kaukas

kaukas ya kaukasas Europe aur Asia ki seema par sthit ek bhaugolik aur raajanaitik kshetr hai. is kshetr mein kaukas parvat shrunkhala bhi aati hai, jismein Europe ka sabse ooncha pahaad, elbrus parvat shaamil hai. kaukas ke do mukhya khand bataaye jaate hain: uttar kaukas aur dakshin kaukas. uttar kaukas mein chechanya, ingushetiya, daagistaan, aadigeya, kaabaaradeeno-balkaariya, kaaraachaae-charakassiya, uttar osetiya, kraasnodaar kraaya aur staavropol kraaya ke kshetr aate hain. dakshin kaukas mein aarmeeniya, ajrabaijaan aur jaurjiya aate hain, jismein dakshin osetiya, abakhjiya aur naagorno-kaaraabaakh shaamil hain.

anukram

anya bhaashaaoain mein

  • angreji mein kaukas ko "kaukas" (Caucas) ya "kaukasas" (Caucasus) kehte hain.
  • faarasi mein kaukas ko "kfkaaj" (قaaفaaقaaاaaز) kehte hain.
  • roosi mein kaukas ko "kavakaaj" (Кaaаaaвaaкaaаaáaaз) kehte hain.

itihaas

Turkey, Iran aur roos se ghire is pradesh mein in teenon deshon ke ghatnaakramon ka asar raha hai. haaainlaaki athaarahaveen sadi se pehle roos aur aathaveen sadi se pehle turkon ka is pradesh mein koi astitv ya mahatva naheen tha. Iran ke meediyon ne aathaveen sadi isaapoorv mein yahaaain apna sikka jamaaya. meedi haaainlaaki ek bade raajya ki tarah naheen the aur aseeriyaaiyon ke sahayogi the. isa ke poorv 559 mein jab meediyon ke sahayogi paars (dakshini Iran) ke hakhaamaniyon ne meediya aur aseeriya donon par vijay haasil kar li to uske baad yeh pradesh bhi hakhaamani paarasiyon ke haash aa gaya. san 95 isaapoorv mein yahaaain ke armeniyaaiyon ke saamraajya ka udaya hua aur ek sthaaneeya shaasan ne satta ki baagdor samhaali. dheere-dheere iska vistaar hua aur ek samay yeh misr tak fail gaya tha. dhyaan rahe ki armeniyaai aarya nasl ke log the lekin aaj yahaaain semetik tatha turk nasl ke log bhi basate hain. Iran mein saasaaniyon ke shaasan aur roman saamraajya ki spardha mein is pradesh ko donon ne kai baar apna ang banaaya. roman is ilaake ko hamesha apna ang banaane mein asafal rahe. lekin isi samay yahaaain isaai dharm ka prachaar bhi hua. nauveen sadi mein arabon ne aakraman kiye par unka shaasan sthaapit hokar naheen rah saka. san 1045 mein bijaintinon ne arabon ko bhaga kar jaurjiya mein ek isaai saamraajya ki sthaapana ki. terahaveen sadi ke madhya mein mangolon ke aakraman ki vajah se yeh saamraajya bikhr gaya. usmaani turkon aur uske baad roosiyon aur iraaniyon ke beech bhi is pradesh ka bantavaara hota raha.

bhoogol aur vaataavaran

kaukas mein bikhri hui anekon bhaashaaeain aur jaatiyaaain

uttari kaukas ke kai pradesh roos ke ang hain aur uttar ki or roos hi faila hua hai. pashchim ki or kaukas ki seemaaeain Krishna saagar aur Turkey ko chhooti hain. poorv mein kaispiyn saagar kaukas ki seema hai aur dakshin mein iski seema Iran se milti hai. kaukas ke ilaake ko kabhi Europe aur kabhi Asia mein maana jaata hai. iske nichle ilaakon ko kuchh log madhya poorv ka ek door-daraaj ang bhi samajhte hain. kaukas ka kshetr bahut had tak ek pahaadi ilaaka hai aur iski alag-alag vaadiyon aur bhaagon mein alag-alag sanskrutiyaaain, jaatiyaaain aur bhaashaaeain yugon se panap raheen hain aur ek-doosare se joojh rahi hain.

yahaaain 6,400 bhinn nasalon ke ped-paudhe aur 1,600 prakaar ke jaanavar aise hain jo isi ilaake mein paae jaate hain.[1] yahaaain paae jaane jaanvaron mein teinduaa, bhoora reechh, bhediya, jangali bhaisa, kaispiyn hangool (laal hirn), sunahara mahaashyen (cheel) aur odhni (hudid) kauva charchit hain. kaukas mein 1,000 alag naslon ki makadiyaaain bhi pai gayi hain.[2] vanon ke najriye se yahaaain ka paryaavaran mishrit hai - pahaadon par ped hain lekin vruksh rekha ke oopar ki jameen banjar aur pathareeli dikhti hai. kaukas ke pahaadon se ovacharaka naam ki ek bhedon ko charaane mein madad karne waali kutton ki nasal aati hai jo vishv bhar mein mashahoor hai.

log

kaukas ke kshetr mein lagbhag 50 bhinn-bhinn jaatiyaaain rahati hain. inki bhaashaaeain bhi bhinn hain aur yahaaain tak ki is ilaake mein teen aise bhaasha parivaar milte hain jo poore vishv mein keval kaukas mein hi hain. tulana ke liye dhyaan rakhiye ke hindi jis hind yooropi bhaasha parivaar mein hai vah ek akela hi dasiyon hajaaron meal ke rakbe mein faila hua hai - Bhaarat ke poorvi asam raajya se lekar andh mahaasaagar ke aaisalaind dweep tak. kaukas ki ulajhi anginat vaadiyon mein yeh alag-alag bhaashaaeain aur jaatiyaaain basi hui hain. yahaaain ki do bhaashaaeain hindi aur faarasi ki tarah hind-yooropi parivaar ki hain - aarmeeniyaai bhaasha aur auseti bhaasha. yahaaain ki ajeri bhaasha altaai bhaasha parivaar ki hai, jiski sadasya Turkey bhaasha bhi hai. dharm ke najriye se yahaaain ke log bhinn isaai aur islaami samudaayon ke sadasya hain. yahaaain ke musalmaan jyaadaatar sunni mat ke hain, haalaanki ajrabaijaan ke ilaake mein kuchh shiya bhi milte hain.

itihaas mein, kaukas ki kuchh jaatiyon ko rang ka bahut gora maana gaya hai aur angreji mein kabhi-kabhi shvetavarneeya jaatiyon ko "kaukasi" ya "kaukeshiyn" kaha jaata hai - haalaanki vaigyaanik drushti se kuchh ashvet jaatiyaaain (jaise ke bahut se bhaarateeya log) bhi ismein sammilit maane jaate hain. madhyakaal mein yahaaain ke bahut se stri-purush kuchh misr jaise arab kshetron mein jaakar bas gaye the (ya gulaam banaakar le jaae gaye the) aur aksar vahaaain par bhoori ya neeli aaainkhon vaale gore rang ke logon ko kaukasi logon ka vanshaj maana jaata hai. yeh goraapan khaasakar charakas logon ke baare mein mashahoor hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh