kaunakaurd

kaunakaurd
prakaar Supersonic airliner
utpaadak BAC (now BAE Systems)
Aéarospatiale (now EADS)
pratham udaan 2 March 1969
parichay 21 January 1976
seva samaapt 26 November 2003
sthiti Retired from service
praathamik upayoktaagan British Airways
Air France
Braniff International Airways
Singapore Airlines
nirmit ikaai 20 (including 6 non-airline aircraft)[1][2]
ikaai laagat £a23 million in 1977

Aéarospatiale-BAC Concorde ek tarbojet-chaalit yaatri vimaan, ek suparasonik parivhan (SST) hai. yeh England aur fraansisi sarkaar ka sanyukt utpaad hai. iska nirmaan eyarospeshiyl aur [[britaani vimaan nigmaki sanyukt praudyogiki se hua hai. isne 1969 mein pehli baar udaan bhara tatha 1976 se apni sevaaen deni praarambh kar di. iski sevaaen agale 27 varshon tak jaari rahi. isne [[London ke heethro (british eyaravej) aur peris ke Charles de gaule havaai adde se New York aur Washington deeseeke liye niyamit roop se udaane bhari. record gati se chalne vaale is vimaan ne anya vimaanon ki tulana mein is traans-atalaantik doori ko aadhe samay mein tay ki. isliye yeh vimaanan companiyon aur yaatriyon ke liye kaafi laabhaprad saabit hua. is tarah ke keval 20 vimaanon ka nirmaan kiya gaya jo is baat ka dyotak hai ki iska vikaas aarthik drushti se nukasaanadaayak tha. is vimaan ko khareedne ke liye air fraans aur british eyaravej ko unki sarkaaron dvaara aarthik sahaayata di gayi thi. 25 July 2000 ko air France ka nyuyaurk ki udaan par ja raha kaunakaurd vimaan durghatanaagrast ho gaya tha jismein 113 logon ki mrutyu ho gayi thi. is ekamaatr durghatana, 11 September 2001 ke hamlon se utpann hone vaale aarthik prabhaav aur anya kaarakon ke parinaamasvaroop, 24 October 2003 mein iska prachaalan band kar diya gaya. 26 November 2003 ko isne aakhiri udaan bhari.[3] ek poorv air fraans kaunakaurd (F-BTSD) ki bahaali ka prayaas jaari hai aur aasha vyakt ki ja rahi hai ki vah 2012 greeshmakaaleen olanpik samay par udaan bharega.[4] yeh kai sansthaaon dvaara vimaanan prateek ke roop mein sammaanit hua. [5]

anukram

vikaas

kaunakaurd ki antim udaan, G-BOAF heethro se Bristol, 26 November 2003 ko. dhaanche ki atyant uchch utkrushtata anupaat spasht hai.
tekaof par kaunakaurd
impeeriyl vaur myoojiym daksaford, Britain mein utpaadan-poorv kaunakaurd 101 ka pradarshan.
sabhi kaunakaurd ki antim udaan ke baad London heethro havaaiadde par kaunakaurd G-BOAB. is vimaan ne 1976 mein apni pehli udaan aur 2000 mein antim udaan ke beech 22296 ghante ke liye udaan bhari.

1950 dashak ke ant mein, United Kingdom, fraans, America aur soviyt sangh suparasonik parivhan ke vikaas par vichaar kar rahe the. Britain ke bristaul eyaroplen company aur fraanseesi sud eviyeshan donon kramash: type 223 aur super-kairaavel naamak dijaainon par kaam kar rahe the. donon ko unke sambaddh sarkaaron dvaara bade paimaane par vitteeya sahaayata di ja rahi thi.[6] british dijaain lagbhag 100 logon ke liye traansaatalaantik-range ke eyarakraaft ke liye ek patale-pankhon vaale delta aakaar ke liye tha[7] (jiske adhikaansh kaam ka shreya daaetrich kucheman ko jaata hai), jabki fraanseesi ek madhyam-range ka vimaan banaane ke ichhuk the.[6]

1960 ke dashak ke poorvaardh mein prototaaip nirmaan shuroo karne ke liye donon hi dijaainein taiyaar thi, lekin iski laagat itni adhik thi ki british sarkaar ne BAC ke liye kisi antarraashtreeya sahayog ki talaash karne ko aavashyak bana diya.[6] asankhya deshon ko prastaav bheja gaya, lekin keval fraans ne vaastavik ruchi dikhaai. vikaas pariyojana par do companiyon ke beech vaanijyik samjhaute ke bajaay do deshon ke beech antarraashtreeya sandhi ke roop mein beech baatcheet ke roop mein kiya gaya aur usamein ek shart jod di gayi ki, jiski maang moolat: Britain ne rakhi, raddagi ke liye bhaari jurmaana laagoo kiya jaaega. ek sandhi masaude par 28 November 1962 ko hastaakshar kiye gaye. is samay tak, donon companiyon ka ek nai company mein vilay kar diya gaya tha; is prakaar, kaunakaurd pariyojana Aéarospatiale aur british eyarakrauft corporation ke beech tha.[6] sabse pehle nae sangh ne ek lambi doori aur ek kam doori vaale sanskaran ke nirmaan ka iraada rakha. tathaapi, sambhaavit graahakon ne kam doori vaale sanskaran mein koi ruchi naheen darshaai aur use chhod diya gaya.[6] sangh ko tatkaaleen pramukh eyaralaainon se lambi doori ke sanskaranon ke liye 100 se adhik aadesh (arthaat abaadhyakaari vikalp) praapt hue: pratyek dvaara chhah kaunakaurdon ke aadesh sahit Pan Am, BOAC aur air fraans pravartan graahak the. aadesh pustika mein shaamil anya airline the order book anya vimaan sevaaon mein shaamil painaeyar do braasil, kauntineintal airlines, Japan airlines, lufthaansa, American airlines, United airlines, air India, air Canada, braanif, Singapore airlines, Iran air, olanpik eyaravej, kaantaaj, CAAC, midl East airlines aur TWA.[6][8]

vimaan ko shurooaat mein Britain mein freinch vartani ke saath "Concorde" kaha gaya, lekin Charles de gaule ki kathit upahaas ke javaab mein herauld maikamiln dvaara aadhikaarik taur par "Concord" mein badal diya gaya.[6] 1967 mein, taauloos mein freinch sammaan ke dauraan british sarkaar ke praudyogiki mantri toni ben ne ghoshana ki ki ve vartani ko vaapas "Concorde" mein badal deinge.[9] isne raashtravaadi hangaame ko janm diya lekin vah thanda pad gaya jab ben ne yeh kaha ki pratyaya "e" "Excellence (utkrushtata), England (England), Europe (Europe) aur Entente (sandhi)" ka dyotak hai. apne sansmaran mein unhonne ek kupit skautamen se praapt ek patra ka ullekh kiya: "aap 'E' for England ki baat karte hain lekin usaka ek hissa Scotland ban gaya hai." vimaanon ke liye shanku naak ke yogadaan ko dekhte hue, ben ne javaab diya, "vah 'E' for 'Éaacosse' bhi hai (Scotland ke liye French naam) - aur main 'e' for extravagance (apavyaya) aur 'e' for escalation (vruddhi) bhi jod sakta tha!"[10]

do prototaaip ka nirmaan 1965 fravari mein shuroo hua: 001, taauloos mein eyarospeshiyel dvaara nirmit aur 002, filtan Bristol mein BAC dvaara. kaunakaurd 001 ne taauloos se apna pehla pareekshan udaan 2 March 1969 ko bhara, jiske paayalet the Andre tarakait,[11] aur 1 October ko pehla suparasonik chala.[12] pehla Britain nirmit kaunakaurd filtaun se RAF feyaraford tak pauyalat briyaan trabashau dvaara 9 April 1969 ko udaaya gaya.[13][14] jaise hi udaan kaaryakram mein pragati hui, 001 ne 4 September 1971 ko bikri aur pradarshan daure par nikla, jo kaunakaurd ka pehla traansaatalaantik paar-gaman bhi hai.[15][16] kaunakaurd 002 uske peechhe 2 June 1972 ko madhya aur sudoor poorv par daure par nikla.[17] kaunakaurd 002 ne 1973 mein sanyukt raajya America ki pehli yaatra ki aur new dalaas/fort varth kshetreeya havaai adde ke praarambh ko ankit karte hue, vahaan laindig ki.[18] ye yaatraaen 70 se adhik vimaanon ke liye aadesh mein falit huin, par kai mile-jule kaarakon ki vajah se aadesh radd ho gaye: 1973 tel sankat, eyaralaainon ke liye vitteeya pareshaaniyaan, pratispardhi roosi tupolev Tu-144 ka shaanadaar pairis le boraget air sho vimaan durghatana aur sonik boom, tech-of shor aur pradooshan jaisi paryaavaran chintaaen. 1976 tak chaar desh sanbhaavya khareedaar bane rahe: Britain, fraans, cheen aur Iran.[19] ant mein keval air fraans aur british Airways (BOAC ka uttaraadhikaari) ne apne aadesh liye, jahaan donon sarkaaron ne arjit laabh ka hissa liya. BA ke maamale mein, laabh ka 80% 1984 tak sarkaar dvaara rakha gaya, jabki vimaan ko khareedne ki laagat raajya rin dvaara poora kiya gaya.[20]

sanyukt raajya America ne 1971 mein apne suparasonik parivhan kaaryakram, Boeing 2707 ko radd kar diya. fraans aur Britain ke udyog prekshakon ne sujhaav diya ki shor pradooshan ke aadhaar par kaunakaurd ke ameriki virodh ka ek ansh managadhant tha, ya kam se kam ameriki sarkaar dvaara is durbhaav ki vajah se protsaahan ki raashtrapati John ef. kenedi dvaara 1963 ka aavegaheen pratibaddhata bayaan ke baavajood, vyavahaarya pratispardhi ko ve prastaavit kar paane mein aksham rahe.[21] Bhaarat aur Malaysia jaise anya deshon ne shoragul ki chintaaon ko jataate hue, kaunakaurd suparasonik ovaraflaaiton se munh mod liya.[22][23]

