kathak

kathak nrutya

kathak Rajasthan aur uttar Bhaarat ki nrutya shaili hai. yeh bahut praacheen shaili hai kyonki mahaabhaarat mein bhi kathak ka varnan hai. madhya kaal mein iska sambandh Krishna katha aur nrutya se tha. musalmaanon ke kaal mein yeh darbaar mein bhi kiya jaane laga. vartamaan samay mein birjoo mahaaraaj iske bade vyaakhyaata rahe hain. hindi filmon mein adhikaansh nrutya isi shaili par aadhaarit hote hain.

kathak nrutya bhaarateeya daak-ticket mein

anukram

parichay

Bhaarat ke aath shaastreeya nrutyon mein se sabse puraana kathak nrutya jiska utpatti uttar Bhaarat mein hua. kathak ek sanskrut shabd hai jiska arth 'kahaani se vyutpann karna' hai. yeh nrutya kahaaniyon ko bolne ka saadhan hai. is nrutya ke teen pramukh gharaane hain. kachhava ke raajaputon ke raajasabha mein Jaipur gharaane ka, avadh ke navaab ke raajasabha mein Lucknow gharaane ka aur Varanasi ke sabha mein Varanasi gharaane ka janm hua. apne apni vishisht rachanaaon ke liye prasiddh ek kam prasiddh 'raayagadh gharaana' bhi hai.

itihaas

  • praacheen kaal se kathaakaas, nrutya ke kuchh tatvon ke saath mahaakaavyon aur pauraanik kathaaon se kahaaniyaan sunaaya karte the. kathaakaas ke parampara vanshaanugat the. yeh nrutya peedhi dar peedhi ubhaarane laga. teesari aur chauthi sadiyon ke saahityik sandarbh se hamein in kathaakaas ke baare mein pata chalta hai. mithila ke kamaleshvar ke pustakaalaya mein ऎse bahut saahityik sandarbh mile the.
  • terahavi sadi tak is nrutya mein nishchit shaili mein ubhar aaya tha. smarak aksharon aur bol ki bhi takaneeki suvidhaaon ka vikaas ho gayi. bhakti aandolan ke samay r. saleela kathak par ek jabaradast prabhaav pada. is tarah ka nrutya pradarshan kathaavachhakaas mandiron mein bhi karne lage. kathak raadha Krishna ki ke jeevan ke daastaan bayaan karne ke liye istemaal kiya jaata tha. shri Krishna ke vrundaavan ki pavitra bhoomi mein kaaranaame aur Krishna leela (Krishna ke bachapan) ke kisse ka lokapriya pradarshan kiya jaata tha. is samay nrutya aadhyaatmikta se dur hatkar lok tatvon se prabhaavit hone laga tha.
  • mugalon ke yug mein faarasi nartakiyon ke seedhe pair se nrutya ke kaaran aur bhi prasiddh ho gaya. pair par 150 takhane ki ghanti pahane kadamon ka upayog kar taal ke kaam ko dikhaate the. is avadhi ke dauraan chakkar bhi shuru kiya gaya. is nrutya mein lacheelaapan aa gaya. tabala aur pakhavaaj is nrutya mein purak hai.

iske baad samay ke saath is nrutya mein bahut saari mahatvapoorn hasti ke yogadaan se badlaav aae.

nrutya pradarshan

  • nrutt: vandana, devataaon ke mangalaacharan ke saath shuroo kiya jaata hai.
  • thaat, ek paaramparik pradarshan jahaan nartaki chakkar ke saath naatak kar sam par aakar ek mudra lekar khadi hoti hai.
  • aamad, arthaat 'pravesh' jo taalabaddh bol ka pehla parichay hota hai.
  • salaami, muslim shaili mein darshakon ke liye ek abhivaadan hota hai.
  • kavit, kavita ke arth ko nrutya mein pradarshan kiya jaata hai.
  • padn, ek nrutya jahaan keval tabala ka naheen balki pakhavaaj ka bhi upayog kiya jaata hai.
  • paramelu, ek bol ya rachana jahaan prakruti ka pradarshani hota hai.
  • gat, yahaan dainik jeevan ke sundar chaal-chalan dikhaaya jaata hai.
  • ladi, ek vishay par badlaav tatkaar ki rachana.
  • tihaai, ek rachana jahaan tatkaar teen baar doharaaya jaati hai aur sam par naatakeeya roop se samaapt ho jaati hai.
  • nrutya: bhaav ko maukhik tukade ki ek vishesh pradarshan shaili mein dikhaaya jaata hai. mugal darbaar mein yeh abhinay shaili ki utpatti hui. iski vajah se yeh mehfil ya darbaar ke liye adhik anukool hai taaki darshakon ko kalaakaar aur nartaki ke chehare ki abhivyakt ki hui baareekiyon ko dekh sake. k thumari gaaya jaata hai aur use chehare, abhinay aur haath aandolanon ke saath vyaakhya ki jaati hai.

gharaana

Lucknow gharaana

avadh ke navaab vaajid aali shaah ke darbaar mein iska janm hua. Lucknow shaili ke kathak nrutya mein sundarata, praakrutik santulan hoti hai. kalaatmak rachanaaeain, thumari aadi abhinay ke saath saath horis (shaabdik abhinay) aur aashu rachanaaeain jaise bhaavapoorn shaili bhi hoti hain. vartamaan mein, pandit birju mahaaraaj (achhan mahaaraajaji ke bete) is gharaane ke mukhya pratinidhi maane jaate hain.

Jaipur gharaana

Rajasthan ke kachhava raaja ke darbaar mein iska janm hua. shaktishaali footwork, kai chakkar aur vibhinn taal mein jatil rachanaaon ke roop mein nrutya ke adhik takaneeki pahalueain yahaaain mahatvapurn hai. yahaaain pakhavaaj ka bahut upayog hota hai.

banaaras gharaana

jaanakeeprasaad ne is gharaane ka pratishtha kiya tha. yahaaain natavari ka ananya upayog hota hai evam pakhavaaj aur tabala ka istemaal kam hota hai. yahaaain thaat aur tatakaar mein antar hota hai. nyoonatam chakkar daaen aur baaeain donon pakshon se liya jaata hai.

raayagadh gharaana

Chhattisgarh ke mahaaraaj chakradhaar Singh is gharaane ka pratishtha kiya tha. vibhinn prushthabhoomi ke alag shailiyon aur kalaakaaron ke sangam aur tabala rachanaaon se ek anootha maahaul banaaya gaya tha. pandit kaartik Ram, pandit firtu mahaaraaj, pandit kalyaanadaas mahaant, pandit baramaanalak is gharaane ke prasiddh nartak hain.


sandarbh

  • Kothari, Sunil (1989) Kathak: Indian Classical Dance Art, New Delhi.
  • Kippen, James and Bel, Andreine Lucknow Kathak Dance, Bansuri, Volume 13, 1996
  • Pt. Birju Maharaj (2002) Ang Kavya : Nomenclature for Hand Movements and Feet Positions in Kathak, New Delhi, Har-Anand, photographs, ISBN 81-241-0861-7.
  • Reginald Massey (1999) India's Kathak Dance - Past, Present, Future, New Delhi, Abhinav, ISBN 81-7017-374-4
  • Bharti Gupta (2004) Kathak Sagar, New Delhi, Radha Pub., ISBN 81-7487-343-0
  • Sushil Kumar Saxena (2006) Swinging Syllables Aesthetics of Kathak Dance, New Delhi, Hope India Publications, ISBN 81-7871-088-9

baahari