keet

ek tidda

keet arthopoda sangh ka ek pramukh varg hai. iske 10 lakh se adhik jaatiyon ka naamakaran ho chuka hai. pruthvi par paaye jaane vaale sajeevon mein aadhe se adhik keet hain.[1][2] aisa anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki keet varg ke 3 karod praani aise hain jinko chinhit hi naheen kiya gaya hai at: is grah par jeevan ke vibhinn roopon mein keet varg ka yogadaan 90% hai.[3] ye pruthvi par sabhi vaataavaranon mein paae jaate hain. sirf samudron mein inki sankhya kuchh kam hai. aarthik roop se mahatvapoorn keet hain: epis (madhumakkhi) va baanbiks (resham keet), laisifr (lakh keet); rog vaahak keet, enaafaleej, kyooleks tatha edeej (machhar); yoothapeedk tiddi (lokasta); tatha jeeveet jeevaashm limoolas (raaj karkat King kreb) aadi.

anukram

parichay

keet praaya: koi bhi chhota, reinganevaala, khandon mein vibhaajit shareeravaala aur bahut si taaaingonvaala praani keet kah diya jaata hain, kintu vaastav mein yeh naam vishesh lakshanonvaale praaniyon ko diya jaana chaahiye. keet aprushtheevanshiyon (Invertebrates) ke us bade samudaaya ke antargat aate hai jo sandhipaad (Anthropoda) kahalaate hain. lineeyas ne san‌ 1735 mein keet (inasekt=inasektam‌a=kate hue) varg mein ve sab praani sammilit kiye the jo ab sandhipaad samudaaya ke antargat rakhe gaye hain. lineeyas ke inasekt (inasektam‌) shabd ko sarvapratham M. J. brisn ne san‌ 1756 mein seemit arth mein prayukt kiya. tabhi se yeh shabd is arth mein vyavahrut ho raha hai. san‌ 1825 mein pi. A. laitrali ne keeton ke liye shatpaad (Hexapoda) shabd ka prayog kiya, kyonki is shabd se in praaniyon ka ek atyant mahatvapoorn lakshan vyakt hota hai.

vaastavik keeton ke lakshan

inka shareer khandon mein vibhaajit rahata hai jismein sir mein mukh bhaag, ek jodi shrrungikaaeain (Antenna), praaaaya: ek jodi sanyukt netr aur bahudha saral netr bhi paae jaate hain. vruksh par teen jodi taaaingon aur do jode paksh hote hain. kuchh keeton mein ek hi joda paksh hota hai aur kuchhek pakshaviheen bhi hote hai. udar mein taaaingein naheen hoti. inke pichhle sire par guda hoti hai aur guda se thoda sa aage ki or jananachhidr hota hai. shvasan maheen shvaas naliyon (trekiya, Trachea) dvaara hota hain. shvaasanali baahar ki or shvaasaradhran (spaaharekal Spiracle) dvaara khulati hai. praaya: das jodi shvaasadhraan shareer mein donon or paae jaate hain, kintu kai jaatiyon mein paraspar bhinnata bhi rahati hai. rakt laal kanikaaon se viheen hota hai aur plaajma (Plasma) mein heemoglobin (Haemoglobin) bhi naheen hota. at: shvasan ki gaisein naheen pahuainchati. parivhan tantr khula hota hain, hrudaya prushth ki or aahaaranaal ke oopar rahata hai. rakt dehaguha mein bahata hai, band vaahikaaon ki sankhya bahut thodi hoti hai. vaastavik shiraaeain, dhamaniyon aur keshikaaeain naheen hoti. nisrg (mailapeegiyn, Malpighian) nalikaaeain pashchaantr ke agale sire par khulati hain. ek jodi paandur granthiyaaain (Corpora allata) bhi pai jaati hain. ande ke nikalne par parivrdhan praaya: seedhe naheen hota, saadhaaranataya roopaantaran dvaara hota hai.

praaniyon mein sabse adhik jaatiyaaain keeton ki hain. keeton ki sankhya anya sab praaniyon ki sammilit sankhya se chhah guni adhik hai. inki lagbhag das baarah lakh jaatiyaaain ab tak gyaat ho chuki hain. pratyek varsh lagbhag chhah sahastr nai jaatiyaaain gyaat hoti hain aur aisa anumaan hai ki keeton ki lagbhag bees lakh jaatiyaaain sansaar mein vartamaan hain. itne adhik praachurya ka kaaran inka asaadhaaran anukoolan (aidaiptaabiliti, Adaptability) ka gun hain. ye atyadhik bhinn paristhitiyon mein bhi safalataapoorvak jeevit rahate hain. pankhon ki upasthiti ke kaaran keeton ko vikirn (disparsal, dispersal) mein bahut sahaayata milti hain. aisa dekhne mein aata mein hai ki paristhitiyon mein parivartan ke anusaar keeton mein nitya naveen sanrachanaaon tatha vruttiyon (haibits, habit) ka vikaas hota jaata hai.

keeton ne apna sthaan kisi ek hi sthaan tak seemit naheen rakha hai. ye jal, sthal, aakaash sabhi sthaanon mein paae jaate hain. jal ke bheetar tatha uske oopar tairate hue, pruthvi par rahate aur aakaash mein udte hue bhi ye milte hain. anya praaniyon aur paudhon par baahya parajeevi (intarnal pairaasaait, internal parasite) ke roop me bhi ye jeevan vyateet karte hain. ye gharon mein bhi rahate hain aur vanon mein bhi; tatha jal aur vaayu dvaara ek sthaan se doosare sthaan par pahuainch jaate hain. kaarbanik athva akaarbanik, kaise bhi padaarth hon, ye sabhi mein apne rahane yogya sthaan bana lete hain. uttari dhruvapradesh se lekar dakshini dhruvapradesh tak aisa koi bhi sthaan naheen jahaaain jeevadhaariyon ka rahana ho or keet na paae jaate hon. vrukshon se ye kisi roop mein apna bhojan praapt kar lete hain. sadte hue kaarbanik padaarth hi na jaane kitni sahasr jaatiyon ke keeton ko aakrusht karte tatha unka udaraposhan karte hain. yahi naheen ki keet keval anya jeevadhaariyon ke hi baahya athva aantarik paarajeevi ke roop mein paae jaate hon, varan‌ unki ek badi sankhya keeton ko bhi aakraant karti hai. aur unase apne liye aashray tatha bhojan praapt karti hain. atyadhik sheet bhi inke maarg mein baadha naheen daalata. keeton ki aisi kai jaatiyaaain hain jo himaank se bhi lagbhag 50 seinteegret neeche ke taap par jeevit rah sakti hain. doosari or keeton ke aise varg bhi hain jo garam paani ke un shroton mein rahate hein jiska taap 40 se adhik hai. keet aise marusthalon mein bhi paae jaate hain jahaan ka maadhyaahki taap 60 celcius tak pahuainch jaata hai kuchh keet to marusthalon mein bhi paaai jaate hain. jahaaain ka maadhyaanhki taap 60 celcius tak pahuainch jaata hai. kuchh keet to aise padaarthon mein bhi apne liye poshan tatha aavaas dhainoodh lete hain jiske vishay mein kalpana bhi naheen ki ja sakti ki unamein koi jeevadhaari rah sakta hai ya unke praani apne liye bhojan praapt kar sakta hai. udaaharan ke liye, saailosa petaroli (Psilosa petroll) naamak keet ke dinbh kaileeforniya ke paitroliym ke kuon mein rahate paaye gaye hain. keet teekshn tatha vishele padaarthon mein rahate tatha abhijnan karte paae gaye hain. jaise aparishkrut taartar jisme 80 pratishat pauteshiym vaaitaartaret hota hai.) afeem, laal mirch adarak nausaadar, kuchala (strikneen, strychnine) pipramint kastoori, madira ki botalon ke kaam, raingane vaale brash. kuchh keet aise bhi hain jo gahre kuon aur gufaaon me rahate hain jahaaain prakaash kabhi naheen pahuainchata. adhiktar keet ushn deshon mein milte hain aur inheen keeton se naana prakaar ki aakrutiyon tatha rang paae jaate hain.

sahajavruti (Instinct) ke kaaran keeton ka vyavahaar svabhaavat: aisa hota hai jisse unke niji kaarya mein nirantar lage rahane ki drudhta prakat hoti hai. unamein vivek aur vichaarashakti ka abhaav hota hai. ghareloo makkhiyon ko hi lein. baarabaar kiye jaane vaale prahaar se ve na to darati hain aur na hatotsaahit hi hoti hain. unhein haar maanana to jaise aata hi naheen. jab tak unke shareer mein praan rahate hain tab tak ve apne bhojan ki praapti tatha santaanotpati ke kaarya ki poorti mein baraabar lagi rahati hain.

aakaar

keeto ka aakaar praaya chhota hota hai. apne sookshm aakaar ke kaaran ve vahut laabhaanvit hue hein. yeh laabh anya deerghakaaya praaniyo ko praapt naheen hain. pratyek keet ko bhojan ki bahut thodi maatra ki aavashyakta hoti hai. apni sookshm kaaya ke kaaran ve randhro ya daraaron mein bhi saralata se aashray le lete hain. inka aakaar inki raksha mein sahaayata karta hai. inke chhote aakaar ke hote hue bhi unamein adamya shakti hoti hai. anek keet apne shaareerik bhaar se das se bees guna tak bojh vahan kar sakte hain. ek pissoo (Flea), jiski taagein lagbhag ek mileemeetar lambi hota hai, chaalees seinteemeetar lanbaai mein aur bees seinteemeetar lanbaai mein kood sakta hai.

kuchh kalaapaksh parajeeviyon ki lanbaai keval 0.2 mileemeetar hi hoti hai. par kuchh trunakeet (stick insects), jaise faaimesiya seraatips (Pharmacia serratipus) 260 mileemeetar tak lambe hote hain. yadi pakshon ko failaakar eravis egripaaina (Erbis agrippina) maapa jaae to iski chaudaai 280 mileemeetar tak pahuainch jaati hai. aadhunik keeton mein yeh sabse bada hai, par praacheen kaal ki dregan fly (Dragon Fly), jinke astitvaavashesh milte hain, paksh failaane par maapane par do do foot se bhi adhik lambi pai jaati hai.

manushya aur keetavarg mein bahut ghanishth sambandh hai. anek jaatiyaaain hamein atyadhik haani pahuainchaati hain, hamaare bhojya padaarthon ko kha daalati hain, hamaare vastron aadi ko nasht kar deti hain aur manushyon, pashuon tatha paudhon mein anek rog failaati hain.

baahya kankaal

keeton ki asthiyaan naheen hoti. kankaal adhiktar baahya hota hai. aur drun bahyatvak (kyootikl, Cuticle) bana rahata hai. yahi dehabhitti ka baahya star hota hai. is kankaal mein guroota adhik hoti hai. asthiyon ki tulana mein yeh halaka, kintu bahut hi sudrun hota hai. saadhaaranataya vibhinn saamaanya raasaayanik viliynon ka is star par kuchh bhi prabhaav naheen dikhaai padata. is shareeraavaran ka itna adhik aprabhaavit hona vishesh mahatva rakhata hai. is kaaran saadhaaran keetaanunaashi keeton ko saralata se nasht naheen kar sakte. baahiytvak‌ shareer ke pratyek bhaag ko dhake rahate hain, yahaaain tak ki netr, shrangikaaeain, nakhar (klaaj, claws) tatha mukh bhaagon par bhi iska aavaran rahata hai. aahaaranaal ke agr aur pashch bhaag ki bhitti bheetar ki aur tatha shvasananalikaaeain baahyatvak‌ ke ek bahut maheen star se dhaki rahati hain. baahyatvak ke bheetar ki or jeevit koshikaaon ka star hota hai, jo haaipodarmis (Hypodermis) kahalaata hai. yahi star baahyatvak ka utsarjan karta hai. haaipodarmis ke bheetar ki or ek atyadhik sookshm nimnataleeya jhilli hoti hai.

baahyakankaal sandhiyon par tatha anya aise sthaanon par jahaaain gati hoti hai, jhilleemaya ho jaata hai. in sthaanon ke atirikt saare shareer ka kankaal bhinn bhinn bhaagon mein vibhkt rahata hai. ye bhaag drunak (skilyaraait, sclerite) kahalaate hain. aur ek doosare se nishchit rekhaaon dvaara mile rahate hain. ye rekhaaeain saavaniyaaain (soochar, suture) kahalaati hain. kintu jab sanlagn drudhk ka aapas mein samekan ho jaata hai to seevaniyaaain lupt ho jaati hain. baahyakankaal komal peshiyon ke liye ek dhaaainche ka kaarya karta hai. shareer ke oopar vibhinn prakaar ke shalk, baal, kaaainte aadi vidyamaan rahate hain.

khandeebhavan (segameinteshan, Segmentation)

keet khand vaale jeev hain. khand vyavasthit hone ke kaaran ve svatantrata se chal sakte hain. aur unke shareer mein shramavibhaajan ho paata hai. shramavibhaajan ke falasvaroop shareer ka ek khand bhojan praapt karne ke liye, doosra pragati ke hetu, teesara prajanan ke nimitt tatha chautha rakshaarth hota hai. is prakaar bhinn-bhinn khand niji kaarya pruthak‌ pruthak‌ roop se sanpaadit karte rahate hain. shareer ke pratyek khand mein prushtheeya patt (targam, Tergum), daaaine baaeain do bhaag paarshvak (pluraaainn, Pleuron) tatha ek uroopatt bhaag (starnam, Sternum) hota hai. aadarsh roop se keeton ke shareer mein 20 ya 21 khand hote hain, kintu yeh sankhya in khandon ke samekan aur sankuchan ke kaaran bahut kam ho jaati hai.