1974 ke baad se pradarshan aur pareekshan udaan bhare ja rahe the.[6] kaunakaurd pareekshan ne jo record set kiya use koi paar naheen kar saka; prototaaip, poorv-utpaadan aur pehle utpaadan vimaan ne 5335 udaan ghante liye; 2,000 pareekshan ghante suparasonik gati mein the. 1977 mein ikaai laagat £a23 million (US$46 million) thi aur vikaas laagat prakshepit raashi ke chhah guna thi.[24]

dijaain

saamaanya suvidhaaen

kaunakaurd ek ogivl ("ogi" bhi) delta-pankh wala vimaan hai jo evaro valakan rananeetik bamavarshak ke liye moolat: viksit chaar olinpas engine aadhaarit hai. kaunakaurd pehla airliner tha jismein (is maamale mein, tulyaroop) flaai-baai-wire flaait-control system hai; kaunakaurd havaai jahaaj adviteeya the kyonki yeh pehla vaanijyik vimaan tha jismein haaibrid sarkit lage the.[25] is pariyojana ke pramukh dijaainar piyre saatre the, jinke up dijaainar the sar aarcheebaald Russel.[26]

kaunakaurd cockpit le-out

kaunakaurd ne nimnalikhit praudyogikiyon ka beeda uthaaya:

udaan ki uchch gati aur anukoolan ke liye:

  • double-delta (ogi/ogivl) aakaar ke pankh[7]
  • digital computeron dvaara niyantrit parivrti engine air inatek system[27]
  • suparakrooj kshamata[28]
  • thrast-baai-wire engine, vartamaan FADEC-niyantrit engine ka poorvavarti[27]
  • behtar lainding drushyata ke liye jhuki hui naak khand

vajan ki bachat aur vardhit nishpaadan ke liye:

  • ishtatam indhan ki khapat ke liye maakh 2.04 (~2,170 kilometer prati ghanta / 1,350 meal/ghanta) saamaanya chaal[29] (suparasonik nyoonatam talakarshan, haalaanki uchch gati par tarbojet adhik kushal hain)
  • kam vajn ke liye mukhya roop se elyoominiym nirmaan aur paaramparik vinirmaan (uchch gati se elyoomeeniym nirmaan varjit ho jaata)[30]
  • oonchaai par chadhne se lainding tak vimaan ke niyantran ke liye "khula haath" anumat karte hue poorn-niyantran otopaailat aur otothrautal[31]
  • poori tarah se vidyuteeya niyantran tulyaroop fly-baai-wire udaan niyantran pranaaliyaan[25]
  • halke haaidraalik ghatakon ke liye 28 MPa (4,000 lbf/in²) ke uchch dabaav haaidrolik pranaaliyaan[32]
  • eyarodaainamik maap ke svachaalit nigraani aur sanchaaran ke liye jatil air deta computer (ADC) (kul dabaav, sthaitik dabaav, hamle ka kon, paarshv-slip).[33]
  • poornat: vidyut-niyantrit tulyaroop break-baai-wire pranaali[34]
  • keindreeya gurutvaakarshan niyantran ke liye dhad ke ird-gird indhan ke antaran dvaara pitch trim[35]
  • ekal alauya bilet se "skalpachar miling" ka upayog karte hue taiyaar ang, vajn ghataate aur shakti jodte hue part-number ginti ko ghataana[36]
  • sahaayak pavar unit ki kami, kyonki kaunakaurd bade airport jaata hai jahaan ground air staart kaart upalabdh hoga.[37]

dabaav ke kendra mein sanchalan

G-AXDN, daksaford, utpaadan-poorv engine nok ka kloj-ap. kaunakaurd ke utpaadan ke liye nok/jor rivsarr dijaain ko badla gaya tha.

jab koi vimaan us vishisht eyarafrem ka kraantik maakh ko paar karta hai, tab dabaav ka kendra peechhe ki or khiskata hai. yeh vimaan par pitch adhomukhi bal ka kaaran banta hai, kyonki dravyamaan ka kendra apni jagah par hi bana rahata hai. injeeniyron ne is badlaav ko kam karne ke liye ek vishisht tareeke se pankhon ko dijaain kiya. tathaapi, lagbhag 2 meter ka vichlan bana raha. ise trim niyantranon ke upayog se roka ja sakta tha, lekin aisi uchch gati par isse vimaan ke talakarshan mein naatakeeya vruddhi ki sambhaavana thi. iske bajaay, dravyamaan ke kendra ko sanchaalit karne ke liye gativrddhan aur avatvaran ke dauraan, prabhaavi taur par poorak trim niyantran ke taur par kaarya karte hue, vimaan ke samaanaantar indhan ke vitran ko khiskaaya gaya.[38]

engine

aarthik roop se vyavahaaryata ke liye, kaunakaurd ke liye lambi doori ki udaan bharne mein saksham hona zaroori tha aur iske liye uchch dakshata ki aavashyakta thi. ishtatam suparasonik udaan ke liye, tarbofain injanon par vichaar kiya gaya, par unke bade anuprasth kaat ki vajah se asveekaar kar diya gaya, jo atyadhik talakarshan ka kaaran ban sakta tha. tarbojet injanon ke liye sabse achhe vikalp paae gaye.[39] viksit engine tha judvaan spool rols rauyas/snekma olinpas 593 Bristol engine ka vikaas, jo pehli baar evro valakan bamavarshak ke liye istemaal kiya gaya aur hamlaavar bamavarshak BAC TSR-2 ke liye anudahan suparasonik roopaantar ke roop mein viksit kiya gaya.[40]

kaunakaurd antargrahan pranaali aarekhan
kaunakaurd ki antargrahan pranaali

kaunakaurd engine ka antargrahan dijaain mahatvapoorn tha.[41] sabhi paaramparik jet engine keval 0.5 maakh ke aas-paas hi hava le sakte hain; isliye hava ko maakh 2,0 vaayugati se dheema karna padta hai jo engine antargrahan mein pravesh karti hai. vishesh roop se, kaunakaurd ko injanon ko kshati se bachaane ke liye, gati ki kami se utpann hone vaale aaghaat tarangon ko niyantrit karne ki jaroorat thi. yeh antargrahan rainp aur ek sahaayak spil dwaar ki jodi ne kiya, jiske sthaan ko udaan ke dauraan khiskaaya gaya taaki hava ko neeche dheema kiya ja sake.[42] rainp engine dibbe ke oopar the aur neeche khiskaae gaye aur sahaayak spil dwaar oopar aur neeche donon or gatisheel raha, jisse hava ka andar aur baahar pravaah anumat ho saka. antargrahan pranaali ki prabhaavasheelata aisi hai ki suparasonik udaan ke dauraan, vimaan ka 63% jor ke liye uske antargrahan ko jimmedaar thaharaaya hai jabki tontiyon ne jor ka 29% aur injanon ne sirf 8%. utpann kiya.[43]

engine vifalta paaramparik sabasonik vimaan ke liye samasyaaen utpann karti hain; vimaan na keval us disha mein jor ko khota hai balki engine talakarshan bhi utpann karta hai, jisse vimaan mein vichlan paida hota hai aur vah vifal engine ki disha mein karvat leta hai. yadi aisa suparasonik gati par kaunakaurd ke saath hota hai, to saiddhaantik roop se vah eyarafrem ki aapaati vifalta ka kaarak banta hai.[44] tathaapi, engine ki vifalta ke dauraan hava ke antargrahan ki zaroorat lagbhag shoonya rahati hai, at: kaunakaurd mein engine vifalta ke tatkaal prabhaavon ko sahaayak spil dvaaron ke khulne aur rainpon ke sampoorn vistaar dvaara roka gaya, jo hava ko neeche ki or engine ke paar vichlit karta hai aur uthaan arjit karte hue aur engine ko seedh mein laate hue, vifal engine ke talakarshan prabhaav ko kam kiya. haalaanki computer anuroopan ne paryaapt mushkilon ka poorvaanumaan lagaaya, par vyavahaar mein kaunakaurd bina koi poorvakathit niyantran samasyaaon ke 2 maakh par vimaan ke ek hi disha mein donon injanon ko band karne mein saksham raha.[45] kaunakaurd piloton ko donon injanon ki vifalta se nipatne ke liye anuroopanon mein niyamit taur par prashikshit kiya gaya.[46]

vimaan ne tekaof par aur 0.95 maakh aur 1.7 maakh ke beech traansonik pranaali (yaani "suparasonik banane") se banane ke liye punartaap (pashchadaahak) ka istemaal kiya aur baaki anya avsaron par svich band kiye gaye.[47] jet injanon ke dheemi gati par atyadhik aksham hone ke kaaran, kaunakaurd runway par 2 tan indhan chaalan kharch kiya.[48] indhan parimit karne ke liye utarane ke baad keval do baahari engine chalaae gaye. do injanon se jor, gantavya par utarane par vimaan ke kam vajan ke kaaran rainp par chalaane ke liye paryaapt tha.

