kathaboli

kathaboli ya slaing (slang) kisi bhaasha ya boli ke un anaupachaarik shabdon aur vaakyaanshon ko kehte hain jo bolne vaale ki bhaasha ya boli mein maanak to naheen maane jaate lekin bolachaal mein sveekaarya hote hain.[1] bhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ka maanana hai ki kathaboliyaaain har maanak bhaasha mein hamesha astitv mein rahi hain aur lagbhag sabhi log unka prayog karte hain.[2]aksar ek hi bhaasha samudaaya ke vibhinn vargon ki apni bhinn kathaboliyaaain hoti hain aur kisi vyakti dvaara kathaboli ka prayog usaka kisi vishesh varg mein sadasyata ka sanket hota hai.[3] udaaharan ke liye Delhi ke hindi bolne vaale pulisvaale ko kathaboli mein 'thulla' kehte hain jabki Mumbai mein use 'maama' kaha jaata hai. kabhi-kabhi kathaboli bahut lambe arase tak maanak bhaasha ka bhaag na hote hue bhi prachalit rah sakti hai, masalan samaaj ke kuchh vargon mein thaanedaar ya daroga ke liye 'thulla' shabd kathaboli ke roop mein Punjab kshetr ke kuchh samudaayon mein (jismein vartamaan Haryana bhi shaamil tha) san 1880 mein bhi prachalit paaya gaya tha.[4] kathaboliyaaain aksar preyokti ke roop mein bhi istemaal hoti hain jab kisi cheej ke liye maanak shabd sunane mein apriya ya apamaanajanak samjha jaae, masalan 'mootr' ko kai hindeebhaashi kathaboli mein 'soosoo' kehte hain.[5]

anukram

kathaboli ke lakshan

kabhi-kabhi yeh bataana kathin hota hai ki koi shabd maanak bhaasha ka bhaag hai ya kathaboli hai. bhaashaavaijnyaaanik Bethany dumaas aur jonethan laaitar ne kisi shabd ya vaakyaansh ke kathaboli hone ke kuchh chihnon ki soochi banaai ki agar koi shabd inmein se kam-se-kam do lakshan rakhata ho to shaayad kathaboli hai :[6]

  • use bolne se bolne waali ka saamaajik star ya gaurav kam hota hai, chaahe vah kuchh samay ke liye hi kyon na ho, masalan koi agar 'cigarette' ko 'sutta' bulaae, 'mootr' ko 'moot' bulaae, kisi ko kaam na mil paane par koi use 'vella' ya 'nithlla' bulaaye, ya kisi ki mrutyu hone par kahe ki marne wala 'tapak gaya' ya to swayam usaka sammaan kam hota hai.
  • us shabd ke prayog ka matlab hai ki bolne wala ya to us shabd dvaara darshaayi gayi cheej se parichit hai ya aise logon se jo us se parichit hain. masalan, bahut se hindeebhaashi kshetron mein gaadi ki marammat karne vaale mistri 'geeyar' (gear) ke daanton-vaale pahiye ko 'garaari' kehte hain aur agar koi is shabd ka prayog kare iska matlab hai ki vah us vastu se thoda-bahut parichit to hai hi.
  • samaaj ya sangathanon mein ooaincha darja rakhane vaale log usaka khuli baatcheet mein prayog karne se kataraate hain, masalan pulisvaale ko kisi bhi sangathan ka uchch padaadhikaari apne bhaashan mein 'thulla' naheen kahega kyonki usaki apni garima kam hogi.
  • vah shabd kisi jaane-maane maanak shabd ki jagah bola jaata hai (aksar logon ko apamaan, ghruna ya anya buri bhaavanaaon se bachaane ke liye), masalan kisi ko shauchaalaya prayog karna ho to vah kehta hai ki use 'number do' karna hai.