sir

sir bhojan karne aur samvedna ka kendra hai. isame chhah khand hote hain, jinka paraspar aisa samekan ho gaya hai ki inmein upakaranon ke atirikt khandeebhavan ka koi bhi chinh naheen rah jaata. saamaanya keeton ke sir ke agrabhaag mein roman akshar vaai jnya ke aakaar ki ek seevani hoti hai, jo siropari (epikreniyl, Epicranial) seevani kahalaati hai. is seevani ki donon bhujaaon ka madhya bhaag lalaat (fraanj, Frons) kahalaata hai. bhaal ke peechhe vaale sir ke bhaag ko siropari bhitti (epikreniym Epicranium) kehte hain. bhaal ke aage ki aur vaale sir ke bhaag ko udoshthadhar (klipias Clypeus) kehte hai. udoshthadhar ke agale kinaare par lebram (Labrum) juda rahata hai. lebram ki bheetari bhitti ko epifairigs (Epipharynx) kehte hain. shiroparibhitti (epikreniym Epicranium) par ek jodi shrangikaaen aur ek jodi sanyukt netr sada paae jaate hain. netron ke neeche vaale sir ke bhaag ko kapaal (jeeni Genae) kehte hain. sir par do ya teen saral netr, ya aaselaai (Ocelli) bhi praaya paae jaate hain. sir greeva dvaara vaksh se juda rahata hai. sir ke us bhaag mein, jo greeva se milta hai, ek bada randhr hota hai jo pashchakapaal chhidr (aaksipitail foraamen Occipital foramen) kahalaata hai. sir ke chaar avayav hote hain, jo maindibl, (Mandible) maiksila (Maxilla) aur leviym (Labium) kahalaate hain. maindivl mein khand hote hain, jinki sankhya vibhinn prajaatiyon mein bhinn-bhinn hoti hai. inki aakruti mein bhi vahut bhed rahata hai. maadaaon ke maindibl praaya vishesh roop se viksit hote hain. maindivl dvaara hi keeton ko apne maarg aur sankat ka gyaan hota hai. inheen ke dvaara ve apne bhojan va apne saathi ki khoj kar paate hain. cheetiyaaain inheen ke dvaara ek doosare ko sanket deti hain. makkhiyon mein inheen par ghraaaaneindriyaaain pai jaati hain. nar machhar inheen se sunate hain aur koi koi keet apne sangi tatha apne shikaar ko pakadne ke liye bhi inse kaam lete hain. maindibl bhi pradaan jabade hain. aur ye bhi bhojan ko pakadte tatha kuchalate hain. maiksila sahaayak jabada hai. ismein kai bhaag hote hain. yeh adhovrunt (kaardo Cardo) dvaara sir se juda rahata hai. doosra bhaag udvrunt (staaipoj Stipes) kahalaata hai. iska ek shira adhovrunt se juda rahata hai aur doosare sire par ek ushnov (Galea), ek antajihva (Lacinia) aur ek khandadaar sparshini (Maxillary palp) hoti hain. avar aushth do avayavon se milkar bana hota hai. dono avayavon ka samekan apoorn hi rahata hai ismein vah chauda bhaag, jo sir se juda rahata hai, adhashchibruk (Submentum) kahalaata hai. iske agale kinaare par chibunk (meintam, Mentum) juda rahata hai. chibunk ke agr ke kinaare par chibunkaagr (Prementum) hota hai, jo do bhaagon ka bana hota hai aur jiske agr kinaare par baahar ki or ek jodi vahirjihva (pairaaglaasi Paraglossae) tatha bheetar ki or ek jihva (glaasi Glossae) hoti hai. inki tulana upajanbh ke ushneesh (Galea) aur antarjihva se ki ja sakti hai. ye chaaron bhaag milkar jihvika (Ligula) banaate hain. chibukaagr ke daaeain va baaeain kinaare par ek ek khandadaar sparshini (leviyl pailp Labial palp) hoti hain. mukh vaale avayavon ke madhya jo sthaan ghira rahata hai vah pramukhaguha (preeoral kaiviti peoral cavity) kahalaata hai. isi sthaan mein jihva (haaipofairings hypopharyns) hoti hai. jihva ki jad par, oopar ki or mukh ka chhidr aur neeche ki or laar nali ka chhidr hota hai.

keeton ke bhojan karne ki vidhiyaaain vibhinn hain. tadanusaar inke mukh bhaagon ki aakruti mein parivartan hota hai. jo keet mukhabhaag ke chhidr se bhojan choosate hain, inmein maindivl, maiksila aadi ke mukhabhaag sui ke samaan hote hain. bhojan ka avashoshan karne vaale keeton ke mukhabhaag ka adhar oshth shindaakaar hota hai iske sir par drav padaarth ke avashoshan ke liye koshika nalikaaeain hoti hai. bhinn-bhinn prakaar ke mukh bhaag vibhinn samudaaya ke keeton ke varnan mein batalaae gaye hain.

vaksh

pragati ka kendra hai. yeh shareer ka madhyabhaag hone ke kaaran pragati ke liye bahut hi upayukt hai. is bhaag mein teen khand hote hain, jo agravaksh (prothoreks Prothorax), madhyavaksh (mesothoraiks Mesothorax) aur pashchavaksh (metaathoreks Metathorax) kahalaate hain. bhinn-bhinn samudaaya ke keeton ke teen khandon mein atyadhik bhed paaya jaata hai. fudakane vaale keeton ka agravaksh sabse adhik viksit hota hai, kintu madhyavaksh aur pashchavaksh ka aakaar pakshon ki paristhiti par nirbhar karta hai. jab donon pakshon ka aakaar lagbhag ek-sa hota hai tab donon vakshon ka aakaar bhi ek-sa paaya jaata hai. dvipkshon mein keval ek hi jodi arthaat‌ agrapaksh hi hote hain. is kaaran madhyapaksh sabse adhik bada hota hai. pakshaviheen keeton mein pratyek khand ka prushtheeya bhaag saral tatha avibhaajit rahata hai pakshavaale khandon ka prushtheeya bhaag laakshanik roop se teen bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahata hai, jo ek doosare ke peechhe kram se jude rahate hain aur pragvarooth (priskyootam Prescutum), varooth (skyootam Scutum) tatha varoothika (skyootailam Scutalum) kahalaate hain varoothika ke peechhe ki or pashchavaroothika (post skyootailam Post-Scutalum) bhi judi rahati hai. jo antakhandeeya jhilli ke kade hone se ban jaati hai. in sab bhaagon mein varoothika hi praaya sabse mukhya hoti hai. dono or ke paarshvak bhi do do bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahata hai. agrabhaag udarosthi (epistarnam Episternum) aur pashchabhaag paarshvakakhand (epimeeraaainn Epimeron) kahalaata hai. pratiprushth mein besistarnam (Basisternum) aur farkaastarnam (Fursasternum) naamak do bhaag hote hain. farkaastarnam ke peechhe ki or antakhandeeya jhilli kadi hokar spaainaastarnam (Spinasternum) bankar jud jaati hai.

taaaingein

vaksh ke pratyek khand mein ek jodi taaaing hoti hai. pratyek taaaing paaainch bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahati hai. taaaing ka niktasth bhaag, jo vaksh se juda hota hai, kakshaang (koks Coxa) kahalaata hai. doosra chhota sa bhaag oorookat (traaketar Trochanter), teesara lamba aur drun bhaag urvika (faamar Femur), chauda lamba patala bhaag jangha (tiviya Tibia) or paaainchava bhaag gulf (taarsas Tarsus) kahalaata hai jo do se lekar paaainch khandon mein vibhaajit ho sakta hai. gulf ke antim khand mein nakhar (klaaj Claws) tatha gaddi (upavarhika Pulvillus) judi hoti hai. aur yeh bhaag gulfaagr (protaarsas Pretarsus) kahalaata hai. nakhar praaya ek jodi hote hain. gaddiyon ko palavilaai (Pulvilli), eroliya (Arolia), epeediya (Empodia) aadi naam diye gaye hain. taaaingon mein upayogitaanusaar anek visheshataaeain drushtigochar hoti hain. kheriya (grilotailpa Gryllotalpa) ki teeviyaan mitti khodane ke liye haingi ke aakaar ki ho jaati hain aur iske neeche ki or teen khandavaala gulf juda hota hai. fudakanevaale tiddon ki pashch taagon ki oorvika (feemar Femur) bahut pusht hoti hai. shramik madhumakkhiyon ki pashch taaaingein Parag ekatr karne ke liye upayogi hoti hain. inmein gulf mein kramaanusaar shreneebaddh baal lage hote hain, jinse ve Parag ekatr karte hain aur jangha ke kinaare par kaaainte hote hain, jo Parag ko chhatte tak le jaane ke liye Parag daliya ka kaarya karte hain. aakhetiptang ki taaainge gaman karne waali hone ke kaaran oorookoot do bhaagon mein vibhaajit ho jaata hai. jooain ki taaainge baalon ko pakadne ke liye bani hone ke kaaran gulf mein keval ek hi khand hota hai tatha usamein ek hi nakhar laga hota hai. baal ko pakade rahane ke liye nakhar vishesh aakruti ka hota hai. jalavaasi keeton ki taange tairane ke liye bani hoti hain. inmein lambe baal hote hain, jo patavaar ka kaam karte hain. baddhahast (maintis Mantis) ki agali taaainge shikaar ko pakadne ke liye hoti hain. iska kakshaang (koksa Coaxa) bahut lamba, oorvika aur jangha kaaaintedaar hoti hai. khaate samay vah isi se shikaar ko pakade rahata hain. ghareloo makkhi ke gulf mein nakhar, upabarhikaaeain aur baal hote hain, jinke kaaran inka adhomukh chalaana sambhav hota hai.

pragati

chalte samay keet apni agali aur pichhli taaainge ek or madhya taaaing doosari or aage badhaata hai. saara shareer kshan bhar ko shesh teen taaaingon ki bani tipaai par aashrit rahata hai. agali taaaing shareer ko aage ki or kheenchati hai, pichhli taaaing usi or ko dhakka deti hai aur madhya taaaing shareer ko sahaara dekar neeche ya oopar karti hai. aage ki or badhte samay keet moddaar maarg ka anusaran karte hain.

paksh

maheen tatha do paraton se bane hote hain, jo madhyavaksh aur pashchavaksh ke prushtheeya bhaagon ke kinaare se daaeain baaeain parat ki bhaaainti viksit hote hain. pakshon mein kadi, maheen nalikaaon ka ek dhaaaincha hota hai, jo isko drudh banaata hai. ye nalikaaeain shiraaeain (Venis) kahalaati hain. paksh kuchh kuchh trikonaakaar hote hain. iska aage wala kinaara paarshv (kaustail, Costal), baahar ki or wala baahari (Epical) aur teesari or ka kinaara gudeeya (Anal) kahalaata hai. paarshv kinaare ki or ki shiraayein praaya moti ya adhik paas hoti hain, kyonki udte samay sabse adhik daab paksh ke isi bhaag par padti hain. shiraaon ki rachana keet ke vargeekaran mein bahut mahatva rakhati hain. mukhya shiraaon ke naam is prakaar hain: kausta (Costa), sabakausta (Subcosta), rediys (Radius), meediys (Medius), kyoobits (Cubitus) aur ainail (Anal). bhinn-bhinn samudaaya ke keeton ke pakshon ki shiraaon ki rachana mein bahut bhed paaya jaata hai. inmein se kuchh shiraaeain to lupt ho jaati hain, ya unki shaakhaaon ki sankhya badh jaati hain. in shiraaon ke beech-beech mein khadi shiraaeain bhi pai jaati hain.

keeton ke jeevan mein pakshon ko atyadhik mahatva hai. paksh hone ke kaaran ye apne bhojan ki khoj mein door door tak ud jaate hain. inko apne shatruon se bachakar bhaag nikalne mein pakshon se badi sahaayata milti hai. pakshon ki upasthiti ke kaaran keeton ko apni parivyaapti (Dispersal) mein, apne sangon ko prapt karne mein, anda rakhane ke liye upayukt sthaan khojane mein tatha apna ghonsala aise sthaanon par banaane mein jahaaain unke shatru na pahuainch paaeain, bahut sahaayata milti hai.

udaan

udte samay pratyek paksh mein peshiyon ke do samoohon dvaara pragati hoti hai. ek samooh to un peshiyon ka hai, jinka pratyaksh roop mein pakshon se koi sambandh prateet naheen hota. ye peshiyaaain vaksh ki bhitti par judi hoti hain. inka paksh ki jad se koi sambandh naheen rahata. khadi peshiyaaain vaksh ke prushtheeya bhaag ko dabaati hain. vaksh ke pakshon ki sandhi vishesh prakaar ki hone ke kaaran is daab ka yeh prabhaav hota hai ki paksh oopar ki or uth jaate hain. lanbaan peshiyaaain vaksh ke prushtheeya bhaag ko vruttaakaar bana deti hain, jiske prabhaav se paksh neeche ki or jhuk jaate hain. doosare samooh ki peshiyaaain, pakshon ki jad par, ya pakshon ki jad se nanhein nanhein skileraait par, judi hoti hain, inmein se pakshon ko failaanevaali agr aur pashch peshiyaaain mukhya hain. udte samay pratham samooh ki peshiyaaain jab pakshon ko baari-baari se oopar-neeche karti hain tab pakshon ko failaane waali peshiyaaain mukhya hai. udate samay pratham samooh ki peshiyaaain jab pakshon ko baari-baari se upar-neeche karti hai tab pakshon ko failaanevaali peshiyaaain pakshon ko aage aur peechhe ki or karti hai. udte hue keet ke pakshon ke aar paar hava ka bahaav is prakaar ka hota hai ki paksh ke oopari aur nichle tal par daav me antar rahata hai. falat ek vaayugati ki bal ban jaata hai jo pakshon ko oopar ki or saadhe rahata hain aur shareer ko udte samay sahaara deta hai.