taapan mudde

engine ke alaava, kisi bhi suparasonik vimaan ke dhaanche ka sabse garam hissa hai usaki naak. injeeniyron ne poore vimaan ke liye atiprichya aur nirmaan mein laagat aur sugamata ki drushti se dyooraalumin ka istemaal karna chaaha, joki ek elyoomeeniym mishr-dhaatu hai. vimaan ke jeevan-kaal mein elyoomeeniym dvaara sahan kar sakane yogya uchchatam taapamaan 127 °aC tha, jisne sheersh gati ko 2.02 maakh tak seemit kiya.[49]

ek udaan ke dauraan kaunakaurd taapan aur sheetan ke do chakron se gujra, pehle oonchaai haasil karte samay sheetan, fir suparasonik ban jaane ke baad taapan. utarate samay iske vipreet hua. ise dhaatukarm modelling mein kaarak banaana hi tha. ek pareekshan rig ka nirmaan kiya gaya jo pankh ke poore khand ko baaranbaar garm karta aur fir use thanda karta aur aavadhik taur par pareekshan ke liye dhaatu ke namoone liye gaye.[50][51]

kaunakaurd dvaara suparasonik roop se yaatra ke dauraan hava ke dabaav dvaara utpann taap ke kaaran, dhad 300 mi.mi. tak (lagbhag 1 feet) vistrut ho jaata, iska sabse suspasht prakateekaran flaait engineer ke kansol aur bhitti ke beech flaait dek par khulne wala antar tha. sabhi kaunakaurd par jinmein suparasonik prasthaan udaan paras flaait engineer uske thanda hone se pehle is antaraal mein apni topi rakhate the, jahaan unki topiyaan abhi bhi rakhi hain.[52]

kebin thanda rakhane ke liye, kaunakaurd ne air kandeeshaning se garmi ke liye taapak hauj ke roop mein indhan ka istemaal kiya,[53] isi paddhati ne haaidraaliks ko thanda kiya. suparasonik udaan ke dauraan cockpit se aage ki satahein garm ho gain, is taap ko cockpit tak seedhe pahunchane se vikshepit karne ke liye ek agrabhaag ka istemaal kiya gaya.[54]

kaunakaurd ka parichhadon par bhi pratibandh tha; satah ke adhikaansh hisse ko 2 maakh ke suparasonik taapan prabhaavon ke kaaran elyoomeeniym sanrachana ko atitaap se bachaane ke liye behad safed rang pratibinbit karne vaale rang se rangana pada.[55] tathaapi, 1996 mein air fraans ne alpakaal ke liye F-BTSD ko pepsi kola ke saath prachaar saude ke bhaag ke roop mein, mukhyat: neele rang mein (sivaaya pankhon ke) ranga.[56] is rang yojana mein, air fraans ko 20 se anadhik minton ke liye 2 maakh par bane rahane ki salaah di gayi, lekin 1.7 maakh ke tahat gati par koi pratibandh naheen tha. F-BTSD ko protsaahan ke liye isliye chuna gaya ki vimaan us samay vistrut 2 maakh prachaalanon ki apeksha rakhane vaale kisi lambi udaan ko sanchaalit karne ke liye anusoochit naheen tha.[57]

sanrachanaatmak mudde

kaunakaurd jis uchch gati par yaatra karta tha, chadhaai aur ghumaavon ke dauraan vimaan ki sanrachana mein zyaada bal laagoo kiye gaye the. iske kaaran vimaan sanrachana mein ainthan aur viroopan hua. iske alaava suparasonik gati par sateek niyantran banaae rakhane ke prati chintaaen bhi theen; in donon muddon ko elivon ke baahar aur bheetar ke beech sakriya anupaat parivartan dvaara hal kiya gaya. keval antaratam elivon, jo pankhon ke sakht kshetr ke saath jude hain, uchch gati par sakriya hain.[58]

iske atirikt, sankeern dhad ka matlab hai ki vimaan mud jaaega.[27] yeh peechhe ke yaatriyon ke drushtikon se dikhaai deta tha.[59]

break aur avachakr

kaunakaurd tyre aur break

250 meal prati ghanta (400 kimi/ghanta) ki uchch ausat tekaof gati ke kaaran, kaunakaurd mein unnat break ki jaroorat thi. adhikaansh vimaanon ki tarah, kaunakaurd mein fislan virodhi breking maujood hai - ek pranaali jo y rol-out ke dauraan adhik niyantran ke liye jab break lagaae jaaen, taayaron ko karshan se rokata hai. Dunlop dvaara viksit break, vimaan par prayukt pehle kaarban-aadhaarit break the.[60] ve kaunakaurd ko ek nishfal tekaof se meal (1600 mi.) ke andar rok sake, jab usaka vajn 185 tan (188 meetari tan) tha aur vah 190 meal prati ghanta (310 kimi/ghanta) par yaatra kar raha tha.

is break lagaane ki paintarebaaji ne break ko 300–500 °aC taapamaan par la diya, jise thanda karne ke liye kai ghanton ki zaroorat hai.[61]

vikaas ke dauraan khulne wala ek aur mudda avachakr tha. jis tareeke se kaunakaurd ka delta-ving oopar uthata tha, avachakr ko asaamaanya roop se majboot hona hi tha. parikraman mein, kaunakaurd lagbhag 18 degree tak ek aakraamak uchch kon par ooncha ho jaaega. parikraman se poorv paaramparik vimaanon ke pankhon ke vipreet, pankh ne lagbhag koi uthaan janit naheen kiya. parikraman par uchch vaayugati se sanyukt hokar (199 KIAS), isne peechhe ke avachakr par jor badha diya aur baad mein pramukh punardijaain ki aavashyakta hui.[62] peechhe ke avachakron ka ek doosare ke prati sanchit hone wala jhukaav, lekin unki zyaada oonchaai ke kaaran ek doosare ki or ekatrit hone se bachane ke liye jhoolane se pehle teliskopik roop se simtana zaroori hai.[63]

seema

kaunakaurd ko bina ruke London aur New York ya Washington ke beech yaatra karne ki zaroorat thi aur ise haasil karne ke liye dijaainaron ne kaunakaurd ko kisi anya vimaan ki apeksha adhiktam suparasonik range di. yeh patale dhaanche ke upayog aur pankh ke aakaar ki badi saavadhaani se parikalpana taaki achha uthaan aur karshan anupaat mile, santulit aayabhaar aur uchch indhan kshamata sahit aur bina atirikt talakarshan ko pravartit kiye vimaan ko patala banaane ke liye indhan ko khiskaane ke dvaara injanon ki saavadhaani se vikaas ke saath sambhav ho saka taaki unhein suparasonik gati par adhik kushal bana sakein (vastut: vishv ka sabse adhik oorja-kushal jet engine[27]).[7][38][43]

fir bhi, kaunakaurd dvaara udaan bharne ke turant baad, sabhi gatiyon par eyarodaainamik kaarya-nishpaadan mein sudhaar karne ke liye kuchh adhik indhan kshamata aur agrim dhaar pattiyon sahit thode bade pankhon ke saath ek kaunakaurd "B" model pariklpit kiya gaya. ismein yeh dhvani aur indhan ki bhookh aur shor ke bina garam karna deadening ke saath aur adhik shaktishaali engine mein bajaaoge. yeh speculated tha ki yeh uchit tha karne ke liye sambhav ke saath ek engine banaane ke liye 593 Rolls-Royce/Snecma olinp adhik dakshata haasil karne ke liye 25%.[64] yeh diya hota 500 meal (805 kimi) atirikt seema pelod bhi adhik ke saath aur sambhav maargon vaanijyik hota naya banaaya hai. is bhaag mein kaaran radd kar diya gaya kaunakaurd bikri ke gareeb ke liye, lekin 1970 ke dashak badhti indhan mein vimaanan laagat ka bhi.[65]

vikirn jokhim badha

kaunakaurd ka dhaancha

uchch oonchaai, jis par yaatriyon kaunakaurd matlab cruised udaan praapt lambe samay se dhona yaatra par ek paramparaagat un ionizing vikirn ke roop mein lagbhag do baar ke pravaah ki extraterrestrial.[66][67] parichay kaunakaurd par hai, yeh speculated tha ki suparasonik yaatra ke dauraan is jokhim tvacha Cancer ki sambhaavana hogi vruddhi hui hai.[68] haalaanki, ki vajah se samay ke liye aanupaatik kam udaan, samagr baraabar khuraak hoga hi doori par ek paramparaagat udaan ki tulana mein saamaanya roop se kam ho.[69] asaamaanya gatividhi saur vikirn ki ghatna mein vruddhi karne ke liye ho sakta hai seesa.[70] vikirn ke atyadhik ki ghatnaaon ko rokane ke liye vikirn jokhim ko kam udaan dek tha rediyomeetar ki dar ko maapane ke liye saadhan aur.[67] agar vikirn star bahut adhik ho gaya kaunakaurd neeche utara 47,000 fut (14,000 mi) .