kathaboli kisi vyavasaayik kshetr mein boli jaane waali visheshagya boli (vargaboli ya jaargan) se alag hoti hai. vargaboli kisi vishesh peshe ki takaneeki shabdaavali hoti hai aur uske shabd oopar di gayi soochi mein se keval doosare maanadand ko poora karte hain, isliye kathaboli naheen kahe ja sakte haalaanki unka prayog peshe se baahar vaale ko samooh se alag rakhane ke liye kiya ja sakta hai.[6]

kathaboli ka prasaar aur utpatti

kuchh kathaboleeyon ka prayog keval ek vishesh kshetr mein hota hai, udahaaranat: feeji hindi mein 'kya' ki jagah kabhi-kabhi 'konchi' bola jaata hai, jo 'kaun cheej' ka sikuda roop hai. iske vipreet kathaboli sanjnyaaaeain kshetr ki bajaae aksar kisi vishesh up-sanskruti jaise ki sangeet ya video khelon se judi hoti hain. fir bhi kathaboli ki abhivyaktiyaaain apne vaastavik kshetron se baahar jaakar "kool" aur "jive" ki tarah aam taur par istemaal karne laayak ho sakti hain. jabki kuchh shabd antat: kathaboli ke roop mein apni sthiti ko kho dete hain (udaaharan ke liye "maub" shabd ke prayog ki shuruaat laitin bhaasha ke mobile valgas[7] ke sex shaurtaning ke roop mein hui), anya shabdon ke prayog ko jyaadaatar vaktaaon dvaara isi tarah maana jaata raha. jab kathaboli mool roop se iska istemaal karne vaale samooh ya up-sanskruti se pare nikal jaati hai to iske vaastavik upayogakarta samooh ki pehchaan ko kaayam rakhane ke liye iski jagah doosare, kam-maanyata praapt shabdon ka prayog karne lagte hain.

kathaboli ka ek upayog saamaajik nishedhon ko darakinaar karna hai kyonki mukhyadhaara ki bhaasha kuchh vaastaviktaaon ko taarotaaja karne se door bhaagane ki koshish karti hai. isi kaaran se kathaboli ki shabdaavaliyaaain kuchh khaas kshetr jaise ki hinsa, aparaadh, drags aur sex mein vishesh roop se samruddh hain. vaikalpik roop se kathaboli varnan ki gayi cheejon ke saath keval maatr apnepan se baahar nikal sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye kailiforniyaai sharaab ke kadaradaanon (aur anya samoohon) mein se kaibaranet sauvignaun ko aksar "cab sau" ke roop mein, kaardone ko "card" ke roop mein aur isi tarah se jaana jaata hai;[8] iska matlab yeh hai ki alag-alag sharaabon ka naamakaran iske anaavashyak prayog ko kam karta hai; saath hi yeh sharaab ke saath upayogakarta ke apnepan ko darshaane mein bhi madad karta hai.

yahaaain tak ki ek bhaasha vaale samudaaya mein bhi kathaboli aur jis had tak iska prayog kiya jaata hai, yeh sampoorn saamaajik, jaateeya, aarthik aur bhaugolik kshetr mein vyaapak roop se bhinn ho jaata hai. kathaboli kaafi samay ke baad prayog se baahar ho ja sakti hai; haalaanki kabhi-kabhi iska prayog adhik se adhik saamaanya ho jaata hai jab tak ki yeh kuchh kehne ka ek prabhaavashaali tareeka naheen ban jaata hai, jab aam taur par ise mukhyadhaara ki sveekaarya bhaasha ke roop mein samjha jaane lagta hai (jaise Spanish shabd kaibelo), haalaanki nishedhaatmak shabdon ke maamale mein aisi koi abhivyakti naheen bhi ho sakti hai jise mukhyadhaara ya sveekaarya bhaasha samjha jaata ho. kathaboli ke kai shabd anaupachaarik mukhyadhaara ke samvaad mein aur kabhi-kabhi aupachaarik samvaad mein pravesh kar jaate hain, haalaanki isse arth ya upayog mein ek badlaav bhi shaamil ho sakta hai.