praaya makkhiyon aur madhumakkhiyon me pakshakanpan sabse aghik hota hai. ghareloo makkhi ka pakshakanpan prati second 180 se 167 baar hota hai, madhumakkhi mein 180 se 203 baar aur machhar me 278 se 307 baar. odoneta (Odonata) gan ke keeton ka paksh kanpan 28 baar prati second hota hai. atyadhik veg se udne vaale keeton mein baajashalabh aur odoneta ki ek jaati ke keet ki gati 90 prati ghanta tak pahuainch jaati hai.

udar

udar upaapachaya (Metabolism) aur janan ka kendra hai. praaya isame 10 khand hote hai, kintu andhakagan (protyoora, Protura) mein 12 khand aur anya kuchh ganon me 11 khand paae jaate hain. bahut se ganon me agr aur pashch bhaag ke khando me bhed hota hai aur is kaaran in bhaagon ke khando ki seema kathinta se nishchit ho paati hai, kitu guda sab keeton me antim khand par hi hoti hai. kuchh keeton me antim khand par ekajodi khandavaali puchhakaaeain (sarasaai, Cerci) lagi hoti hai. nar mein nauvaaain khand janan sambandhi hota hai. iske theek peechhe ki aur pratiprusht par janan sambandhi chhidr paaya jaata hai aur par janan avashya lage rahate hein. janan avashya ya baahya jananeindriyaaain ye hain-ek shishn (ideegas, Aedeagus), ek jodi aantar avayav (peraameeyar, Paramere) aur ek jodi baahya avayav (klaaspar, Clasper), jo maithun ke samay maada ko thaamane ka kaam karti hai. ye sab avashya navein khand se viksit hote hai. maada me aathavaaain aur nauvaaain janan sambandhi khand hai aur inheen par janan avashya ya baahya jananeindriyaaain lagi hoti hai. ye indriyaaain anda rakhane ka kaarya karti hai. isliye inko andasthaapak bhi kehte hai. maada ka janan sambandhi chhidr saantave pratiprusht ke theek peechhe hota hain kintu kuchh ganon me yeh adhik peechhe ki aur hat jaata hai. andasthaapak vibhinn samudaayon ke keeton me vibhinn kaarya karta hai, yatha madhumakkhiyon, barron aur bahut si cheentiyon mein dank ka, saafilaaij me paudhon mein anda rakhane ke liye gahra chhed karne ka tatha aakhetiptang me doosare keeton ke shareer mein anda rakhane ke liye chhed karne ka. kuchh keeton mein andasthaapak naheen hota. bahut me kanchukapakshon aur makkhiyon me shareer ke antim khand doorabeen ke sadrush ho jaate hain aur anda rakhane ka kaarya karte hain. andasthaapak teen jodi avayavon ka bana hota hai, jo agr, pashch aur prushtheeya kapaat kahalaate hain. agr kapaat aathavein khand se aur shesh do jodi kapaat nave khand se viksit hote hain.

keeton ke rang

keet teen prakaar ke rangon ke hote hain-raasaayanik, rachanaatmak aur raasaayanik rachanaatmak. raasaayanik rangon mein nishchit raasaayanik padaarth paae jaate hein jo adhiktar upaapachaya ki upaj hote hain. kuchh keeton mein ye padaarth utsarjit vastu ke samaan hote hain. inmein kuchh rang baahyatvak‌ mein paae jaate hain, jo kaale, bhoore aur peele hote hain tatha sthaayi rahate hain. haaipodarmil vaale rang chhote-chhote daanon athva vasaakanon ke roop mein keet ki koshikaaon mein vartamaan rahate hain. ye rang laal, peele, naarangi aur hare hote hain tatha keet ki mrutyu ke pashchaat sheegra lupt ho jaate hain. kuchh rang rakt aur vasaapindak mein bhi paae jaate hain. rachanaatmak rang baahyatvak‌ ki rachana ke kaaran prateet hote hain aur baahyatvak‌ mein parivartan hone se nasht ho jaate hain. baahyatvak‌ ke sikudne, foolane athva usamein kisi anya dravya ke bhar jaane se bhi rang nasht ho jaata hai. raasaayanik-rachanaatmak rang raasaayanik aur rachanaatmak padaarthon ke milne se bante hain.

keeton ke aantarik shareer ki rachana is prakaar hai :

paachak tantr

paachak tantr teen bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahata hai- agr aantr, madhya aantr aur pashch aantr. agr aur pashchaantr shareerabhitti ke bheetar bhitti bheetar ki or maheen baahyatvak‌ se dhaki rahati hai, kintu madhyaantr thaili ke samaan pruthak viksit hota hai aur agraant tatha pashchaantr ko jodta hai. agraant mein ek sakari graasanali hoti hai, ek thaili ke aakaar ka annagrah (kraup, Crop) aur praaya ek peshani bhi hoti hai. agraant ke donon or laar granthiyaaain hoti hain. dono hi milkar pramukh guha mein khulati hain. madhyaantr chhoti hoti hai tatha ismein se praaya unduk (seeka, Caeca) nikle rahate hain. pashchaantr do bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahata hai, agr bhaag nalika samaan aantr aur pashch bhaag thaili ke samaan malaashaya banaata hai. madhya aur pashchaantr ke sandhisthaan ke maheen maheen nisrg (mailapeegiyn, Malpighiam) nalikaaeain khulati hain.

keet lagbhag sabhi prakaar ke kaarbanik padaarth apne bhojan ke kaam mein le lete hain. is prakaar saadhaaran prakaar ke lagbhag saare kinvaj (engyme) keeton ke paachakatantr mein paae jaate hain. laar granthiyaaain emaailes (Amylasa) ka utsarjan karti hai, jo graasanali mein pravesh karte samay bhojan se mil jaata hai. carbohydrate ka paachan madhya aantr mein hi poora hota hai. madhyaantr mein ye kinvaj paaye jaate hain-emaailes, inavartes (envertase), maalates (Maltase), protiyes (Protease), laaipes (Lipase) aur haaidrolaaipes (Hydrolipase). ye kramaanusaar staarch, ganne ki sharkara, maalatos, proteen aur charbi ko pachaate hain. ye kinvaj annagrah (Crop) mein pahuainch jaate hain jahaaain adhiktar paachan hota hai, keval taral padaarth hi peshani dvaara madhyaantr mein pahuainchate hain jahaaain keval avashoshan hota hai. pashchaantr anapachi vastueain guda dvaara baahar nikaal deta hai.

utsarjanatantr

mailapeegiyn (nisrg) nalikaaeain hi mukhya utsarjan indriyaaain hain. ye shareeraguha ke rakt mein se utsarjit padaarth avashoshan kar pashchaantr mein le jaati hai. naaitrojan, vishesh karke yoorik aml ya iske lavan, jaise amoniym yooret, bankar utsarjit hota hai. yooriya keval bahut hi maatra mein paaya jaata hai.

parivhan tantr

prushthavaahika mukhya parivhan indriya hai. yeh shareer ki prushthabhitti ke neeche madhyarekha mein pai jaati hai. yeh do bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahati hai-hrudaya aur mahaadhamani. hrudaya ke pratyek khand mein ek jodi kapaatadaar chhidr, mukhikaaeain hoti hain. jab hrudaya mein sankochan hota hai to ye kapaat rakt ko shareeraguha mein naheen jaane dete. kuchh keeton mein vishesh prakaar ki spandaneeya indriyaaain pakshon ke tal par, shrrugikaaon aur taaaingon mein, pai jaati hain. prushth madhyachhada (daayafraam, diaphram) jo hrudaya ke theek neeche ki or hoti hain, prushthavaahika ke baahar raktapravaah par kuchh niyantran rakhati hai. prushth madhyachhada ke oopar ki or se shareeraguha ke bhaag ko parihrud (parikaardiyl, Pericardial) vivr (saainas, sinus) kehte hain. yeh donon or prushthabhitti se juda rahata hai. kuchh keeton ke pratiprushth madhyachhada bhi hoti hai. yeh udar mein tantrikaatantu ke oopar pai jaati hain. us madhyachhada ke neechevaale shareeraguha ke bhaag ka paritantrikya (perinyooral, Perineural) vivr kehte hai. iski pragati ke kaaran iske neeche ke rakt ka pravaah peechhe ki or aur daaaine-baaeain hota hai. prushthavaahika me rakt aage ki or pravaahit hota hai aur uske dvaara raktasir mein pahuainch jaata hai. vahaaain ke vibhinn indriyon aur avayavon mein pravesh kar jaata hai. donnon madhyachhadaaon ki pragati ke kaaran shareeraguha me rakt ka parivhan hota rahata hai. ant mein madhyachhada ke chhidro dvaara rakt parihrud vivr mein vaapas aa jaata hai. vahaaain se rakt mukhikaaon dvaara fir prushthavaahika mein bhar jaata hai. rakt mein plaavika hoti hai, jismein vibhinn prakaar ki kanikaaeain pai jaati hain. rakt dvaara sab prakaar ke rasadravyon ki vibhinn indriyon mein paraspar adala-badli hoti rahati hai. yahi haaramon ki or aahaaranali se bhojan ko saare shareer mein le jaata hai, utsarjit padaarth ko utsarjan indriyon tak pahuainchaata hai tatha rakt shvasanakriya mein bhi kuchh bhaag leta hai. parihrud koshikaaeain ya nafreosaait (Nephrocyte) praaya hrudaya ke donon or lagi rahati hain. ye utsarjan yogya padaartho ko rakt se pruthak kar jama kar leti hai. trunaabh koshikaaeain (inosaait, Oenocytes) praaya halke peele rang ki koshikaaeain hoti hai, jo vibhinn keeton mein vibhinn sthaanon par pai jaati hain. kuchh keeton mein ye shvaasaradhran (spaayarekil, Spiracle) ke paas milti hain. sambhavat inka kaarya bhi utsarjan aur vishaile padaartho ko rakt se pruthak karna hai. inka vruddhi aur sambhavat janan se vishisht sambandh rakhata hai. vasaapindak ya avyavasthit ootak shareeraguha mein paaya jaata hai. kabhi kabhi inka vinyaas khandeeya prateet hota hai. vasaapindak pattar, ya dheele sootron (staaainds, Strands) athva dheele ootakon ke samaan hote hain. unka mukhya kaarya sanchit padaartho ke rakt se pruthak kar apne mein jama karna hai. kuchh keeton mein yeh utsarjan ka kaarya bhi karte hain. paandunragranthiyaaain (Corpora allata) ek jodi nishrot granthiyaaain hoti hain, jo grasika ke paas, mashtishk ke kuchh peechhe aur kaurapora kaardiyeka (Corpora cordieca) se judi hui pai jaati hain. ye taarunika haaramon ka utsarjan karti hain, jo roopaantaran aur nirmochan par niyantran rakhata hai.

shvasanatantr

yeh shvaasapranaal (Trachea) naamak bahut si shaakha waali vaayunalikaaon ka bana hota hai. shvaasapranaal mein bheetar ki or baahyatvak‌ ka aavaran rahata hai, jismein peintadaar arthaat ghumaavadaar sthoolataaeain (thickenings) hoti hain, jisse shvaasapranaal sikudne naheen paata. hava bhari rahane par ye chaaaindi ke samaan chamakati hai. shvaasapranaal mein vibhaajit ho jaati hai. ye shaakhaaeain swayam bhi maheen shaakhaaon mein vibhaajit ho jaati hai. is vibhaajan ke kaaran ant mein shvaasapranaal ki bahut maheen-maheen nalikaaeain ban jaati hain jinhein shvaasanalikaaeain (Tracheoles) kehte hain. ye shareer ki vibhinn indriyon mein pahuainchati hain. kaheen-kaheen shvaasapranaal bahut failakar vaayu ki thaili ban jaata hai. shareerabhitti mein daaeain-baaeain paae jaane vaale jodeedaar chhidron dwaar jinhein shvaasaradhran kehte hain, vaayu shvaasapranaal mein pahuainchati hai. shvaasaradhran mein band karne aur kholne ka bhi saadhan rahata hai. praaya aisi rachana bhi pai jaati hain jiske kaaran koi anya vastu inmein pravesh naheen kar paati. laakshanik roop se kul das jodi shvaasaradhran hote hain, do jodi vaksh mein aur aath jodi udar mein. kintu praaya yeh sankhya kam ho jaati hai. shvasanagati ke kaaran vaayu sugamata se shvaasaradhran mein se hokar shvaasapranaal mein or vahaaain se visran (Diffusion) dvaara shvaasanalikaaainon mein, jahaaain se ant mein ootakon ko aaksijn milti hai, pahuainchati hai. kaarban daai-aaksaaid kuchh to jhilleedaar bhaagon se visran dvaara aur kuchh shvaasaradhraaein dvaara baahar nikal jaata hai. udar ki pratiprushth (Dorsoventral) peshiyo ke sikudane se shareer chauras ho jaata hai, ya udar ke kuchh khand bheetar ghus jaate hain, jisse shareer guha ka vistaar ghat jaata hai aur is prakaar nishvasan ho jaata hai.

shareer

khandon ki pratyaasthata ke kaaran shareer apni uttalata (Convexity) pun praapt kar leta hai. is prakaar nishvasan hota hai. bahut se jalavaasi keet rakt ya shvaasapranaali ki jalashvasanikaaon dvaara shvasan karte hain. jin keeton mein shvaasapranaal ka lop hota hai unamein tvacheeya shvasan hota hai.