kebin pressurisation

2000 se pehle british eyaravej kaunakaurd inteeriyr

vimaan kebinon aamtaur par 6,000-8,000 feet (1,800-2,400 mi) oonchaai jabki vimaan uda karne ke liye bahut adhik dabaav daala gaya tha. kaunakaurd hai pressurisation range is ke nichle ant oonchaai par tha set, 6,000 fut (1,800 mi) .[71] kebin dabaav mein kami ek achaanak chaalak dal aur yaatriyon ke liye sabhi khatarnaak hai.[72] kaunakaurd hai adhiktam oonchaai cruising gaya tha 60,000 fut (18,000 mi) ; sabasonik krooj jahaajon ko aam taur par neeche 40,000 fut (12,000 mi) . oopar 50,000 fut (15,000 mi), 10-15 second se adhik athlete ka dabaav hoga hava dene ki koi kami conditioned ek mein bhi ek "samay ki upayogi" chetna.[73] ek kebin bhang kar sakta hai prabhaav ke kaaran baahar Venturi vimaan dabaav bhi neeche kam karne ke liye hava ke dabaav parivesh[74] hava ke roop mein hai ek kholne ke maadhyam se baahar choosa. oonchaai kaunakaurd par hai, hava ke ghanatv kam hai bahut; ke kebin ullanghan ke ek prabhaavi jet hoga nuksaan mein parinaam hoga akhandata naheen hona yaatri ka dabaav gambhir paryaapt taaki okseejan aapaatkaaleen ki plastic doosare par maask sthaapit hai aur yaatriyon hypoxia hoga se peedit jaldi ke baavajood jaldi unhein donning. kaunakaurd, isliye chhote khidkiyon ke saath tha susajjit karne ke liye ek ullanghan ki ghatna ke nuksaan ki dar ko kam mein[75] ek aarakshit hava ki aapoorti vyavastha karne ke liye dabaav badhaane ke kebin havaai hai aur ek teji se dhaal prakriya oonchaai ke liye ek surakshit laane ke liye vimaan. FAA vimaan aapaat vansh daron ke liye nyoonatam enforces aur oonchaai operating uchch not banaaya kaunakaurd hai, samaapan hai ki sabse achha vansh teji se ek ho jaaega dabaav ki haani karne ke liye ek pratikriya.[76] piloton fefadon ke chaalak dal tha upayog karne ke liye satat sakaaraatmak Airway dabaav (CPAP) mein uchch dabaav okseejan maask par majaboor kiya jo prayog kiya jaata hai.[75]

sookhana naak

tekaof ke liye taiyaari karte samay neeche ki sthiti mein jhuki naak ke saath kaunakaurd.

kaunakaurd hai drooping naak ek suvyavasthit dijaain ke liye ki aavashyakta ke liye kheenchein ko kam karne aur udaan mein aerodynamic dakshata badhaane ke liye aur pilot ke liye ki jaroorat hai taxi ke dauraan theek se dekhne ke liye, tekaof ke beech ek samjhauta kiya gaya tha aur lainding aapareshanon. ek delta ving vimaan se door le jaata hai aur hamle ke ek uchch kon se bhoomi (ek uchch naak kon) anya ving planforms ki tulana mein, jis tarah delta ving lift utpann ki vajah se. bataaya to naak aur 'ke maddenajar taxiways piloton hoga baadha daalati runway hai, kaunakaurd naak sanchaalan ke liye alag tha sthiti ke liye alag alag anumati banaaya hai.[77] sookhana naak ek chalti topi ka chhajja vah tha ke saath gaya tha naak mein naak se pehle mukar utaara ja raha hai. jab naak kshaitij ke liye gaya tha vaapas uthaaya, topi ka chhajja udaan mein streamlining aerodynamic saamane cockpit windscreen ke liye aage ka uthaaya gaya tha.[78]

cockpit mein ek niyantrak ki anumati tekaof aur topi ka chhajja ko mukar naak aur taxiing ke liye sthiti kshaitij maanak 5 ° se neeche karne ke liye kiya ja kam. aur havaai adde ke samaashodhan ke baad tekaof ke baad, naak aur topi ka chhajja uthaae gaye the. sheegra hi utarane se pehle, topi ka chhajja fir mukar gaya aur naak 12.5 ° karne ke liye adhiktam kshaitij drushyata ke liye neeche utaara. lainding par, naak. nuksaan uthaaya tha sambhaavana se bachane ke liye paanch sthiti degree[78] durlabh avsaron par, vimaan neeche poori tarah se door le sakta hai ke saath naak.[79]

ek antim sthiti topi ka chhajja tha naak mein mukar lekin maanak kshaitij sthiti mein naak. is setaap udaanon sabasonik kam karne ke liye istemaal kiya gaya tha safaai ke liye windscreen aur.[78] do prototaaip kaunakaurdas visors tay kiya tha do par kabja karne yogya apne "gilaas chhed.[80][81] ameriki sangheeya uddayan prashaasan drushyata pratibandhit karne ke liye aapatti ki aur dijaain ki maang ki hai ki ek alag se pehle yeh 102 hoga, 101 (paramit kaunakaurd seva karne ke liye prayog kiya jaata topi ka chhajja America ke havaai addon ko badal diya hai, jo netrutv par utpaadan vimaan aur chaar poorv "utpaadan" vimaan, 201 aur 202).[82]

udaan visheshataaon

ek air sho mein kaunakaurd nimn star ke vimaan-parade mein pradarshan karte hue

jabki vaanijyik vimaanon aath ghante lene ke liye New York se peris ke liye udaan, ausat traansaatalaantik maargon par suparasonik udaan samay 3.5 ghante ke bas ke antargat kiya gaya tha. kaunakaurd ka tha ek adhiktam oonchaai krooj 18,300 meter (60,039 fut) aur ek ausat krooj,) ki gati maakh, 2.02 ya ke baare mein 1155 meal (2140 kimi / gh 1334 meal prati ghante se adhik vimaanon ka paramparaagat do baar gati.[83]

ke baare mein ke saath koi cruising oonchaai ke apne anya operating par yaataayaat naagrik 56,000 fut (17,000 mi), samarpit samudri vaayumaarg ya "patariyon kaunakaurd dvaara istemaal kiya gaya karne ke liye atalaantik paar. havaaon ki vajah se adhik oonchaai ke liye prakruti, in patariyon samanvaya SST-sah ke apne shabdon mein nirdhaarit the, paitarn ke anusaar mausam ki bhavishyavaani ke vipreet dainik mein uttar atalaantik patariyon ko badalne ke samanvaya-kam sah jinki oonchaai.[84] kaunakaurd mein hoga ek saaf ho bhi 15,000 fut (4,600 mi) ko block karne ke liye ek dheemi gati se 45,000 ke liye anumati chadhaai 60,000 fut (18,000 mi) lod hone ke dauraan indhan ke roop mein samudri paar kramash: kam hai.[85] seva mein niyamit, kaunakaurd band chadhne udaan profaail nimnalikhit le krooj kaaryarat ek kushal.[86]

kaunakaurd ke dauraan ek lainding drushtikon dar doob gaya tha par hoga vruddhi naak "peechhe ki or" ki sthaapana, jahaan kheenchein bal vakr.[87] delta ke aakaar ki anumati di paaramparik pankh vimaan se hamle ke kon ki ek uchch ko praapt karne ke liye kaunakaurd, kyonki yeh satah ke oopari pankh poore bheinvar par dabaav kam karne ki anumati nirmaan ke bade, lift banaae rakhane.[88] saamaanya lainding gati tha 170 meal prati ghanta (274 kilometer prati ghanta) .[89]

beee kaunakaurd dvaara pravaahit udaanon kaha aur pratibandhon ki kshamata adviteeya hai kaunakaurd mein "iske alaava karne ke liye vimaan yaataayaat niyantran ki maanak" "Speedbird callsign ko soochit hava.[90]

parichaalan itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: Concorde aircraft histories

anusoochit udaanein

anusoochit udaanein) Rio aur peris bahareen shuroo kiya par 21 January 1976 ko London ke maadhyam se (dakaar maargon.[91] karaakaas-maarg (ajores ke maadhyam se peris) saal hi shuroo ki par 10 April. ameriki Congress landings tha America mein bas kaunakaurd par pratibandh laga diya, mukhya roop se dhvani booms par naagrik virodh ke kaaran, maargon traansaatalaantik pratishthit rokane launch par. haalaanki, America ke parivhan sachiv, William Coleman, british aur Airways diya Washington anumati ke liye kaunakaurd seva Dulles antararaashtreeya havaai adde, aur air fraans ek saath. May 24 par shuroo hua Dulles seva 1976[92]

1977 mein kaunakaurd

jab JFK kaunakaurd aapareshanon par America ke pratibandh 1977 fravari mein uthaaya gaya tha, New York sthaaneeya kaunakaurd rok laga di. pratibandh 1977 mein 17 October ko samaapt karne ke liye ek aaya, jab sanyukt raajya America ke Supreme court ke pratibandh giraavat I hai ulat kam ek adaalat jaari rakhane ke liye sattaaroodh khaarij prayaason se pattan praadhikran aur abhiyaan ki jadein ek ghaas ka netrutv Berman dvaara Carol.[93] shor ke baare mein shikaayaton ke baavajood, shor report ne kaha ki vaayu sena ke samay mein ek, ek Boeing 137-kulapati, sabasonik gati par kaunakaurd se kiya gaya tha jor se aur lainding ke dauraan tekaof aur.[94] peris havaai adde aur anusoochit seva se kainedi London new yaurk ke John ef 1977 November 22 par shuroo hua.[95]

