaadya padaartho mein kesar ka upayog ranjan padaarth ke roop mein kiya jaata hai.

aayurved mein kesar

kesar ka upayog ayurvedik nuskhon mein, khaadya vyanjanon mein aur Dave pooja aadi mein to kesar ka upayog hota hi tha par ab paan masaalon aur gutakon mein bhi iska upayog hone laga hai. kesar bahut hi upayogi gunon se yukt hoti hai. yeh kaf naashak, man ko prasann karne waali, mastishk ko bal dene waali, hrudaya aur rakt ke liye hitkaari, tatha khaadya padaarth aur peya (jaise doodh) ko rangeen aur sugandhit karne waali hoti hai.

chikitsa mein yeh ushnaveerya, aartavajanak, vaat-kaf-naashak aur vedanaasthaapak maana gaya hai. at: peeditaartav, sardi jukaam tatha shir:shoolaadi mein prayukt hota hai. yeh uttejak, vaajeekaarak, yaunashakti banaae rakhane waali, kaamottejak, tridosh naashak, aakshepahar, vaatashool shaamak, deepak, paachak, ruchikr, maasik dharm saaf laane waali, garbhaashaya va yoni sankochan, tvacha ka rang ujjval karne waali, raktashodhak, dhaatu paushtik, pradar aur nimn raktachaap ko theek karne waali, kaf naashak, man ko prasann karne waali, vaatanaadiyon ke liye shaamak, balya, vrushya, mootral, stan (doodh) varddhak, mastishk ko bal dene waali, hrudaya aur rakt ke liye hitkaari, tatha khaadya padaarth aur peya (jaise doodh) ko rangeen aur sugandhit karne waali hoti hai.

aayurvedon ke anusaar kesar uttejak hoti hai aur kaamashakti ko badhaati hai. yeh mootraashaya, tilli, yakrut (leevar), mastishk va netron ki takaleefon mein bhi laabhakaari hoti hai. pradaah ko door karne ka gun bhi ismein paaya jaata hai.

sandarbh




baahari kadiyaaain