tantrikaatantr

tantrikaatantr mein keindreeya tantrikaatantr, abhyantaraang tantrikaatantr aur paridhisanvedak tantrikaatantr sammilit hain. keindreeya tantrikaatantr (Central Nervous System) mein laakshanik roop se ek mastishk, jo grasika ke oopar rahata hai aur ek pratiprushth tantrikaarajju (Ventral Nerve Cord) hota hai. ye donon aapas mein sanyoji dvaara jude rahate hain. donon sanyoji (Connective) grasika ke daaeain-baaeain rahate hain. mastishk sir mein sthit aur teen bhaagon mein vibhaajit rahata hai-protoserebram (Protocerebrum), dyootoserebram (Deuto-cerebrum) aur traaitoserebram (Trito-cerebrum). unamein tantrikaaeain netron aur shrrungikaaon ko jaati hain. pratiprushth tantrikaatantu mein shareer ke lagbhag pratyek khand mein ek ek guchhika pai jaati hai. pehli upagrasika guchhika sir mein grasika ke neeche rahati hain. is mein se tantrikaaeain mukh bhaagon ko jaati hain. aagaami teen guchhikaaeain vaksh ke teen khandon mein sthit hoti hai, jinki tantrikaaeain pakshon aur taagon ko jaati hain. tantrikaatantu ki shesh guchhikaaeain udar mein sthiti rahati hain. bahut se keeton mein inmein se bahut si guchhikaaon ka samekan ho jaata hai, jaise ghareloo makkhi aur gunbaraila mein udar aur vaksh ki sab guchhikaaeain milkar ek saamaanya kendra ban jaati hain. mashtishk samvedna aur aasanjan ka mukhya sthaan hai tatha daain-baain peshiyon ke saamaanyat rahanevaali uchit dasha (Tonus) par prabhaav daalata hai. udar ki guchhikaaeain vishesh roop se svatantrata pradarshit karti hain. pratyek guchhika apne khand ka sthaaneeya kendra si ban jaati hai. yadi uchit reeti se uddeepan kiya jaae aur antim guchhika tatha iski tantrikaaon ko koi haani na pahuainchi to jeevit udar, jo vaksh se pruthak kar diya gaya hai, andaaropan kar sakta hai. abhyantaraang tantrikaatantr (Stomato-gastric Nervous System) abhayantr ke oopar paaya jaata hai aur ismein se hrudaya tatha agratantr to tatrikaaeain jaati hain. paridhi tantrikaatantr (Peripheral Nervous System) integyoomeint (Integument) ke neeche rahata hai.

jnyaaaneindriyaaain

sanyukt netr aur saral netr drushti sambandhi indriyaaain hain. laakshanik roop se prodhon aur praaya nimfo mein donon hi prakaar ke netr paae jaate hain; kintun dinbhon mein keval saral netr hi paae jaate hain jo daaeain baaeain hote hain. sanyukt netr mein bahut se pruthak-pruthak chaakshush bhaag hote hain, jinhein netraanu

(ometidiya, Ommatidia) kehte hain. ye baahar se paaradarshak korniya se dhake rahate hein. korniya shatkon leinjon (leinjej, Lenses) mein vibhaajit rahati hai. leinjon ki sankhya inki bheetari ometeediya ki sankhya se theek baraabar hoti hai. saral netr mein keval ek hi ubhayottal leinj hota hai jo chaakshush bhaag ke oopar rahata hai. din aur raat mein udnevaale keeton ke /netron mein antar hota hai. raat mein udnevaale keeton netron mein antar hota hai. raat mein udne vaale keeton ke sanyukt netron mein ek rachana hoti hai, jo tepetam (Tapetum) kahalaati hai. tepatem netron mein pravesh karanevaale prakaash ko paraavartit karta hai, at: netr aaindhere mein chamakate hain. sanyukt netron mein pratibinb do prakaar ka banta hai. jo netraanu chaaron aur se kaale ranjak (Pigment) se dhaka rahata hai, usamein keval ve hi kirnein pravesh kar paati hain jo netraanu ke samaantar hoti hain. shesh sab kirnein ranjak dvaara avashoshit ho jaati hain. is prakaar bana hua pratibinb ek kuttam chitr (mojeik, mosaic) hoga aur utane bhaagon ka bana hoga jitni korniya mein mukhikaaeain hongi. is rachana ke kaaran keval thoda-sa hi prakaash upayogi hota hai, kintu pratibinb adhik spasht hota hai jin netraanuon ke keval bheetari bhaag hi ranjak se dhake rahate hain unamein unki mukhikaaon ke atirikt paasavaali anya mukhikaaon ki kirnein bhi pravesh kar paati hain. aise pratibinb mein lagbhag sabhi kirnon ka upayog ho jaata hai, kintu pratibinb praaya: kam spasht hota hai.

karn

bahut se keeton mein karn hote hain, jo shareer ke vibhinn bhaagon mein paae jaate hain. bahut se tiddon aur tiddiyon mein udar ke agrabhaag mein donon or karn paae jaate hain. kheriya ke karn mein baahari or ek jhilli hoti hai, jiske bheetar ki or sanvedak koshikaaon ka ek guchha rahata hai. shvaasapranaal ki vaayuthailiyon ka karn se samaagam rahata hai. ye anunaadak (rejonetar, Resonator) ka kaarya karte hain. jab dhvanitrange jhilli par takaraati hain to usamein kanpan utpann hota hai, jo ant mein sanvedak koshikon ko prabhaavit karta hai. keet adhik uchch aavrutti ki dhvaniyaaain bhi sun sakte hain, jaise lagbhag 45,000 aavrutti prati seinkad tak ki dhvani. keeton mein vaani naheen hoti, kintu ve dhvani utpann kar sakte hain. dhvanyutpaadan ki anek vidhiyaaain hain. tittibh apne pashch oorvika ka bheetari kinaara, jispar nanheen keelein seedhi rekha mein pai jaati hain. usi or ke agrapaksh ki rediys shira ke mote bhaag par ragadkar dhvani utpann karta hai. kheriya apne ek agrapaksh ke kyoovits shira ki keelon ke doosare agrapaksh ke kinaare ke mote bhaag par ragad kar dhvani utpann karaata.

ghraanedriyaaain

ghraanedriyaaain visheshakar shrrungikaaon par hi pai jaati hai aur vibhinn prakaar ki hoti hain. inki sankhya nar mein praaya: adhik hoti hai, jaise nar madhumakkhi ki shrrungika par lagbhag 30,000 karmakaar mein 6,000 aur raani mein keval 2,000. svaadeindriyaaain bahut se keeton mein epifairings par, kai ek mein mukh ke kinaare tatha sparshiniyon par pai jaati hain. anya prakaar ka gyaan shareer ke vibhinn bhaagon par uge hue parivrtit baalon ya vishesh prakaar ke nanhein kaaainton dvaara hota hai. ye indriyaaain baal, rikaabi ya keel aadi ke aakaar ki hoti hain.

pesheetantr

keeton mein rekhit peshiyaaain pai jaati hain, jo do bhaagon mein vibhaajit ki ja sakti hai: 1. kankaal peshiyaaain ye feete ke aakaar ki hoti hain, shareerabhitti par judi rahati hain aur shareer ke khandon mein gati karne ka kaarya karti hai: 2. aantarangeeya peshiyaaain aantarik angon ko dhake rahati hai; inke tantu lanbaakaar aur vartulaakaar hote hain, jaise aantr ke chaaron or. keeton mein peshiyon ki sankhya bahut adhik hoti hai, kabhi kabhi lagbhag 4,000 tak peshiyaaain hoti hain. kuchh keet bahut hi dheeme chalte hain, kuchh daudte hain aur kuchh badi chapalata se udte hain. anek keet apne shaareerik bhaar se das se bees guna tak bojh vahan sakte hain. pissoo, jiski taaainge 1. 20 inch lambi hoti hain, 8 inch tak ki ooainchaai aur 13 inch tak ki lanbaai kood sakta hai. yeh shakti iski peshiyon ke parimaan ke anuroop hai. jo peshi jitni adhik chhoti hogi usamein anupaatik drushti se utani hi adhik kshamata hogi.

jananeindriyaaain aur maithun

nar aur maada donon prakaar jananeindriyaaain kabhi bhi ek hi keet mein naheen pai jaateen. nar keet maada keet se praaya: chhota hota hai. nar mein ek jodi vrushan hota hai aur pratyek vrushan mein shukreeya nalikaaeain hoti hain, jo shukraanu ka utpaadan karti hain. vrushan se shukraanu shukravaahak mein pahuainch jaate hain aur ant mein skhalaneeya (Ejaculatory) nalika mein pahuainchate hain, jo shishn mein khulati hai. kabhi-kabhi shukravaahak kisi nishchit sthaan mein fail jaate hain aur shukraanu jama karne ke liye shukraashaya ban jaate hain. kinheen-kinheen mein sahaayak (accessory) granthiyaaain bhi pai jaati hain. maada mein ek jodi andaashaya hota hai, pratyek mein andanalikaaeain hoti hain, jinmein viksit hote hue ande paae jaate hain. andanalikaaon ki sankhya vibhinn jaati ke keeton mein bhinn-bhinn ho sakti hai. paripakva hokar ande andavaahini mein aa jaate hain aur vahaaain se saamaanya andavaahini (Common Oviduct) mein pahuainchakar maada ke janan sambandhi chhidr dvaara baahar nikal jaate hain praaya: ek shukradhaani shukraanu jama karne ke liye aur ek ya do jodi sahaayak granthiyaaain bhi upasthit rahati hain. nar ki sahaayak granthiyaaain ek drav padaarth utsarjit karti hain jo shukraanuon mein mishrit ho jaata hai. kabhi kabhi shukraanuon ko koshaakaar packet ban jaata hai, jo shukrakosh (spamaitofor, Spermatophore) kahalaata hai maada ki sahaayak granthiyaaain ka sraav andon ko ek saath jodta hai, ya pattiyon athva andon ko anya vastuon se chipkaata hai. kabhi kabhi is sraav se andon ko rakhane ke liye thaili bhi ban jaati hai, jaise telachatta mein. barre ki ye granthiyaaain vish utpann karti hain, jo dank maarate samay shikaar ke shareer mein pravisht kar jaata hai. andasansechan donon lingon ke sanyog par nirbhar hai. kuchh keeton mein yeh jeevan mein kai baar ho sakta hai.

janan

yeh saadhaaran roop se maithun aur shukraan dvaara ande ke sansechan par nirbhar karta hai. adhiktar keet ande dete hein, jinse kaalaantar mein bachche nikalte hain, kintu kuchh keet andon ke sthaan mein dinbh ya ninf ke janm dete hain. aise keeton ko jaraayuj kehte hain, jaise druyooka aur glosaaina (Glossina)

anishek janan

kuchh keet ande ka shukraanu se sansechan naheen karte. is prakaar ka janan anishekajanan (Parthenogenesis) kahalaata hai. kuchh jaatiyon mein yeh ek anoothi aur kabhi kabhi honevaali ghatna hoti hai, tatha kuchh shalabhon mein asansechit (anafartilaaijd, unfertilized) andon se nar aur maada donon hi utpann hoti hain. saamaajik madhumakkhiyon mein anishekajanan bahudha hota hai, kintu asansechit andon se keval nar hi utpann hote hain. kuchhek stick (Stick) keeton mein asansechit andon se adhiktar maada hi utpann hoti hain aur nar bahut hi kam. saafilaaij mein naron ki utpatti sambhavat: hoti hi naheen, is kaaran sansechan ho hi naheen sakta. falat: keval anishekajanan hota hai. drumayooka (Aphides) mein chakreeya anishekajanan hota hai, arthaat asansechit aur sansechit andon mein utpaadan niymaanusaar kram se hota rahata hai. kuchhek jaatiyon mein apapikv (Immature) keet bhi janan karte hain. is ghatna ko peedojenesis (Paedogenesis) kehte hain. maaiestar (Miastor) keet ke dinbh anya dinbhon ka utpaadan karte hain aur is prakaar kai peedhi tak utpaadan hota rahata hai. iske pashchaat‌ inmein se kuchh dinbh parivrdhit hokar praudh nar aur maada ban jaate hain, jo paraspar maithun ke pashchaat‌ dinbh utpann karte hain. in dinbhon se pehle ki bhaanti fir utpaadan aarambh ho jaata hai. bahubhroonata (pauliyenbriyoni, Polyembryony) ka arth hai. ek ande se ek se adhik keeton ka utpann hona. is prakaar ka utpaadan paraashrayi kalaapakshon mein paaya jaata hai. plaitigaistar heemelis (Platigastor hiemalis) ke kuchh andon mein se do dinbh utpann hote hain, kintu kisi kisi paraashrayi kailasid (Chalcid) ke pratyek ande se lagbhag ek sahasr tak dinbh utpann ho jaate hain.

maithun

kuchh keeton mein maithun keval ek hi baar hota hai. tatpashchaat‌ mrutyu ho jaati hai, jaisa efimerauptara (Ephimeroptero) gan ke keeton mein. madhumakkhi ki raani yadyapi kai varsh tak jeevit rahati hai, tathaapi maithun keval ek hi baar karti hai aur ek hi baar mein itni paryaapt maatra mein shukraanu pahuainch jaate hain ki jeevan bhar iske andon ka sansechan karte rahate hain. maithun ke pashchaat‌ nar ki sheegra hi mrutyu ho jaati hai. bahut se keeton ke nar jeevan mein kai baar pruthak‌-pruthak‌ maadaaon se maithun karte hain aur bahut se kanchukapakshon ke nar aur maada donon baarabaar maithun karte hain.