1977 mein, british Airways aur Singapore airlines bahareen havaai adde ke maadhyam se antarraashtreeya Singapore ke beech saajha ek kaunakaurd ke liye udaanein aur London. vimaan hai, beee kaunakaurd ji BOAD, poshaak Airways Singapore chitrit kiya gaya tha mein british airlines poshaak par bandargaah ki or hai aur paksh par staarabord.[96][97] seva samaapt kar di gayi sarkaar ke shor n Malaysia shikaayaton se kyonki baad teen vaapasi udaanon,[98] 1979 mein yeh kar sakta havaai kshetr maleshiyaai hi darakinaar kiya ja ek naya maarg par bahaal. Bhaarat ke saath vivaad mein ek bhaarateeya havaai kshetr mein suparasonik gati tak pahuainchane se roka kaunakaurd, isliye maarg 1980 mein kiya gaya tha aur antat: band vyavahaarya naheen ki ghoshana ki.[99]

boom ke dauraan maiksikn tel, air fraans kaunakaurd do baar saaptaahik udaan bhari city Washington deesi, ya New York ke maadhyam se karne ke liye Mexico city benito vaurej antararaashtreeya havaai adde, 1978 sitmbar se November 1982.[100][101] us avadhi ke dauraan duniya bhar mein aarthik sankat ke is maarg radd karne ke parinaamasvaroop, pichhle udaanein lagbhag khaali tha. Washington ya New York aur maiksiko city ke beech anumaargan 0.95 maakh maakh karne ke liye 2.02 se ek mandi, shaamil karne ke liye florida subsonically paar aur unlawfully raajya ke oopar ek dhvani boom paida karne se bachein, kaunakaurd tab fir se iske mool vaapas karne ke liye tvarit gati se karne ke liye khaadi paar maiksiko ki. 1989 par 1 April ek chaaron or duniya lakjari daure par chaartar, british Airways ka ek naya sanskaran kaaryaanvit is maarg ki anumati di hai ki ji BOAF florida ke aaspaas poorv aur dakshin mein gujar dvaara 2.02 maakh banaae rakhane ke liye. samay samay par, kaunakaurd akaapulko aur Mexico city ke liye udaanon kshetr par aaya vaapas isi tarah chaartard.[102]

1978 se 1980 tak, Braniff Airways international Airways patte 10 kaunakaurdas, british aur paanch se air fraans.[103] in udaanon ke beech sabasonik istemaal par the dalaas faurt vaurth airport aur Washington Dulles international, karmachaariyon udaan dvaara bheja Braniff.[104] air fraans aur british Airways ke karmachaariyon ko to peris aur London liya par udaanon ke liye suparasonik ke liye jaari hai.[105] vimaan ke donon sanyukt raajya America aur unke ghar deshon mein panjeekrut the, Europeeya panjeekaran ghante Braniff yeh dvaara kiya ja raha sanchaalit kiya gaya tha, poorn vaayusena / beee liveries banaae rakhane ke liye kavar kiya gaya tha. udaanon laabhadaayak naheen the aur aarakshit aamtaur par kam se kam 50% thi, 1980 ko majaboor May mein kaunakaurd oparetar ke roop mein America ne apna kaaryakaal hi samaapt karne ke liye Braniff.[106][107]

beee apni kaunakaurdas ekamusht khareedata hai

dvaara Britain, kaunakaurd ke liye bhavishya mein 1981 ke aaspaas khula dekha. british sarkaar har saal kaunakaurd operating paise kho diya tha aur chaalein chal rahe the is seva ko poori tarah se radd kar dein. ek prakshepan laagat bahut kam dhaatukarm pareekshan ki laagat ke saath vaapas aaya tha, pankhon ke liye test rig ke roop mein paryaapt deta ko banaaya tha 30 saal ke liye pichhle hai aur band ho sakta hai, lekin abhi bhi, hone itne saalon ke liye paise kho diya tha, naheen sarkaar jaari rakhane ke liye utsuk. 1983 ke aakhir mein nideshak ke prabandh beee, sar John raaja, aashvast karne ke liye sarkaar ekamusht vimaan bechne ke liye (tab raajya svaamitv, baad mein £ 16.5 million nijeekaran beee) plas ke liye pehle varsh laabh.[108][109]

1987 mein John ef kenadi antarraashtreeya havaai adde par ek air fraans kaunakaurd

sar John raaja mahasoos kiya ki vah ek pramukh utpaad hai ki underpriced tha aur baahar ek baajaar sarvekshan karne ke baad, british Airways ki khoj ki hai ki apne lakshit graahakon socha ki kaunakaurd aur adhik mahanga tha ki tulana mein yeh vaastav mein kiya gaya tha. ve uttarottar uthaaya keematein aur gunavatta seva karne ke liye in dhaaranaaon match.[27] yeh soochana di hai ki british Airways to unke samakaksh ke vipreet laabh, fraans ke ek bhaag gaya kaunakaurd par.[110][111][112] british Airways munaafa saal sabse adhik laabhadaayak hai soochit kiya gaya karne ke liye kiya ja karne ke liye 50000000 £ ki kul raajasv ke saath £ 1750000000 ki laagat se pehle, 1000000000 £.[110]

1984 aur 1991 ke beech, british Airways havaai udaan bhari ek teen baar London ke beech saaptaahik kaunakaurd seva Miami Dulles antararaashtreeya rok, Washington mein hai.[113][114] 2003 tak, air fraans aur british Airways ke liye New York sevaaon dainik kaam jaari rakha. kaunakaurd baarabaados ka bhi daura kiya. sheetakaaleen chhuttiyon ke mausam ke havaai adde ke Grantley edams antararaashtreeya dauraan[115] durghatana tak air fraans peris oparetaron Britain aur fraans ke daure ke kai samaapt ho gaya lagbhag sabhi chaartar sevaaon dvaara donon vaayusena aur beee, ek niyamit aadhaar udaanein sanchaalit chaartar par Europeeya gantavyon,[116][117] chaartar vyaapaar british Airways dvaara dekha gaya tha ke roop mein aakarshak aur air fraans.[118]

kaunakaurd 4590 flight crash

par 25 July 2000, air fraans flight 4590, panjeekaran ef BTSC, fraans, durghatanaagrast mein gonais, udaan hatya sabhi 100 yaatriyon ko chaalak dal ke nau aur board par hai aur jameen par chaar log hain. yeh keval ghaatak kaunakaurd shaamil ghatna thi.

BEA (anusaar jaanch bureau durghatana jaanch adhikaari dvaara aayojit French), durghatana se gir gaya tha ki kaaran ke dvaara ek strip taaiteniym ek mahaadveepeeya airlines deesi-10 minute ki hai ki door le liya tha pehle. is dhaatu ka tukada tekaof ke dauraan bogi pahiya tyre kaunakaurd par vaamapanthiyon mukhya ek hava nikaal di. tyre fat gaya aur rabar ka ek tukada indhan tank ko maara. is prabhaav tank hai, jo tab toot, sparking bijli ke taaron ke kaaran prajvalit se ek pramukh indhan risaav ke kaaran hota hai. chaalak dal ke neeche ek aag ki chetaavani ke javaab mein engine number 2 raho aur engine number 1 gahire ke saath aur chhote bijli utpaadan, vimaan ki oonchaai ya gati haasil karne mein asamarth tha. vimaan mein pravesh kiya vansh teji se pitch ap to ek hinsak, roling chhod diya aur durghatanaagrast poonchh kam gonais Hotelissimo hotel mein mein.[119]

durghatana se pehle karne ke liye, kaunakaurd arguably gaya tha nidhan-kooch ke saath shoonya kilometer prati yaatri ki drushti se surakshit parichaalan yaatri vimaan mein duniya mein hai, lekin jet ke tyre ke itihaas ke saath ek visfot se 60 guna adhik sabasonik.[120] durghatana suraksha sudhaar ke maddenajar kiye gaye the, niyantran sahit adhik surakshit vidyut, Kevlar indhan tank astar ko aur vishesh roop se viksit fat pratirodhi pahiye.[121]

pehli udaan ke baad sanshodhanon par heethro se London ravaana 17 July 2001, Bannister Mike dvaara sanchaalit beee mukhya kaunakaurd pilot. aaisalaind ke dauraan 3-madhya atalaantik ki or ghante 20 minute par udaan praapt maakh 2.02 Bannister aur 60,000 fut (18,000 mi) Norton Brize aaraeef lautane se pehle karne ke liye. pareekshan udaan maarg ka iraada yaurk sadrush London nai, ek safalta thi ki ghoshana ki thi aur TV par live dekha aur donon sthaanon par jameen par se bheed.[122] ek aur beee ke moolyaankan yaatriyon ko le jaane ke udaan sanyukt raajya America par jagah le li 11 September ke hamlon mein 11 September 2001 ke dauraan hava mein tha 2001 aur. yeh, udaan naheen tha ek raajasv ke roop mein sabhi yaatriyon beee karmachaari the.[123]

saamaanya vaanijyik parichaalan BTSD-BOAE aur ef shuroo par 7 November 2001 se beee aur vaayu sena (vimaan ji), rudi Giuliani mayor ke saath seva karne ke liye New York JFK dvaara svaagat kiya, jahaan yaatriyon the.[124][125]

nivrutti

par 10 April 2003, air fraans aur british Airways ne ghoshana ki ki ve ek saath varsh hai ki baad mein retire kaunakaurd hoga.[126][127] ve, havaai yaatra mein mandi ke kaaran 11 September ke hamlon aur badhti rakharakhaav ke kharch ke baad 25 July 2000 durghatana ke baad kam yaatri sankhya uddhrut. haalaanki kaunakaurd ek takaneeki chamatkaar jab 1970 ke dashak mein seva mein shuroo ki, 30 saal ke apne cockpit, analogue niyantran aur cluttered daayal ke saath baad mein tha, dinaankit dekha, vahaaain ke roop mein chhote vaanijyik dabaav ya kaunakaurd pratispardha vimaanon ki kami ke kaaran unnayan ke kaaran kiya gaya tha, puraani usi ke vipreet anya vimaanon, udaaharan ke liye Boeing 747.[128] sevaanivrutti se iski, yeh engineer tha ek udaan ke abhi bhi pichhle vimaan mein british Airways ki 'beda, aadhunikeekaran 747-400 jaise anya vimaan tha, bhoomika ka safaaya kar sakein.[129]

din par ek hi hai, sar richrd Branson atalaantik Airways ki peshakash ki seva ke liye ke saath apne varjin "khareedne ke liye kaunakaurd beda 'british Airways mein 1 £ ke apne" mool keemat. Branson yeh daava prastut karne ke liye ho ek hi tokan keemat hai ki british british Airways ne sarkaar ka bhugataan, lekin yeh mana beee aur mana kar diya.[130] vimaan khareedne ki vaastavik laagat tha 26000000 £ pratyek lekin vimaan khareedne ke liye paise sarkaar (jo baari mein laabh ka 80% se udhaar liya tha). iske baad beee 1983 16.5 £ moolya ke liye ek kitaab vimaan khareeda do ke bhaag ke roop mein £ 1 lakh mein khareed.[110] Branson arthashaastri mein likha (23 October 2003) hai ki apne antim prastaav tha "par £ 5 million" aur kaha ki vah aane ke liye tha ke liye "bede sanchaalit iraada karne ke liye kai varshon".[131] kaunakaurd ki ummeed hai kisi bhi seva mein shesh airframes tha budhaape naakaam aage ke liye dvaara sahaayata pradaan karne ke rakharakhaav ke liye eyarabas anichha hai.[132][133]

yeh sujhaav diya gaya hai ki aamtaur par kaaranon kaunakaurd diya tha ke liye vaapas naheen liya, lekin kaha ki iske subsonically yaatriyon ko kaksha ke dauraan pehli baar spasht ho gaya pet mein graaunding ki kaunakaurd karne ke liye eyaralaainon ki raajasv ve sakta hai aur adhik.[134] rob luis sujhaav diya hai ki ke apne bede kaunakaurd sevaanivrutti air fraans Forgeard CEO noel eyarabas aur Cyril Spinetta tha parinaam ke ek shadyantr ke beech air fraans ke adhyaksh jeen, aur ke dar se stemmed ke roop mein jyaada kiya ja raha paaya vaayusena bhavishya ke liye fraanseesi kaanoon ke tahat aaparaadhik jimmedaar saral arthashaastr se kaunakaurd durghatanaaon ke roop mein.[135] paksh par british Airways, elan MacDonald engineering ke nideshak to ek kami se kaunakaurd ki pratibaddhata ke bheetar se kaunakaurd ko kam ke roop mein uddhrut kiya gaya beee parichaalan jaari rakhane ke liye hal hai.[136]

air fraans

air fraans ne, 30 May 2003 ko peris se sanyukt raajya America mein New York shahar mein antim vaanijyik kaunakaurd lainding ki.[137][138] agale saptaah, 2 June aur 3 June 2003 ke dauraan F-BTSD ne peris se new yaurk ke liye dotarafa antim udaan bhari jahaan vaapasi ki udaan mein use staaf sadasyon aur airline kaunakaurd abhiyaan ke puraane karmachaariyon ko vaapas laana tha. [139] air fraans ki kaunakaurd ki antim udaan, F-BVFC ke tooloos mein sevaanivrutt ho jaane par 27 June 2003 ko hui.[140]

peris Charles de gaule havaai adde par air fraans kaunakaurd

15 November 2003 ko air fraans ke liye kaunakaurd ke hisson aur smrutichihnon ki ek neelaami peris mein kristeej mein aayojit ki gayi; terah sau logon ne usamein bhaag liya aur kaiyon ne apne poorvaanumaanit moolya se aage badh kar boli lagaain.[141]

fraans kaunakaurd F-BVFC ko tooloos mein sevaanivrutt kar diya gaya aur seva samaapti ke baad ise engine sahit kuchh samay ke liye chaaloo haalat mein rakha gaya, kyonki ho sakta tha 2000 ki durghatana ke maamale mein French nyaayik jaanch ke liye use bhoomi par chalaane ki aavashyakta padti.[142] yeh vimaan poori tarah se sevaanivrutt ho chooka hai aur ab kriyaasheel naheen hai.[143]

French kaunakaurd F-BTSD ko le borjet mein (peris ke najadeek) "Muséae de l'Air et de l'Espace" mesevaanivrutt kar diya gaya aur, ek anya kaunakaurdas sangrahaalaya hain kaaryaatmak rakha ja raha hai, isliye hai ki, udaaharan ke liye, prasiddh "sookhana naak" abhi aur kam kiya ja sakta uthaaya. is vishesh avsaron ke liye netrutv karne ke liye afavaahein udaanon bhavishya ke liye taiyaar kiya ja sakta hai ki ve.[144]

british Airways

heethro havaai adde par british eyaravej kaunakaurd

british Airways ne October 2003 mein ek uttari ameriki vidaai daure ka aayojan kiya. G-BOAG, 1 October 2003 ko Toronto piarasan antarraashtreeya havaai adde pahuncha, jiske baad isne daure ke hisse ke roop mein New York ke John ef kainedi antarraashtreeya havaai adde ke liye udaan bhari.[145] G-BOAD, 8 October 2003 ko baustan ke logaan antarraashtreeya havaai adde pahuncha aur G-BOAG 14 October 2003 ko Washington dales antararaashtreeya havaai adde pahuncha.[146] Boston ke liye G-BOAD ki udaan ne pashchim se poorv ki or sabse teevr atalaantik paar ki udaan ka record banaaya, jahaan isne London ke heethro se 3 ghante, 5 second, 34 minute ki yaatra ki.[147]

Britain ke ird-gird bhari gayi ek saptaah ki vidaai udaan bharate hue, kaunakaurd 20 October ko Birmingham, 21 October ko belafaast, 22 October ko Manchester, 23 aktoobaar ko kaardif, aur 24 October ko edinbarg pahunchi. pratyek din is vimaan ne in shaharon se heethro ke liye vaapasi udaan bhari, jahaan yeh in shaharon par se aksar kam oonchaai se gujra.[148][149]

Manchester antarraashtreeya havaai adde ke eviyeshan vyooing park mein kaunakaurd G-BOAC


22 October ko, heethro ATC ne, Manchester se ek vishesh bheetari udaan BA9021C aur New York se BA002 ki kramash: baaen aur daaen runway par ek saath utarane ki vyavastha ki. 23 October 2003 ki shaam ko, raani ne vindasar kile ko us vakt raushan karne ki sveekrut pradaan ki jab kaunakaurd ki pashchim-unmukhi aakhiri vaanijyik udaan London ke oopar se gujri, yeh aisa sammaan hai jise pramukh raashtreeya kaaryakramon aur padhaare hue ganamaanya atithiyon ke liye aarakshit rakha jaata hai.[150]

british Airways ne apne kaunakaurd bede ko 24 October ko sevaanivrutt kar diya[151] G-BOAG dhoomadhaam ke saath new yaurk se uda jaisa ki air fraans ke F-BTSD ko mila tha, jabki donon ne gol yaatraaen ki, G-BOAF biske ki khaadi ke oopar, jismein poorv kaunakaurd piloton sahit anya VIP mehmaan baithe the aur G-BOAE edinbarg ke liye. teenon vimaanon ne, kam oonchaai par udaan bharne ki vishesh anumati praapt karke London ke oopar parikrama ki, jiske baad ve ek anukram mein heethro par utare. sabhi teen vimaan 45 minute tak havaai adde par ghoomta raha jiske baad usane suparasonik ka kiraaya dene vaale bhugataan yaatriyon utaar diya. new yaurk se landan ki udaan ka kaptaan Mike bainistar tha.[152]

BA ke saare kaunakaurd bede ko band kar diya gaya, unke vaayu-saksham pramaan patra ko vaapas le liya gaya aur haaidrolik drav ko nikaal diya gaya. kaunakaurd ke poorv mukhya pilot aur bade ke prabandhak, jok lov ne anumaan lagaaya ki G-BOAF ko ek baar fir se udaan-saksham banaane mein £a10-15 meeliyn ka kharch aaega.[144] BA ne svaamitv ko banaae rakha hai aur kaha hai ki ve dubaara udaan naheen bhareinge kyonki eyarabas ne 2003 mein vimaan ko samarthan samaapt kar diya.[153]

1 December 2003 ko, bonaham ne british Airways ke kaunakaurd ki kalaakrutiyon ki ek neelaami aayojit ki, jismein shaamil tha kensingatan olanpiya mein ek noj kon.[154][155] kareeb £a750,000 ka munaafa kamaaya gaya, jismein se adhikaansh dharmaarth kaaryon ke liye daan mein gaya. March 2007 mein, BA ne ghoshana ki ki ve heethro havaai adde ke pravesh dwaar par pradhaan vigyaapan sthaan ke liye apne anubandh ko naveeneekrut naheen kareinge, jahaan 1990 se ek 40% paimaane ka kaunakaurd ka model sthit hai. kaunakaurd model ko vahaan se hata diya gaya aur use brukalainds sangrahaalaya mein pradarshit kiya gaya.[156]

naveekaran

France ke swayamsevak injeeniyron ka ek samooh, sabse yuva kaunakaurd (F-BTSD) mein se ek ko rakhe hue hai, jo lagbhag udne yogya sthiti mein le borjet air end space myoojiam, peris mein rakha hua hai. February 2010 mein yeh ghoshana ki gayi ki ve F-BTSD ke engine ke naveekaran ka iraada rakhate hain taaki vah bhoomi par ghoom sake.[157]