ande

ande saadhaaranataya bahut chhote hote hain. fir bhi ande ko dekh kar yeh batalaana praaya: sambhav hota hai ki ande se kis prakaar ka keet niklega. bahudha yeh baat bahut mahatva rakhati hai, kyonki isse haanikaarak keeton ki haanikaarak dasha ke vishay mein bhavishyavaani ki ja sakti hai. isliye andon ke aakaar, roop aur rang tatha ande rakhane ke sthaan aur vidhi ka dhyaan rakhana aavashyak hai. ande samatal, shalkyaakaar, golaakaar, shankvaakaar tatha chaude ho sakte hain. ande ka oopari aavaran poorn roop se chikna ya vibhinn prakaar ke chinhnonvaala hota hai. ande pruthak‌ pruthak‌ ya samudaayon mein rakhe jaate hain. telachatte (Cockroach) ke ande dinbhakoshth (Ootheca) ke bheetar rahate hain. jalavaasi keeton ke ande chipchipe lasadaar padaarth se dhake rahate hain. ande mein vruddhi karte hue bhroon ke poshan ke liye paryaapt maatra mein bhojan, jo yok (Yolk) kahalaata hai, paaya jaata hai.

andaropan aur anda rakhane ki shakti

andaaropan vibhinn prakaar se hota hai. ande aise sthaanon par rakhe jaate hain, jahaaain utpann honevaali santaan ki tatkaaleen aavashyakataaeain poorn ho sakein. kuchh jaatiyon ki maadaaeain neechi udaan udti, apne ande aniyamit reeti se giraati chali jaati hain. bahut se shalabhon ki maadaaeain, jinke dinbh ghaas ya usaki jad khaate hai, udte samay apne ande ghaas par giraati chali jaati hain. saadhaaranataya ande aise paudhon par rakhe, paudhon ke ootakon mein pravisht kar diye jaate hain jinko dinbh khaate hain, jaise kuchh prakaar ke tiddon mein. kuchh keet apne ande mitti mein rakhate hain. paraashrayi jaatiyon ke keet apne andon ko un poshakon ke oopar ya bheetar rakhate hain, jo unki santaanon ka poshan karte hain.

vibhinn jaatiyon ki maadaaon ke andon ki sankhya vibhinn hoti hai. drumayooka ki kuchh jaatiyon ki maadaaeain sheetakaal mein keval ek hi bada anda rakhati hain. ghareloo makkhi apne jeevan mein 2,000 se adhik ande rakhati hai. deemak ki raani mein anda rakhane ki shakti sabse adhik hoti hai. yeh prati second ek anda de sakti hai aur apne chhah se baarah varsh tak ke jeevan mein 10,00,000 ande deti hai.

parivrdhan

ande ke sansechan ke pashchaat‌ parivrdhan aarambh ho jaata hai. praarambh mein do staravaala mool patta ya jarm band (Germ band) banta hai, jo anuprasth (transverse) rekhaaon dvaara bees andon mein vibhkt ho jaata hai. agale chhah khand sir, paravarti teen khand vaksh aur shesh khand telasan (Telson) ke saath milkar udar banaate hain. pratham khand aur telasan ke atirikt pratyek khand mein ek joda bhrooneeya avayav viksit ho jaata hai. avayavon ke pratham yugm ka sambandh dviteeya khand se rahata hai aur inse shrrungikaaeain banti hain. dviteeya jodi bahut hi chhoti aur kshanik hoti hai. teesari, chauthi aur paaainchavi jodi ke avayav viksit hokar maindibl, maiksila aur lebiym ban jaate hain. inke peechhe vaale teen jodi avayav kuchh bade tatha spasht hote hain. ye taaaingon ke agravarti hai. udar ke avayavon ki antim jodi sarasaai ban jaati hain kintu shesh sab jodiyaaain dinbh nikalne se poorv hi praaya: nasht ho jaati hai.

ande se bachcha niklana-bhroon jab poorn reeti se viksit ho jaata hai aur ande se baahar nikalne ko taiyaar hota hai, tab shukti mein pehle se bani hui topi ko apne anda fodne vaale kaaainton se hataakar baahar nikal aata hai. kuchh keeton mein aarambh mein bhroon vaayu niglakar apna vistaar itna badha lete hain ki shukti toot jaati hai. bachche ko baahar nikalne mein usaki peshiyaaain sahaayata karti hain.

vruddhi

ande se nikalne ke pashchaat‌ hi vruddhi aarambh hoti hai. janm se praudhta tak keet ke aakaar mein jo vruddhi hoti hai vah atyadhik aashcharya janak hai. praudh keet ki taul janm hone ke samay ki taul se 1,000 se 70,000 guna tak ho sakti hai. itni adhik vruddhi aise khol ke bheetar, jiska vistaar badh naheen sakta, naheen ho sakti. at: khol ka tootana ati aavashyak hai. yeh keinchul ke patan (Moulting) se hi sambhav hai. jeern baahyatvak‌ ko keinchul kehte hain. jeern baahyatvak‌ (keinchul) ke fatne se poorv hi iske bheetaravaale adhichrm ki koshikaaeain naveen baahyatvak‌ ka utsarjan kar deti hain. tatpashchaat‌ inmein se kuchh vishesh prakaar ki koshikaaon se, jo keinchul granthiyaaain kahalaati hain, ek drav padaarth niklata hai. yeh drav padaarth puraane baahyatvak‌ ke bheetari star ko vileen kar nae baahyatvak‌ se pruthak kar deta hai, isko komal bhi bana deta hai tatha swayam puraane aur nae baahyatvak‌ ke madhya ek maheen jhilli si ban jaati hai. aise samay mein keet mein vruddhi ho jaati hai. keinchul patan ke pashchaat‌ keet ki aakruti ko instaar (Instar) kehte hain. jab keet ande se niklata hai to pratham instaar hota hai, pratham keinchul patan ke pashchaat‌ keet dviteeya instaar hota hai, antim inastaar poorn keet ya praudh keet kahalaata hai.

roopaantaran

adhiktar keeton mein ande se jo dinbh niklata hai usaki aakruti aur roop vayask keet se bahut bhinn hota hai. bahut se keeton mein dinbh ki aakruti aur roop mein praudh banane tak anek parivartan aa jaate hain. is prakaar ke parivrtanon ko roopaantaran (metamorphosis) kehte hain. jin keeton mein roopaantaran naheen hota unhein roopaantaranaheen (emetaabola, Ametabola) kehte hain. iska udaaharan leha (lepijma, Lepisma) hai. adhiktar keeton mein roopaatanran hota hai aur aise keet metaabola (Metabola) kahalaate hain. keeton mein do prakaar ke kriyaasheel apraudh paae jaate hain. ye ninf aur dinbh kahalaate hain. ninf us apraudh avastha ke keet ko kehte hain jo ande se nikalne par adhik unnat hota hai. ninf ka poorn keet se yeh bhed hota hai ki ismein paksh tatha baahya jananeindriyaaain viksit naheen hoti. ye sthal par rahate hain aur pakshon ka viksan baahya roop se hota hai. ninf se poorn keet tak ki vruddhi kramik hoti hai aur pyoopa naheen banta hai. is prakaar ke parivartan ka apoorn roopaantaran tatha keet samudaaya ko hemimetaabola (hemimetabola) kehte hain, jaise ikh ki pankhi. dinbh us apraudh avastha ke keet se bahut bhinn hota hai. ismein pakshon ka koi bhi baahya chinh naheen paaya jaata. dinbh ko poorn keet banane se pehle pyoopa banana padta hai. is prakaar ke parivartan ko poorn roopaantaran (holometaabola, Holometabola) kehte hain, jaise ghareloo makkhi mein. atyalp keeton mein upariprivrdhan hota hai. in danbhon mein dinbh avastha mein bhi atyadhik parivartan paaya jaata hai. inmein chaar ya isse adhik spasht instaar hote hain. inke jeevan aur vyavahaar mein bhi bahut bhed paaya jaata hai. is prakaar ke parivartan ko haayapar (Hyper) roopaantaran kehte hain, jaisa kaintheris (Cantharis) mein. keeton mein roopaantaran ke niyman ka do haaramonon se sambandh hota hai- keinchul patan kaarak haaramon aur shaishav (juvenile) haaramon. keinchul-patan-kaarak haaramon praaya: vaksheeya granthi utsarjit karta hai. yeh haaramon keet ka keinchulapatan karta hai. praudh mein vaksheeya granthi lupt ho jaati hai, isaliye keinchulapatan bhi samaapt ho jaata hai. yadi ninf ki vaksheeya granthi praudh mein jama di jaae to praudh bhi keinchulapatan karne lagega. shaishav haaramon kaarapora alaata utsarjit karte hain. yeh haaramon praudh ke lakshanon ko dabaae rakhata hai aur ninfon ke lakshanon ke teevrata se ubhaadne mein sahaayata karta hai. roopaantaran ke samay vaksheeya granthi ki kriyaasheelata badh jaati hai aur iske haaramon ka prabhaav itna paryaapt hota hai ki shaishav haaramonon ke prabhaav ko kuchal deta hai aur is prakaar roopaantaran ho jaata hai.

neaid (Naiad) jalavaasi aur bahut kriyaasheel apraudh hote hain. inke shvaasaradhran band hote hai. shvasan jalashvasanikaaon dvaara hota hai. ye kainpodeeifaurm (Campodeiform) hote hain, arthaat taaainge bhali-bhaaainti viksit aur shareer chauras hota hai.

dinbh

dinbh holometaabolas aur haaiparametaabolas keeton ki ek apraudh avastha hai. dinbh jab ande se nikalte hai, tab bhinn-bhinn jaatiyon ke anusaar unke parivrdhan ki dashaaeain bhinn-bhinn ho sakti hain. inki yeh dasha kuchh ansh tak yok ki maatra par, jo inki vruddhi ke liye ande mein upasthit rahata hai, nirbhar rahati hai. praaya: aisa dekha gaya hai ki jab ande mein yok ki maatra kam hoti hai, tab ande se nikalte samay dinbh adhik apoorn hota hai. dinbh chaar prakaar ke hote hain (1) protopaud (Protopod) dinbh par jeevi kalaapakshon mein paae jaate hain, kyonki inke andon mein yok atyalp maatra mein hota hai. ye dinbh lagbhag bhrooneeya avastha mein hi hote hain. inka jeevit rahana isliye sambhav hota hai ki ya to ye anya keeton ke andon mein ya unke shareer ke bheetar rahate hain, jahaaain inko vruddhi karne ke liye atyadhik pushtikr bhojan milta hai. inke udar mein khand ya kisi prakaar ke avayav naheen paae jaate hain. (2) paulipaud (Polypod) ya iroosifaurm (Eruciform) dinbhon ke shareer mein spasht khand aur udar par avayav bhi hote hain. shrrungikaaeain aur vidyamaan hoti hain, kintu chhoti hoti hain. ye apne bhojan ke sameep rahate hain aur is kaaran aalasi hote hain. aise dinbh illi kahalaate hain aur titliyon, shalabhon tatha saafilaaij mein paae jaate hain. (3) oligopaud (Oligopod) dinbhon ke vaksheeya avayav (taaaingein) bhali prakaar viksit hote hain, kintu udar mein puchheeya avayav ke atirikt anya koi avayav naheen paae jaate. ye maansaahaari hote hain aur shikaar ki khoj mein ghoomate firte hain. in kriyaasheel jeevan ke kaaran inke netr tatha anya indriyaaain bhali prakaar viksit hoti hain. ye dinbh sthal par rahane vaale kanchukapakshon aur jaalapakshon mein paae jaate hain. (4) aipodas (Apodous) dinbh krumi ki aakruti ke hote hain. inki taaainge bahut chhoti hoti hain ya poornataya lupt ho jaati hain. ye anek samudaaya ke keeton mein paae jaate hain, jaise ghareloo makkhi ka dinbh.

pripyoopa

dinbh avastha ke ant ke nikat keet roopaantar ki taiyaari karta hai aur nishchit roopaantar hone ke poorv (pripyoopa, Prepupa) ki dasha mein aa jaata hai. is dasha mein keet bhojan karna band kar deta hai. shareer bahut sikud jaata hai aur usaka rang nasht ho jaata hai. pripyoopa dasha ke pashchaat‌ keet ke shareer ki aakruti mein parivartan aa jaate hain. bhavishya mein hone vaale praudh ke netr aur taaaingon ke baahya viksan ke chinh pratham baar drushtigochar hote hain. praaya: isi avastha mein koya (kokoon) banta hai. dvipkshon mein isi avastha mein pyoopa ka khol banta hai.

pyoopa

pyoopa ki avastha mein keet vishraam karta hai. isi avastha mein paksh tatha anya avayav apne adhichrm ki thailiyon se baahar nikal aate hain aur pratyaksh ho jaate hain. aantarik indriyon ko bhavishya mein bananevaale poornakeet ki aavashyakataaon ke anusaar punarnirmaan ho jaata hai. praathamik prakaar ka pyoopa dektiks (Decticous) pyoopa kahalaata hai. iske avayav iske shareer se naheen chipke rahate, varan‌ gati kar sakte hain. machhar ke pyoopa jalavaasi hain aur chapalata se tairate rahate hain. obatekt (Obtect) arthaat‌ kavachit pyoopa ke paksh aur taaainge shareer se chipki rahati hain. inmein pragati naheen hoti. is prakaar ke pyoon adhiktar shalabhon mein paae jaate hain. koaarkatet (Coarctate) pyoopa mein dinbh ki antim keinchul ka patan naheen hota hai, kintu yahi keinchul kadi bankar pyoopa ke baahar pyoopariym ban jaati hai. is prakaar ka pyoopa ghareloo makkhi mein paaya jaata hai.

pyooperiym se nikalte samay keet apne khol ka vibhinn prakaar se todte hai. chabaakar khaane vaale keet apne janbh (maindibl) se apne pyooperiym ko kutar-kutar kar baahar nikalte hain. choosakar bhojan karanevaale keet ek taral padaarth ka utsarjan karte hain, jo koya ke resham ko ek or se komal kar deta hai aur is kaaran sahaj mein hi toot jaata hai. kuchh shalki-pakshon mein kaaainte hote hain, jinse ve pyooperiym mein daraar banaate hai. kuchh dvipkshon ke sir par ek thaili hoti hain, jismein vaayu bharakar ve pyooperiym ke sire ko dabaate hain. is prakaar yeh sira toot jaata hai aur makkhi nikal aati hai. pyooperiym se nikalte samay keet sabse pehle apne avayavon ko baahar nikaalata hai. is samay iske pag sikude hote hain, fir reingakar sabse sameep yeh jo bhi avalanb pa jaata hai us par isi dasha mein vishraam karne lagta hai. pakshon mein shareer ke raktapravaah se aur peshiyon ke sikudne tatha failane se paksh bhi sheeghrata se fail jaate hain. pyooperiym se nikalne ke kuchh samay pashchaat‌ hi keet udne ka prayatn karne lagta hai.

poornakeet ka parivrdhan apoorn roopaantaranavaale keeton mein poornakeet ke parivrdhan mein parivartan kramik aur rnivighn hote hain. ye baahya tatha aantarik donon hote hain. rnif ki indriyaaain poornakeet ki indriyon mein parivrtit ho jaati hai. iske aakaar mein vruddhi ke atirikt bahut hi thoda anya parivartan aata hai. poorn roopaantaranavaale keeton mein dinbhon ki indriyaaain aur ootak pyoopa ki avastha mein vibhinn maatra mein vilay ho jaate hain. is vidhi ko histolisis (Histolysis) kehte hain. saath hi saath unke sthaan mein praudh ki indriyaaain ban jaati hain. naveen ootakon ka yeh utpaadan histojinesis (histogenesis) kahalaata hai. donon prakaar ke parivartan indriyon ki avichhinnata ko nasht kiye bina hi saath-saath hote rahate hain. vaastav mein poornakeet ka banana dinbh mein hi aarambh ho jaata hai. sabse pehle poornakeet ki kalikaaeain banti hain. ye kalikaaeain bhavishya mein hone vaale keet ke un sab bhaagon ka, jinki isko aavashyakta hogi, punarnimaan karti hain tatha un sab indriyon ko bhi banaati hain jo dinbh mein naheen pai jaati.

daayapaaj (Diapause) arthaat‌ vruddhi ki rok-anukool paristhitiyon mein bahut se keeton ka parivrdhan rnivighn hota rahata hai. is beech yadi koi pratikool paristhiti aa jaati hai, jaise nimn taap; to kuchh samay ke liye parivrdhan rook jaata hai, kintu paristhiti sudharate hi parivrdhan turant hi fir aarambh ho jaata hai. kintu bahut se aise keet bhi hain jinmein baahya dashaaeain to anukool prateet hoti hai. kintu kuchh nishchit paristhitiyon ke kaaran parivrdhan rook jaata hai. vruddhi ki yeh rukaavat kuchh saptaahon se lekar kai varshon tak ki ho sakti hai. vibhinn jaatiyon ke keeton mein yeh avadhi praaya: bhinn hoti hai aur is prakaar parivartan mein vilamb ho jaata hai. kintu ant mein yeh rookaavat jeev ne itihaas ki kisi ek nishchit avastha mein hi hoti hai. yeh avastha ande ki, apoorn keet ki, ya vayask ki, kisi ki bhi ho sakti hai aur keet ki jaati par nirbhar rahati hai. resham k krumi shalabh, baanbiks moraai (Bombyx mori) jo ande sharad ri tu mein deta hai unamein daayapauj hota hai. jab tak garami dene se pehle inke seinteegred par na rakha jaaya in andon se dinbh naheen nikalte.

jeevanachakr

samasheetoshn aur sheetal deshon ke keeton ke jeevanachakr mein sheetakaal mein sheetanishkriyta (haaibarneshan, Hibernation) pai jaati hai. in dinon keet shithil rahata hai. ayanavrutt ke deshon mein, jahaaain ki jalavaayu sada ushn aur nam hoti hai, keeton ke jeevachakr mein sheetanishkriyta praaya: naheen pai jaati aur ek peedhi ke pashchaat‌ doosari peedhi kramaanusaar aa jaati hai. bhaarateeya shalabhon mein ikh ki jad ko bhedanevaala shalabh illi ki avastha mein December ke pratham saptaah mein sheetanishkriya ho jaata hai aur pyoopa banana March mein aarambh karta hai. paipiliyo dimoliys (Papilio demoleus) naamak titli pyoopa avastha mein aur peet barre praudhaavastha mein sheetanishkriya hote hain. peeriodikl sikeda (Periodical cieada) ke, jo uttari amareeka mein paaya jaata hai, jeevanachakr poore hone mein terah se satrah varsh tak lag jaate hain, kintu bahut si dramayooka aisi hoti hain jinki ek peedhi lagbhag ek saptaah mein hi poorn ho jaati hai. sabse chhota jeevanachakr nanhein nanhein kailasid naamak kalaapaksh ke keeton ka hota hai. in keeton ke dinbh doosare keeton ke andon ke bheetar paraashrayi ki bhaaainti rahate hain aur inka jeevanachakr keval saat hi din mein poorn ho jaata hai.

sangeetajnya keet

bahut se keet sangeetajnya hote hain. keet vaaneeheen hote hain, isliye inka sangeet vaadya sangeet hota hai. ye keval praudhaavastha mein hi apna vaadya jaante hai. praaya: nar keet hi sambhavat: maada ko aakarshit karne ke liye sangeet utpann karte hain. inke vaadya adhiktar dhol ke aakaar ke hote hai, arthaat‌ in vaadyon mein ek jhilli hoti hai jismein teevr kanpan hone se dhvani utpann hoti hai. kanpan utpann karne ki do vidhiyaaain hai. ek bhaag ko doosare bhaag par ragadkar jo dhvani utpann ki jaati hai. usaki bela (Violin) se utpann hui dhvani se tulana kar sakte hain. doosari vidhi mein keet ki peshiyon ka sankochan vimochan hota hai. ye peshiyaaain jhilli se judi rahati hain aur isliye jhilli mein bhi kanpan hone lagta hai. is prakaar se dhvani utpann karne ka manushya ke paas koi saadhan naheen hai. jheengur, kaiteedid (Katydid), tidde tatha sikeda keetasamaaj ki gaanevaali prasiddh mandali ke sadasya hain. jheengur, kaiteedid aur tidde ek hi gan ke antargat aate hain. jheengur aur kaiteedid ke ek agr paksh par reti ke samaan ek falak hota hai, jo doosare agrapaksh ke us bhaag ko ragadta hai jo kinaare ki or mota sa ho jaata hai. kaiteedid mein reti baaeain paksh par hoti hai. kuchh jheengur apne daaeain pakshavaali reti se hi kaam lete hain. tidde ke pakshon par daate hote hain aur pichhli taaaingon par bheetar ki or tej kinaara hota hai. sikeda ki peeth par donon or pakshon ke peechhe ek ek andaakaar chhidr hota hai, jispar ek jhilli bani rahati hai. is prakaar ek dhol sa ban jaata hai. is jhilli par bheetar ki or peshiyaaain judi rahati hain, jo ismein kanpan utpann karti hain. dhol mein teeliyaaain hoti hai. in teeliyon ki sankhya bhinn-bhinn jaatiyon mein bhinn hoti hai. machhar do prakaar ka gaan karte hain, jo premagaan aur laalasaagaan kahalaate hain. laalasaagaan dvaara ek maada anya maadaaon ko sandesh deti hai ki usane rudhir choosane ke liye shikaar dhooaindh liya hai aur ve vahaaain pahuainchakar rudhir choos sakti hain. premagaan nar ko maithun karne ke liye aakarshit karta hai.

vanaspati aur keeton ka sambandh

keeton ki ek bahut badi sankhya ka jeevan vanaspatiyon par hi nirbhar hai. lagbhag pratyek prakaar ka paudha aur usaka pratyek bhaag kisi na kisi jaati ke keet ka bhojan ban jaata hai. aisa anumaan hai ki lagbhag pachaas pratishat keet apna nirvaah paudhon se hi karte hain. tiddiyaaain aur tidde khule mein rahakar lagbhag pratyek paudha kha jaate hain. shalabhon ke dinbh, saafilaaij aur kanchukapakshon ki bahut si jaatiyaaain bhi paudhon ke lagbhag pratyek bhaag ko, ya to khule mein rahakar ya chhipkar, kha jaati hain. ye patte, stambh, jad tatha kaashth ke bheetar rahakar bhi apna bhojan pa jaati hain. jhallareepaksh, drumayooka tatha paudhon ke anya matkun paudhon mein chhedakar ras choosate hain. bahut se shalabh, madhumakkhiyaaain tatha inke sambandhi pushpasraav choosate hain. kuchh keet paudhon ke oottakon ka roopaantar kar vichitr prakaar ki rachana bana dete hain, jo drusfot (Gall) kahalaate hain. in rachanaaon mein keet ke dinbhon ko aashray tatha bhojan milta hai. pratyek paudha keeton ki anek jaatiyon ka poshan karta hai. do sau jaati ke keet makai par, chaar sau jaati ke seb par tatha ek sau pachaas se adhik jaatiyon ke keet cheed ke vruksh par nirvaah karte paae gaye hain. praaya: bhinn-bhinn jaatiyon ke keet vruksh ke bhinn-bhinn bhaagon par paae jaate hain aur is prakaar kuchh seema tak spardha se bache rahate hain. bahut se keet apna poorn jeevan ek hi paudhe par vyateet karte hain. patton ke bheetar rahane vaale, paudhon ke bheetar chhed kar rahanevaale tatha drusfot banaane vaale keet isi prakaar apna jeevan vyateet karte hain. inka paudhon mein pravesh karna paudhe ki vishesh dasha par nirbhar rahata hai. anek keet anek paudhon par, ya ek hi varg ki anek jaatiyon ke paudhon par, aakraman karte hain. saadhaaranataya pratyek jaati ke keet ka paudha nirdhaarit rahata hai, tatha anek keet nirdhaarit jaati ke paudhon ke atirikt kisi anya paudhe ko naheen khaate, chaahe unki mrutyu bhale hi ho jaae.

bahut se keeton aur paudhon ka sambandh anyonya hota hai. aise keet Parag aur makarand praapt karne ke liye pushpon par jaate hain. in vastuon ko praapt karte samay ajnyaaan mein hi ye pushparaagan kar dete hain. pushpon se bhojan praapt karne vaale keeton mein praaya: vishesh prakaar ki rachanaaeain pai jaati hain. ye rachanaaeain bahut gaharaai par ke makarandakoshon se makarand choosane mein sahaayata karti hain. karmakaari madhumakkhiyon mein Parag ko ekatr karne ke liye pichhli taaaingon par Parag daliyaaain hoti hain. pushpon mein bhi keeton ko aakarshit karne ke liye rang aur sugandh hoti hai. kuchh pushpon ki rachana aisi hoti hai ki keet bina Parag ekatr kiye makarand praapt kar hi naheen sakta aur jab vah doosare pushp par jaata hai to pushp ki rachana ke kaaran iske vartikaagr par Parag giraae bina makarandakosh tak pahuainch hi naheen sakta. yooka pushp aur yooka shalabh iske bahut sundar udaaharan hain.

safaai karne vaale keet

jo keet vanaspati naheen khaate, ve uchhisht vastuon, anya keeton ya anya jeevon ko apna bhojan banaate hain. safaai karne vaale keet kooda karkat aadi isi prakaar ki anya parityakt vastuon par apna jeevananirvaah karte hain. sadi gali vanaspatiyon se bahut se kanchukapaksh, makkhiyaaain tatha anya keet aashray tatha bhojan paate hain. gobar, jeevon ke sadte hue shav tatha inke anya avashesh kisi na kisi keet ka bhojan avashya ban jaate hain. keeton ki ye krutiyaaain manushya ke liye bahut laabhadaayak hain. apaahaari (pridetar, Predator) vah jeev hai jo anya jeevon par nirvaah karta hai, maansaahaari hota hai, apne shikaar ki khoj mein rahata hai aur paane par usako kha jaata hai. is prakaar ka vyavahaar vibhinn vargon ke keeton mein paaya jaata hai. inka shikaar koi anya keet, ya aprushthavanshi jeev hota hai. aise jeevan ke kaaran in keeton ki taaaingon, mukh bhaagon aur sanvedak indriyon mein bahut se parivartan ho jaate hain. aise kuchh keeton ke vyavahaar mein bhi spasht pavirtan drushtigochar hota hai. kuchh keet apni taaaingon ka apne shikaar ko pakadne tatha bhakshan karte samay thaamane ke liye upayog karte hain. vyaadh patang (Dragon fly) apni teenon jodi taaainge aur jalamatkun tatha maintid (Mantid) keval bagali taaaingon ka hi is kaarya mein upayog karte hain. is kaaran inki taaaingon mein parivartan paaya jaata hai. distiks (Disticus) ke janbh apne shikaar ko pakadne ke liye nukeele tatha aage ki or nikle rahate hain. vyaadhapatang ke ninf ka oshth (Labium) anya keeton ke pakadne ke liye vishesh aakruti ka ban jaata hai. in keeton ke sanyukt netr vishesh roop se viksit hote hain. kuchh apaahaari keeton ki taaainge daudne ke liye upayukt hoti hain aur kuchh teevrata se ud sakte hain. anek apaahaari apne ande apne shikaar ke sampark mein rakhate hain, jaise ledi-bird beetal (Lady-bird beetle) apne ande drumayooka ke paas rakhata hai. anek apaahaari apne shikaar ki prateeksha mein chhipe baithe rahate hain aur jaise hi unka shikaar unki pahuainch mein aata hai, us par ekabaaragi jhapata maarate hain, jaise maintis mein apne ko gupt rakhane ke liye patti jaisa rang hota hai. jalapaksh ke kuchh dinbh apne shikaar, cheentiyon, ko pakadne ke liye gaddha banaate hain.