1981 mein pareekshan udaan aur namoone kaaryon se sevaanivrutt kiye jaane ke baad haalaanki, ise sirf purjon ke liye istemaal kiya gaya, kaunakaurd G-BBDG ko khola gaya aur filtan se sadak maarg dvaara sare mein brukalainds sangrahaalaya mein pahuncha kar anivaarya roop se ek shel se bahaal kiya gaya.[158]

29 May 2010 ko, yeh soochana mili ki ek samooh jismein british sev kaunakaurd group aur French olimpas 593 shaamil the, unhonne le borjet air end space myujiam mein rakhe ek kaunakaurd ke engine ke nireekshan par kaam shuroo kiya hai taaki ve us vimaan ko pradarshanon aur air sho mein fir se udaane mein saksham bana sakein. 2012 London olanpik ke samaaroh mein ise udaane ka lakshya bhi rakha gaya hai.[159]

prabhaav

paryaavaranasanbandhi

kaunakaurd ke udaan pareekshan se pehle, naagrik vimaanan udyog dvaara kiye gaye vikaas ko kaafi had tak sarkaaron aur unke sambandhit matadaataaon dvaara sveekaar kiya gaya. kaunakaurd ke shor ke virodh ne, vishesh roop se sanyukt raajya America ke poorvi tat par,[160][161] atalaantik ke donon taraf raajaneetik agenda failaaya, jiske tahat vibhinn udyogon ke vaigyaanik aur praudyogiki visheshagyon ne paryaavaraneeya aur saamaajik prabhaavon ko adhik gambheerta se lena shuroo kar diya.[162][163] kaunakaurd ne vimaan udaan ke liye haalaanki John ef kainedi havaai adde ke baahar saamaanya shor katauti kaaryakram ki shuruaat ko prerit kiya, kai logon ne paaya ki kaunakaurd ummeed se kam shor kar raha tha,[27] aanshik roop se isliye kyonki pilot aavaaseeya kshetron ke oopar udaan ke vakt asthaayi taur par engine ko peechhe ki taraf thrautal kar rahe the.[164] raajasv arjan sevaaon ki shuruaat se pehle hi, yeh gaur kiya gaya ki kaunakaurd, us samay sevaarat kai anya vimaanon ki tulana mein kam shor karta hai.[165]

saaaincha:Supersonic fuel efficiency kaunakaurd, apne nikaas mein naaitrojan aaksaaid utpaadit karta tha, jo ojon ksharan rasaayanon ke saath jatil raasaayanik ant:kriyaaon ke baavajood, samataap mandal ki unchaai par ojon parat mein ek shuddh haani pahuncha raha tha.[166] yeh ingit kiya gaya ki anya, nichli udaan bharne vaale vimaan, kshobhamandal mein apni udaanon ke dauraan ojon ka utpaadan karte hain, lekin donon ke beech gaison ka oordhvaadhar paaragaman atyadhik seemit hai. chhote aakaar ke bede ka matlab tha ki kaunakaurd janit koi bhi shuddh ojon parat ksharan, sabhi vyaavahaarik prayojanon ke liye naganya thi.[166]

kaunakaurd ki takaneeki agr chhalaang ne praudyogiki aur paryaavaran ke beech sangharsh ke baare mein janta ki samajh ko aur behtar kiya saath hi saath nirnaya vishleshan ki jatil prakriyaaon ke prati jaagrukta ko bhi behtar kiya jo aise sangharshon ko ghere rakhati hai.[167] fraans mein, TGV track ke saath dhvanik ghere ke prayog ko shaayad haasil naheen kiya gaya hota yadi vimaan ke shor ko lekar 1970 ke dashak ka vivaad utpann naheen hota.[168] Britain mein, CPRE ne 1990 se shaanti nakshe jaari kiye hain.[169]

janta ki dhaarana

mahaaraani ki svarn jayanti par parade udaan

kaunakaurd ko aam taur par ameeron ke ek visheshaadhikaar ke roop mein maana jaata tha, lekin vishesh gashti ya ek tarafa (jahaaj ya coach dvaara lautana) chaartar udaanon ki vyavastha ki gayi taaki samruddh maadhyam-vargi utsaahiyon ke liye bhi yeh sulabh ho jaae.[170] yeh fraans aur Britain mein kai logon ke liye ek mahaan raashtreeya gaurav ka prateek hai; fraans mein ise fraanseesi vimaan maana jaata tha aur Britain mein british.[171]

britenavaasiyon dvaara is vimaan ko aamtaur par sirf "kaunakaurd" kaha jaata tha,[172] jabki fraans mein ise "le kaunakaurd" ke roop mein jaana jaata tha, is nishchit upapad,[173] ka istemaal French vyaakaran mein ek vyaktivaachak naam ko[173] samaan vartani ke jaativaachak sanjnyaa se alag karne ke liye kiya gaya.[174][175] French mein, jaativaachak sanjnyaa kaunakaurd ka arth hai "samjhauta, sadbhaav, ya shaanti",[176] aur vimaan ke naam ko French aur british sarkaaron ke beech sahayog ke sanket ke roop mein chuna gaya. kaunakaurd ke pilot aur british Airways, sarkaari prakaashan aur video mein aksar kaunakaurd ko ekavachan aur bahuvachan mein angreji mein "shi" ya "har" ullikhit karte hain.[177][178]

HM mahaaraani aur HRH edinbarg ke Duke kaunakaurd se utarate hue

raashtreeya gaurav ke ek prateek ke roop mein, udaaharan ke liye chuninda shaahi kaaryakramon, pramukh air sho aur anya vishesh avsaron par, BA bede ne yada-kada udaan bhari, kabhi-kabhi red airo ke saath sahayog se.[179][180] vaanijyik seva ke antim din, saarvajanik roochi itni adhik thi ki London ke heethro havaai adde par bhavya aadhaar banaaya gaya taaki uske antim aagaman ke drushya ko dekha ja sake. havaai adde ki sadak seema ke chaaron or bheed bhar gayi thi aur ek vyaapak media coverage bhi hua.[181]

apni pratham parikshan udaan ki vifalta ke saintees varsh baad, kaunakaurd ko BBC aur design myoojiym dvaara aayojit great british design kvest mein vijeta ghoshit kiya gaya. kul 212,000 vote kaunakaurd ke paksh mein pade, jismein usane design ke ke liye mashahoor mini, mini skart, jaiguaar E-type, tube maip aur suparamareen spitfaayar ko peechhe chhod diya.[5]

record

sabse tej, etalaantik mahaasamudr ke paar ki udaan 7 fravari 1996 ko London ke heethro se New York ke JFK tak hui, jo british Airways G-BOAD ne udaan se lekar jameen chhoone tak 2 ghante, 52 minute, 59 second mein poori ki.[182] kaunakaurd ne anya record bhi banaae, jismein aadhikaarik FAI "vestabaaund araaund di world" aur "istabaaund araaund di world" vishv havaai gati record shaamil hai.[183] 12-13 October 1992 ko, kolanbas ke pratham new world lainding ke smaranotsav ki 500 veen varshagaanth par, kaunakaurd spirit tour (USA) ne air fors kaunakaurd F-BTSD ko chaartard kiya aur 32ghante 49mint aur 3 second mein lisban, Portugal se vishv ki parikrama ki jismein sainto domingo, akaapulko, honolooloo, guaam,bainkaukaaur bahareen mein chh: pun: indhan bharne ke sthal shaamil hain.[184]

istabaaund record usi air France kaunakaurd (F-BTSD) dvaara sthaapit kiya gaya tha jo kaunakaurd spirit tour ke tahat sanyukt raajya America mein 15-16 August 1995 ko chaartar kiya gaya tha. is prachaar udaan ne poori duniya ka chakkar lagaaya, jo new york/JFK antararaashtreeya havaai adde se 31 ghante 27 minute 49 second par shuroo hui aur jismein chh: pun: indhan bharne ke padaavon jaise guaam, honolooloo aur akaapulko mein taulause, dubai, bainkok aur Anderson AFB shaamil hai.[185] 2 March 1999 mein apne 30veen udaan varshagaanth ke dauraan kaunakaurd ne 600,000 suparasoniknon ke saath 920,000 udaan ke ghante poore kiye, jo pashchimi duniya ke anya sabhi suparasonik vimaanon ke ekatrit jod se bhi bahut adhik tha.[186]

anya suparasonik vimaanon ke saath tulana

June 1971, barlin-shaunefeld mein Tu-144, prototaaip

keval ek maatr suparasonik vimaan jo kaunakaurd ke saath pratyaksh mukaabale mein tha vah hai soviyt tupolev TU-144, kaunakaurd ke saath uske baahari samaanata ke kaaran, pashchimi yooropiynon dvaara usaka upanaam "Concordski" (kaunakaurdeeski) rakha gaya.[187] soviyt jaasooson ke prayaason se kaunakaurd ke blooprinton ki chori parinaamit ho pai, yeh jaahira taur par Tu-144 ke dijaain mein sahaayata ke liye kiya gaya.[188] ek sheedhr vikaas kaaryakram ke parinaam svaroop, Tu-144 ka pehla moolaroop poorv utpaadit machine se kaafi alag thi, lekin donon hi kaunakaurd ke mukaabale ashodhit aur aparishkrut tha. Tu-144S ka vistaar, uske nimn-baaipaas vaale tarbo injanon ke kaaran, kaunakaurd se kaafi chhota tha.[189] ek saadhaaran suparasonik pankh design ke kaaran nimn-gati par vaahan ka niyantran kharaab tha; iske atirikt Tu-144 ko jameen par utarate vakt pairaashooton ki aavashyakta hoti thi jabki kaunakaurd ke paas parishkrut anti-lauk brekein thi.[190] Tu-144 do baar durghatanaagrast hui, ek 1973 ke pairis havaai sho ke dauraan,[191][192] aur doosari 1978 ke greeshm mein ek vitran-poorv parikshan udaan ke dauraan.[193] baad mein utpaadit sanskaranon mein behtar nimn-gati ke liye sikudne yogya kanaard hote the aur ek 126 seaton waali anusandhaan sanskaran ne tarbojet injanon ka prayog kiya jisne lagbhag kaunakaurd ke baraabar indhan kshamata aur vaisi hi vistaar diya.[171] Mach 2.35 ki uchchatam gati ke saath yeh sambhaavyat: ek adhik pratiyogi vimaan tha- lekin gambhir suraksha doshon ke kaaran ise jald hi seva se baahar kar diya gaya.[194]