parajeevi

parajeevi ve keet hain jo anya jeevon par nirvaah to karte hain, kintu unka vadh kiye bina hi unase bhojan praapt karte hain aur praaya: ek hi poshak par nirbhar rahate hain. ye apne ande praaya: apne poshak ke shareer par dete hain. parajeevi keet do prakaar ke hote hain-ek jo kasheru k dandiyon par aur doosare jo anya keeton tatha unke sanbandhiyon par jeevit rahate hain. pratham varg ke keet ainoplyoora (Anopleura), mailofaiga (Mallophaga) aur saaifonaiptara (Siphonaptera) ganon tatha hippobosaaidi (Hippoboscidae) vansh ke antargat aate hain. ye parajeevi apne poshak ki tulana mein bahut chhote hote hain. poshak mein inko sahane karne ki shakti viksit ho jaati hai aur is kaaran inka prabhaav praananaashak naheen hota. inmein se adhiktar baahya parajeevi hain aur poshak ke shareer par rahate hain. saaifonaiptara ke atirikt anya ka shareer oopar neeche se chauras hota hai aur ye poshak ke shareer se chipke rahate hain. inke pairon par poshak ko pakade rahane ke liye huk hote hain tatha netr ksheen ya lupt ho jaate hain. pakshon ka bhi praaya: abhaav rahata hai aur yadi ve hote bhi hai to bahut chhote hote hain. keeton ke parajeevi ine gine hi hain. strepsiptas gan ke atirikt madhumakkhi ki jooain, breula (Braula) hi keval inka anya udaaharan hai.

ardh parajeevi (pairaasitauid Parasitoide) ka vyavahaar apaahaari aur parajeevi ke madhya ka sa hota hai. aarambh mein yeh parajeevi ki tarah rahata hai, arthaat‌ poshak ki ati aavashyak indriyon ko nasht naheen karta, kintu baad mein iska vyavahaar apaahaari jaisa ho jaata hai aur yeh apne poshak ka bhakshan kar jaata hai. yeh praaya: apne ande poshak ke shareer ke oopar ya bheetar rakhata hai. iske dinbh poshak se sthaayi roop se chipke rahate hai aur apna bhojan poshak ke shareer ke bheetar ya baahar se praapt karte hain. adhiktar ye keet dvipksh vansh ki taikinaaidi (Tachyniade) aur kalaapaksh ke pairaasaaitika (Parasitica) varg mein hi paae jaate hain. inke praudh kriyaasheel hote hain aur paraashrayi naheen hote. ardhaparajeevi ka aakaar poshak ke aakaar ki tulana mein bada hota hai aur yeh apne vyavahaar se poshak ko praaya: sada hi nasht kar deta hai. poshak adhiktar anya keet hi hote hain, jinke andon ya anya apraudh avasthaaon par ardhaparajeevi ka aakraman hota hai. praudh keet par kabhi bhi aakraman naheen hota. taikinaaidi vansh ke keet poshak ke bheetar rahate hain, kintu ande poshak ke oopar, ya poshak se door, rakhate hain. bahut se paraashrayi kalaapaksh baahya paraashriton ki bhaaainti rahate hain, kintu adhiktar aantarik paraashrayi hain aur apne ande poshak ki tvacha ke bheetar pravisht kar dete hain. ardhaparajeeviyon mein sabse adhik mahatva ki baat inke shvasanatantr mein pai jati hai, vishesh karke aantarik ardhaparajeeviyon mein, jo apne poshak ke rakt mein mili hui aaksijn ka shvasan karte hain. kintu kuchh aantarik ardhaparajeevi aise bhi hain. jo seedhe vaayumandal se aakseejan praapt karte hain.

inkvilaain (Inquiline)

kuchh keet doosare keeton ka to bhakshan naheen karte, kintu unki ekatr ki hui saamagri ko kha jaate hain. aise keet inkvilaain kahalaate hain. ye keet saamaajik keeton ke ghosalon mein bahutaayat se paae jaate hain. inka bahut prasiddh udaaharan mom ka shalabh hain, jo madhumakkhi ke chhatton mein rahata hai aur chhattein ko nasht kar deta hai. volusila (Volucella) naamak chakkar khaanevaali makkhi bhin-bhinaanevaali makkhiyon aur barron ke chhatton mein rahakar uchhisht kaarbanik makkhi padaarthon ko khaati hain. aitelyura (Atelura) naamak keet cheetiyon ke vivron mein rahata hai aur jab ek cheenti doosari cheenti ko apna ulati kiya hua bhojan dene lagti hai to usako pi leta hai. kuchh aise bhi keet hain jo apne poshakon ko, unke saath rahane ke badle mein, laabh pahainchaate hain. kuchh kanchukapaksh cheetiyon ke vivron mein aashray aur bhojan paate hain aur iske badle mein apne shareer se sraav nikaal kar dete hain, jisko paane ke liye ye cheetiyaaain bahut laalaayit rahati hain. is sambandh ki antim shreni yeh hain ki cheetiyaaain sraav ke badle mein atithi kanchukapaksh ko vastut: bhojan deti hain. paraspar laabh pahuainchaane ka yeh ek sundar udaaharan hai (dekhein saamaajik keet).

keetamandaliyaaain aur saamaajik keet

adhiktar keeton ki prakruti akele hi rahane ki hoti hai, kintu kuchh jaatiyon ke keet niyat paristhiti mein apni mandali bana lete hain. sheetakaal mein jab taap bahut neeche gir jaata hai, ghareloo makkhiyaaain praaya: ek saath ekatr ho jaati hain. kuchh illiyaaain yoothachaari hain aur ek saath janmi hui sab illiyaaain ek hi jaale mein ek saath-saath rahati hain, kintu aisi mandaliyaaain bhojan samaapt hote hi titr bitr ho jaati hain aur pratyek illi svatantr rahane lagti hai. bahut se keet anek paristhitiyon se vivsh ho greeshmakaal bitaane, pyoopa banane aur sheet nishkyita ke liye ekatr ho jaate hain. inmein se ek paristhiti hai surakshit sthaan ki khoj. keeton ki mandali mein rahane ki prakruti ke kaaran parajeevi aur apaahaari shatruon se tatha pratikool paristhitiyon se inki sambhavat: raksha ho jaati hai. bhramanakaari kanchukapakshon ki jhundon mein rahane aur kriyaasheel hone ke kaaran kuchh raksha ho jaati hai. tiddiyaaain aur titiliyaaain prvraajan ke samay yoothachaara ban jaati hain. heliktas (Helictus) naamak ekaaki makshika bhoomi mein bani hui surang ke mukh ke chaaron aur nanhein-nanhein kamre banaati hain. in kamron mein bhojan aur ek ek anda rakh deti hai, tatpashchaat inki raksha karti rahati hai. yeh us samay tak jeevit bhi rah jaati hain jab tak andon se makshikaaeain nikal na aaeain. vah keet, jo apni santaanon ki kam se kam unke jeevan ke aarambh mein dekhbhaal karta hai, saamaajik jeevan ki pratham shreni ka kaha ja sakta hai. bhinn-bhinn vargon ke saamajik keeton mein bhinn-bhinn vilkshanataaeain drushtigochar hoti hain, kintu inki pratyek mandali ka sabse mahatvapoorn lakshan yeh hain ki ek hi kutub hota hai, jismein ek nar, ek maada aur unki santaan, ya ek gaanbhat maada aur usaki santaan, arthaat‌ kam se kam do peedhiyaan ek hi sthaan par hi mil julakar rahati hain. vaastavik saamaajik jeevan bara, madhumakkhiyon, cheetiyon aur deemakon mein paaya jaata hai. (dekhein saamaajik keet).

faurisi (Phoresy)

ek anya prakaar ka sahajeevan hai jismein ek keet doosare keet ke shareer par chipka rahata hai. jin keeton ke shareer par chipkate hain ve praaya: bade hote hain, kintu chhota keet unako khaata naheen hain, arthaat‌ koi haani naheen pahuainchaata. miloidi (Melodiae) vansh ke traaiaingulin (Triangulin) dinbh ko saamaajik kalaapaksh apne shareer par apne ghonsalein mein le jaate hain. vahaaain ye dinbh unki santaan ko kha jaate hai. silionaaidi (Scelionidae) vansh ke kuchh parajeevi, maada tiddon ki peeth par, baith jaate hain. jab tak tidde ande na rakh dein unki peeth par chadhe rahate hain. ant mein apne ande tiddon ke andon mein pravisht kar dete hain. sabse sundar udaaharan bautaflaai (Botfly) ka hai. maada makshika apne andon ko machhar ki taaaingon aur shareer par chipka deti hai aur jab machhar rakt choosane manushya ke paas pahuainchata hai tab in andon mein se dinbh nikalkar apne poshak manushya par aakraman kar dete hain.

jalavaasi keet

keeton ki ek badi sankhya jal mein rahati hai. ye adhiktar meethe paani mein rahate hain, kuchh khaare paani aur samudra mein bhi paae jaate hain. in keeton ke bahut se lakshan upayogi hote hain. bahut se kalaapakshon ki chikni aur chamakati hui deh tairate samay paani ki rukaavat kam kar deti hai. bahut se keeton mein jalapravaah mein bahne se bachane ke liye vishesh prakaar ke saadhan paae jaate hain, jaise kaali makkhiyon ke dinbh resham ke dhaagon ko atakaae rakhate hain. machharon ke dinbhon mein shvaasaradhran ke chaaron or pai jaanevaali granthiyon se tel mila hua sraav niklata hai. iske kaaran in sthaanon ke baahyatvak‌ mein jalasantraasik gun aa jaata hai aur vahaaain jal thahar naheen paata. at: shvasan berok tok hota rahata hai. kuchh keeton, jaise paudyoora aikvaatika (Podura aquatica) mein aise baal hote hain jinke kaaran baahyatvak‌ jalasantraasik ho jaata hai. is gun ke kaaran shvaasapranaal mein jal naheen pravesh kar paata. inmein bhojan praapt karne ke liye bhi vishesh saadhan hote hain, yatha-odeeneta ke ninfon mein lebiym ka ghooainghat ek jaal ka kaarya karta hai. machharon ke dinbhon ke mukhon mein kanpanakaari burush hote hain jo jal mein laharein utpann karte hain aur is prakaar bhojan ke sookshmakan inki grasika mein pahainuch jaate hain. daaitiskas (Dytiscus) ki pichhli taaainge patavaar ke aakar ki ho jaati hain. notonaikta (Notonecta) aur daaitiskas (Dytiscus) tairate samay apni donon patavaarein ek saath hi chalaate hain, kintu haaidrofils (Hydrophilus) apni pichhli taaainge (patavaarein) paari paari se chalaata hai. jiraainas (Gyrinus) naamak kanchukapaksh madhya aur pashch taaaingon se, jinmein bahut parivartan aa jaata hai, teevrata se chakkar lagaate hue ghoomta aur tairata hai. kuchh makkhiyon aur machharon ke dinbh udar ki peshiyon ke prabal udyog dvaara tairate hain. bahut chhote chhote polineema (Polynema) naamak kalaapaksh, jo jalavaasi keeton ke andon mein paraashrayi hote hain, apne pakshon ki sahaayata se jal mein tairate hain. jalavaasi keeton ke shvasanatantr mein bahut se parivartan aa jaate hain. ye trekiya, jalashvasanika ya rakt jalashvaasanika dvaara shvasan karte hain. kuchh keet vaayu ko apne paas jama kar lete hain aur jab ve jal mein doobe hote hain tab usaka upayog karte hain. dvipkshon ke korthreaaa (Corethro) naamak keet ke paaradarshi dinbh ka trekiya tantr sem ke aakaar ki do jodi thaili si ban jaati hai. ye thailiyaan utplaavan indriya ka kaarya karti hain. yeh dinbh in thailiyon ka parimaan kisi agyaat vidhi se pavirtit k sakta hai aur is prakaar jal ki jis gaharaai mein chaahe usi ke anusaar aapekshik guru tv utpann kar paata hai.