ameriki dijaain, Boeing 2707 aur laukaheed L-2000 ko 300 logon ke baithane ki vyavastha ke saath aur bada banaaya jaana tha.[195][196] kaunakaurd se kuchh varsh peechhe chal rahe, jeetne wala Boeing 2707 ko ek kraup kiye hue delta leaaut ke roop mein pun: dijaain kiya gaya; in parivrtanon ke liye lagne vaale atirikt laagat ne ise khatm kar dene mein sahaayata ki.[197] ameriki sainya vimaan, jaise XB-70 volkiri (Valkyrie) tatha B-58 haslar (hustler) ke prachaalan ne yeh dikhaaya ki dhvani boom dharati tak pahunchane mein saksham hain,[198] aur okalaahoma city dhvani boom parikshan ne bhi vahi paryaavaran sambandhi chintaaen khadi kar di jinhonne kaunakaurd ki vyaavasaayik safalta ko avaruddh kiya tha. ameriki sarkaar ne, 1 arab dollar se bhi adhik kharch karne ke baad, 1971 mein pariyojana ko radd kar diya.[199]

kaunakaurd ki tulana mein aane vaale anya bade suparasonik vimaanon mein keval stretejik baumbar hi hain, vishesh roop se roosi tyupolev (Tupolev) Tu-22/Tu-22M aur Tu-160 aur ameriki B-1B lainsar.[200]

vikaas mein pratisthaapan

doosari-peedhi ki ek suparasonik vimaan ke nirmaan ki ichha udyan udyog ke kuchh tatvon ke bheetar rah gayi,[201][202] aur kaunakaurd ke sevaanivrutti ke baad jald hi kai avadhaaranaaen ubhari hain.

chitr:LAPCAT1.jpg
oopari vaayumandal mein LAPCAT A2 avadhaarana

November 2003 mein, EADS-Airbus vimaan nirmaan company ki janak company-ne yeh ghoshana ki ki ve Japani kanpaneeyon ke saath milkar, kaunakaurd ka ek vishaal aur tej pratisthaapan karne ke liye, kaarya karne par vichaar kar rahi hai.[203][204] October 2005 mein, JAXA Japan eyarospes eksaploreshan agency, ne ek aise vimaan ke ek skel model ka erodaainemik parikshan shuroo kiya, jo Mach 2 par 300 yaatriyon ko le jaane ke liye dijaain ki gayi thi (kaarya ke dauraan usaka naam NEXST tha). yadi vaanijyik tainaati ke liye khoj kiya jaata, yeh ummeed ki jaati hai ki 2020-2025 ke aaspaas yeh seva mein hogi.[205]

british company riyekshan engine limited, 50% EU paise ke saath, LAPCAT naamak ek shodh kaaryakram mein juti hain, jo A2 naamak ek 300 yaatriyon ko le jaane vaale ek haaidrojan-indhan vaale vimaan ke dijaain ka parikshan kar raha hai, jo bina ruke brasels se Sydney tak 4.6 ghante mein Mach 5+ par udaan bharne mein saksham hai.[206]

May 2008 mein, yeh soochana mili thi ki ereeon korporeshan ke paas 3 billion dollar ke ereeon SBJ suparasonik vyaapaar jet par bikri ka poorv-aadesh mila hai.[207]

suparasonik eyarospes international kvaaet suparasonik transport ki chalne ki gati mach 1.6 hai. laukaheed Martin dvaara dijaain kiya gaya hai aur yeh kaunakaurd dvaara utpann dhvani boom ka keval 1% hi utpann karta hai.[208]

2009 tak suparasonik vyaapaar jet par anusandhaan jaari hai.

prachaalak

Flag of France.svg France
Flag of Singapore.svg Singapore
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg UK
Flag of the United States.svg sanyukt raajya America
  • braanif international eyaravej (alpaavadhi patta)[106]

vinirdeshan

kaunakaurd G-BOAC

Data from Walls Street Journal,[129] Kelly (2005),[209], concordesst.com,[210] Richard Seamen aircraft museum[211]

General characteristics

  • chaalakadal: 3 (pilot, co-pilot, and flight engineer)
  • kshamata: 92–120 passengers
    (128 in high-density layout)[212]
  • lanbaai: 202 ft 4 in (61.66 m)
  • Wingspan: 84 ft 0 in (25.6 m)
  • oonchaai: 40 ft 0 in (12.2 m)
  • Fuselage internal length: 129 fut 0 inch (39.32 mi)
  • Fuselage width: maximum of 9 fut 5 inch (2.87 mi) external 8 fut 7 inch (2.62 mi) internal
  • Fuselage height: maximum of 10 fut 10 inch (3.30 mi) external 6 fut 5 inch (1.96 mi) internal)
  • pankh kshetr: 3,856 ft2 (358.25 m2)
  • khaali vajan: 173,500 lb (78,700 kg)
  • upayogi bhaar: 245,000 lb (111,130 kg)
  • power plant: 4 × Rolls-Royce/SNECMA Olympus 593 Mk 610 afterburning turbojets
    • mool jor: 32,000 lbf (140 kN) each
    • Thrust with afterburner: 38,050 lbf (169 kN) each
  • Maximum fuel load: 2,10,940 paaund (95,680 kilogram)
  • Maximum taxiing weight: 4,12,000 paaund (1,87,000 kigra)

Performance

  • adhiktam gati: Mach 2.04[213] (≈a1,350 mph, 2,270 km/h) at cruise altitude
  • krooj gati: Mach 2.02[213] (≈a1,320 mph) at cruise altitude
  • range: 3,900 nmi (4,500 mi, 7,250 km)
  • adhiktam seva seema: 60,000 ft (18,300 m)
  • aarohan dar: 5,000 ft/min (25.41 m/s)
  • lift-to-drag: Low speed– 3.94, Approach– 4.35, 250 kn, 10,000 ft– 9.27, Mach 0.94– 11.47, Mach 2.04– 7.14
  • indhan khapat: 46.85 lb/mi (13.2 kg/km) operating for maximum range
  • thrast/vajan: 0.373
  • Maximum nose tip temperature: 260 °afai (127 °ase)

lokapriya sanskruti

yeh bhi dekhein

  • Concorde aircraft histories
  • BAC 221
  • Handley Page HP.115
  • LAPCAT
Related development
  • Bristol 223
  • Sud Aviation Super-Caravelle
Comparable aircraft
  • Boeing 2707
  • Lockheed L-2000
  • Tupolev Tu-144

Related lists
  • List of airliners

sandarbh

not

  1. Towey 2007, p. 359.
  2. "Ageing luxury jet". BBC News. 25 July 2000. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/850899.stm.
  3. "Last Concorde lands". BBC News. 27 November 2003. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/bristol/somerset/3238674.stm.
  4. "Work starts in £a15m plan to get Concorde flying". BBC News via news.bbc.co.uk, 29 May 2010. Retrieved: 5 January 2010. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/8712806.stm.
  5. a aa Jury, Louise (17 March 2006). "Concorde beats Tube map to become Britain's favourite design". London: The Independent. http://news.independent.co.uk/uk/this_britain/article351851.ece.
  6. a aa i E u oo A ai "Early History." concordesst.com. pun:praapt: 8 sitmbar 2007.
  7. a aa i Maltby, R.L. (1968). "The development of the slender delta concept". Aircraft Engineering. http://md1.csa.com/partners/viewrecord.php?requester=gs&collection=TRD&recid=A6825061AH&q=Concorde+Delta&uid=788872723&setcookie=yes.
  8. "Aerospace: Pan Am's Concorde Retreat". Time. 12 fravari 1973. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,903850,00.html.
  9. Benn, Tony (17 October 2003). "Sonic booms and that 'e' on the end: Tony Benn remembers his role in getting Concorde off the ground". London: The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/g2/story/0,3604,1064752,00.html.
  10. maikainataayar 1992, pru. 20.
  11. "Pilot Says Concorde Flight "Perfect"". Montreal Gazette. 1 March 1969. http://news.google.co.uk/newspapers?id=KXoyAAAAIBAJ&sjid=GLkFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6573,360672&dq=concorde&hl=en.
  12. "Concorde Tops Speed of Sound for 9 Minutes on a Test Flight". New York Times. 2 October 1969. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30C1EFC3454127B93C0A9178BD95F4D8685F9.
  13. "1969: Concorde flies for the first time". BBC News. 2 March 1969. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/2/newsid_2514000/2514535.stm. abhigman tithi: 8 July 2007.
  14. "Concorde 002 Makes 1st Flight". Chicago Tribune. 10 April 1969. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/chicagotribune/access/584606362.html?dids=584606362:584606362&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:AI&type=historic&date=Apr+10%2C+1969&author=&pub=Chicago+Tribune&desc=Concorde+002+Makes+1st+Flight&pqatl=google.
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