bhaugolik vitran

keet saare sansaar mein, himaachhaadit dhruveeya bhaagon se lekar bhoomadhya rekha ke paasavaale, tapate hue bhaagon tak mein paae jaate hain. inka vitran anya sab sthaleeya jeevon ka tulana mein sabse adhik vistrut hai. ye lagbhag un sabhi sthaanon mein paae jaate hain jahaaain vanaspatiyaaain ug sakti hain, arthaat‌ jahaaain bhi inko bhojan praapt ho sakta hai. keeton aur anya jeevon ka bhojan vanaspatiyaaain hain. paksh ek mahaan mahatvavaali rachana hai. pakshon ke kaaran keeton mein atulit vitranasaamarthya aa jaata hai, jo anya sthaleeya jeevon mein naheen paaya jaata. vitran ki shakti keeton ki pratyek jaati ko teevr spardha se aur kathor nirvaachan ke prabhaav se, jiska parinaam parimit kshetr mein atyadhik bheed hona hota hai, bachane ke liye svatantrata pradaan karti hai, kintu bahut se keet aise bhi hain jinka vitran seemit hai. saare sansaar mein manushyon ke gharon mein paae jaanevaale keeton mein telachatta (Cockroach), chaaval ka sooaindavaala keet, daalon ke keet aadi prasiddh hai. inke atirikt aajkal chane ka shalabh (heeliothis,Heliothis), aaloo k shalabh (fyorimeeya oparakulela, Phthorimaea oparculella), shakarakand ka sooaindavaala keet (saailas, Cylas) aur bandagobhi ka shalabh (plutela, Plutella), bhi saare sansaar mein paae jaate hain. isi prakaar aise bhi bahut se keet hain jo kisi vishesh pradesh ya desh mein hi paae jaate hain. aisa vitran bahut si paristhitiyon par nirbhar rahata hai. bhojanapraapti aur praakrutik dashaaen nissandeh bahut adhik prabhaavashaali paristhitiyaaain hain. jalavaasi keet vahaaain naheen rah sakte jahaaain jal naheen hai. vrukshon ki chhaal mein rahane vaale keet un sthaanon mein naheen paae ja sakte jahaaain vruksh hi na ho. praakrutik avarodh, jaise ooainche ooainche pahaad, samudra tatha marusthal, keeton ka vitran ek desh se doosare desh mein naheen hone dete. kuchh keet, jaise saafilaaij, bandagobhi ki titli aadi samasheetoshn katibandh mein hi paae jaate hain. falon ki makkhiyaaain, dhaan ke keet aadi keval ayanavrutt mein hi milte hain. kuchh keeton mein jaise tiddiyon aur kuchh titliyon mein, kabhi-kabhi pravajan ki pravrutti hoti hai aur ye sudoor deshon tak pahainuch jaate hain. kintu bahut se keeton ke aadhunik vitran ki vyaakhya pruthvi ki aadhunik dasha aur jalavaayu ke aadhaar par naheen ki ja sakti aur isliye praaya: bhauvrutteeya parivrtanon ka sahaara lena padta hai. spring tel naamak keet New Zealand aur chili mein paaya jaata hai. isse yeh anumaan lagaaya ja sakta hai ki kisi kaal mein in donon deshon ke beech aitaaktik mahaadveep faila hua tha, kyonki yeh keet itna komal aur pakshaheen hai ki iska anya kisi prakaar se vitran ho hi naheen sakta. spring tel ka anya keeton ki tulana mein sabse adhik vistrut vitran hai aur is kaaran isne apne ko in vibhinn paristhitiyon ke anukool bana liya hai. cheetiyon ka bhi lagbhag isi prakaar vitran hai aur inhonne bhi apne ko vibhinn paristhitiyon ke anukool kar liya hai.

keeton ke poorvaj

the beear (de Beer), ne san‌ 1954-55 mein yeh batalaaya ki miriyaapoda ke jo dinbh dinbhaavastha mein janan kar sakein unako hi keeton ka poorvaj maanana chaahiye. yeh siddh karne ke liye keeton ke praudh aur kuchh miriyaapoda ke dinbhon ki, udaaharanaarth, aaiyoolas (Iulus) ki, jo ek mileepeed hai, tulana karne mein mahatpoorn hain. aaiyoolas ka dinbh jab ande se niklata hai, iska sir utane hi khandon ka bana maaloom hota hai jitne khandon ka keeton ka sir. shareer ke shesh bhaag mein lagbhag 12 khand hote hain, jinmein se pratham teen khandon mein pratyek par ek jodi taaainge hoti hain. chautha tatha inke peechhevaale khand bhi bina taaaingon ke naheen hote. kintu inke parivrdhan mein rukaavat aa jaati hai aur ye bahut hi chhote rah jaate hain. is prakaar yeh chhah taaaingon wala aaiyoolas ka dinbh ant mein lamba praudh ban jaata hai, jiske shareer mein bahut se khand aur bahut si taaainge hoti hai. yadi is dinbh ki pratham teen jodi ke pashchaat‌aavaali taaaingon ke parivrdhan mein adhik rukaavat ho aur dinbh ke shareer ke lagbhag 12 khand praudhaavastha mein drudh rahein to yeh jeev (dinbh) keet ke aakaar ka hoga, jismein pratham teen jodi taaaingon ke peechhevaali taaainge ya to itni ksheen hongi ki keval unke avashesh hi honge ya ve sarvatha lupt hongi. yeh baat bahut hi rochak hai ki vaastav mein aise keet hain jinmein udar par bhi taaaingon ke avashesh vartamaan hote hain, jaise kainpodiya (Campodea), jepiks (Japyx) aur maichilis (Machilis). in keeton ke paksh naheen hote aur inmein ve rachanaaen vartamaan rahati hain jo anya keeton mein lupt ho gayi hain, jaise jananagranthiyon ka khandeebhavan. isliye keeton ke vikaas mein in keeton ko miriyaapoda ke dinbhaavastha mein janane vaale dinbhon aur anya keeton ki madhyavaali dasha ka samajhna chaahiye. anya anek tarkon se bhi yeh anumodit hota hai ki miriyaapoda ki tarah ki aakrutiyon se hi keeton ki utpatti hui hai. atyadhik sambhaavana yeh hai ki un sab lambe shareer aur taaaingovaale jeevon mein miriyaapoda hi keeton ke poorvaj hain, kyonki in mein kai rachanaaeain ek-si hoti hain udaaharanaarth, mailapeegiyn nalikaaeain aur trekiyl nalikaaeain. kintu iska bhi dhyaan rakhana chaahiye ki keeton ki utpatti praudh miriyaapoda se naheen ho sakti thi, kyonki inmein bahut si visheshataaeain aur vilkshanataaeain hain.

keetaganon mein paraspar sambandh

eptarigota (Apterygota) upavarg adhiktar vividh prakaar ke keeton ka ek samooh hai aur us upavarg ka keval thaaisaanyoora (Thysanura) gan hi terigot (Pterygote) keeton ki vikaasavaali mukhya shreni ke sambhavat: sameep hai. aisa tark dvaara siddh kiya gaya hai ki aiptarigota ke shesh teen ganon ko keet maanana hi naheen chaahiye. kintu aisa koi santoshajanak kaaran prateet naheen hota hai, jisse in teenon ganon ko is upavarg se pruthak kar diya jaae, yadyapi ismein koi sandeh naheen ki ye vilkshan rachanaaeain pradarshit karte hain, udaaharanaarth koleinbola (Collembola) gan ke keeton mein keval nau khand hi hote hain. protyoora (Protura) gan ke keeton mein ainaamaurfosis (Anamorphosis) hota hai, diplyoora (Diplura), gan ke keeton mein alaakshanik trekiyl tantr paaya jaata hai, diplyoora aur koleinbaala ki shrrungikaaon ke kashaabh (Flagellum) mein peshiyaaain hoti hain. upavarg terigota do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya hai-eksoptarigota (Exopterygota) aur endoptarigota (Endopterygota). eksoptarigota ganon ke efimeraaptara (Ephemaroptera) aur odoneta (Odonata) mein paraspar nikat sambandh hai, kyonki ye donon hi peleeaapteraun (Palaeopteron), gan hain. yadi aadhunik keeton ke shareer ke siddhaant se vichaar kiya jaaya to blaiteriya (Blattaria), maintodiya (Mantodea), aaisauptara (Isoptera), joreptara (Zoraptere), gaailaublaitodiya (Gylloblattodea), ri jupaj (Orthoptera), fejmaaida (Phasmida), plikauptara (Plecoptera), darmeptara (Dermaptera) aur enbioptara (Embioptera) ri jupaakshika aarthoptaraaed, (Orthopteroid) samudaaya ke antargat aate hain. nimnalikhit lakshanon ke kaaran ye sab gun ek samudaaya banaate hain-aparivrtit mukhabhaag, pashchapaksh mein vishaal ainel lob (Anal lobe) udar ke pashch sire par ek jodi sarasaai (Cerci), aganit maileepagiyn nalikaaeainaur pratiprushth tantrik a tantu mein kai ek pruthak-pruthak guchhikaaen. in ganon mein se blaiteriya aur maintodiya mein bahut adhik nikat sambandh hone ke kaaran in donon ko saath-saath diktiyauptara (Dictyopotera) ke antargat rakhate hain. eksoptarigota ke shesh gan, jinke naam hain sokoptara (Psocoptera), mailofaiga (Mallophaga), saaifanakuleta (Siphonculata), matkunagan (hemiptara, Hemiptera) aur jhallareepaksh (Thysanoptera), matkunaganik (Hemipteroid) samudaaya ke antargat aate hain. matkunaganik samudaaya ke lakshan is prakaar hai: vishesh prakaar ke maindibulet ya choosanevaale mukhabhaag hote hain, pashchapaksh mein ainel lob naheen paaya jaata, sarasaai ka abhaav hota hai. mailapeegiyn nalikaaon ki sankhya bahut thodi hoti hai aur pratiprushth tantriktantu ki guchhikaaeain lagbhag ekatreebhoot ho jaati hai. ri jupaakshik aur matkunaganik samudaayon mein spasht bhed naheen hain, kyonki joreptara mein pakshon ki shiraaeain kuchh ksheen ho jaati hai, maileepeegiyn nalikaaon ki sankhya bhi kam hoti hai aur tantrikaatantu ki guchhikaaeain bhi kuchh kuchh ekatreebhoot ho jaati hai. sokoptara aur mailofaiga mein spasht sambandh prateet hota hai, kyonki donon mein vilkshan prakaar ka haaipofairiks (Hypopharynx) hota hai. sambhavat: saaifanakuleta mailofaiga se nikat sambandh rakhate hain. inse ve keval anek baahya aur aantarik rachanaaon tatha prakruti mein hi saadrushya naheen rakhate, apitu shvaasaradhran ki rachana aur ande se bachche nikalne ki vidhi mein bhi saadrushya hai. ab prashn yeh uthata hai ki juainon ke donon ganon ko ek hi gan ke antargat kyon naheen maana jaata. iska kaaran yeh hai ki donon ganon ke mukhabhaagon mein itna adhik antar hota hai. ki inka pruthak‌ pruthak‌ ganon mein rakhana hi praaya: uchit samjha jaata hai.

indopterigot keeton ke vishay mein dhyaan de to kalaapaksh (Hymenoptera), strepsiptara (Strepsiptera) aur kanchukapaksh (Coleoptera) ko anya ganon ke saath rakhane mein atyadhik kathinta upasthit hoti hai, at: inke atirikt shesh sab gan painorapid (Panorpid) samudaaya ke antargat rakhe gaye hain. painorapid samudaaya jaalapaksh nyoorauptara (Neuroptera) ke saath mikaaptara (Mecoptera) par keindreebhoot hai aur kuchh kuchh pruthak‌ kintu sambandhi shaakha banaata hai. aisa adhik sambhav hai ki mikaaptara ke nimnasth sadasyon se ek or dvipksh (Diptera) aur doosari or shalki paksh (Lepidoptera) aur lomapaksh (Trichoptera) ki utpatti hui ho. saaifonaiptara (Siphonaptera) ke praudhon ki rachana bahut bhinn hoti hain, kintu iske dinbh dvipksh ke upagan nimetosera (Nimatocera) ke kuchh dinbhon se bhinn naheen hote aur yadi saaifonaiptara ki utpatti aadi dvipkshon se na hui ho to kam se kam painorapid samudaaya se to hui hi hogi. kalaapaksh, kanchukapaksh aur strepsiptara ke vishay mein bhi kuchh kathinta prateet hoti hai. kalaapaksh ke upagan sinfaayata (Symphyta) ke dinbh aur painorapid keeton ke dinbhon mein saadashya hai, saath hi saath sinfaayata ke pakshon ki shira ki utpatti bina kisi kathinta ke, megaaloptaran paitarn (megalopteran pattern) se prateet hoti hai. in do kaaranon se aisa bhi kaha jaata hai ki kalaapaksh ke poorvaj tatha jaalapaksh aur anya painorapid ganon ke poorvaj ek hi the. kanchuk paksh ke vishay mein aisa vichaar hai ki inki utpatti anya indopterigot se bhinn roop mein hui. kintu kuchh lekhakon ka aisa anumaan hai ki kanchukapaksh ki utpatti jaalapaksheeya aakrutivaale poorvajon se hui. strepsiptara praaya: kanchukapaksh se sambandhit samajhe jaate hain, kintu kuchh lekhak inka sambandh kalaapaksh ke nirdhaarit karte hain.

sandarbh granth

  • s aind aar. ji. Davis (1957) ;
  • ti. vi. aar. aiyyar A haindabuk ov ikonaumik entomauloji for south India (1940) ;
  • Ram rakshapaal: pereepleneta amerikaana (the kauman kaakroch) (1959);
  • H. M. lefaraaya Indian insekts life (1909);
  • ke. pi. shreevaastav maurafauloji ov lemanabatar fly: paipeeliyon dimoliys, theemis (1959);
  • raamarakshapaal: keeton mein saamaajik bhavan (1959);
  • A. si. maathur: stadeej on the maurafauloji ov brekitheemas kantemineta febar (aadoneta), theemas (1958) ;
  • S. dablyoo fraust : jenareel entomauloji (1942) ;
  • si. L. metakaaf aind dablyoo si.flit distraktiv aind yasaful insektas (1951);
  • vi. bi. vigilvarth: insekt fijiyauloji (1953)

deergha

sandarbh

  1. Chapman, A. D. (2006). Numbers of living species in Australia and the World. pp. 60pp. ISBN 978-0-642-56850-2. http://www.deh.gov.au/biodiversity/abrs/publications/other/species-numbers/index.html.
  2. Threats to Global Biodiversity (Accessed December 2007
  3. Erwin, Terry L. (1982). "Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species". Coleopt. Bull. 36: 74–75.

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