kathaboli mein aksar maujooda shabdon ke liye aupanyaasik arthon ka srujan shaamil hota hai. un aupanyaasik arthon ka maanak arth se kaafi had tak alag ho jaana ek aam baat hai. is prakaar 'kool' aur 'haut' donon ka matlab "bahut achha," "prabhaavashaali," ya "sundar" ho sakta hai.

kathaboli ke shabdon ko aksar keval ek gut ya ant: samooh ke andar istemaal ke liye jaana jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye leet ("leetaspeek" ya "1337") mool roop se keval kuchh vishesh Internet up-sanskrutiyon jaise ki pataakhon aur online video gemars ke beech lokapriya the. haalaanki 1990 ke dashak ke dauraan aur 21veen sadi ki shuruaat mein leet ne Internet par adhik se adhik aam sthaan lena shuroo kar diya hai aur ab yeh Internet aadhaarit samvaad aur baatcheet ki bhaashaaon ke baahar bhi fail gaya hai.[9] kathaboli ke anya prakaaron mein shaamil hain mobile phone par istemaal hone waali SMS (SMS) ki bhaasha aur "chaitaspeek," (jaise, "elaoel (LOL)", jo "jor se hansane" ya "jordaar hainsi" ya aaraoefael (ROFL), "hansate-hansate jameen par lot jaana" ka ek vipreet arth hai), jiska istemaal Internet par tvarit samvaad bhejane ke liye vyaapak roop se kiya jaata hai.

kathaboli aur bolachaal ki bhaasha ke beech antar

kuchh bhaashaavid kathaboli ke prayog (kathaboli ke shabdon) aur khichdi bhaasha ke prayog ke beech ek antar rakhate hain. ghilaid jukaramain ke anusaar "kathaboli ka sandarbh ek vishisht saamaajik samooh, udaaharan ke liye kishoron, sainikon, kaidiyon aur choron dvaara istemaal kiye jaane vaale anaupachaarik (aur aksar kshanik) shaabdik saamagriyon se hai. kathaboli bolachaal ki bhaasha (boli) ki tarah naheen hai jo kisi avsar par vakta dvaara istemaal ki jaane waali ek anaupachaarik, aasaan boli hai; jismein shabdasankoch shaamil ho sakte hain jaise ki "tumhaara" aur anya bolachaal ke shabdon ka prayog. aam bolachaal ki bhaasha ka prayog anaupachaarik boli mein istemaal ki jaane waali ek shaabdik saamagri hai jabki vyaapak arthon mein "bolachaal ki bhaasha" shabdaavali mein kathaboli ka prayog shaamil ho sakta hai, iske sankeern arthon mein naheen. kathaboli ka prayog aksar bolachaal ki bhaasha mein kiya jaata hai lekin sabhi bolachaal ki bhaashaaeain kathaboli naheen hoti hain. kathaboli aur bolachaal ki bhaasha ke beech karne ka ek tareeka yeh poochhana hai ki kya jyaadaatar sthaaneeya vakta is shabd ko samajhte hain (aur iska prayog karte hain); agar ve aisa karte hain to yeh ek bolachaal ki bhaasha hai. haalaanki samasya yeh hai ki yeh ek alag, pramaatran pranaali naheen hai balki ek nirantarata ki pranaali hai. haalaanki jyaadaatar kathaboleeyaaain alpakaalik hoti hain aur aksar nae logon dvaara prayog ki jaati hain jinmein se kuchh gair-kathaboli waali bolachaal ki bhaasha ki sthiti haasil kar leti hain (jaise angareji mein sili - seeef. jarman selig 'bhaagyavaan', 'madhya uchch jarman selde (sæaalde) 'aanand, bhaagya' aur ek yahoodi mahila ka pehla naam, jelda) aur yahaaain tak ki ek aupachaarik sthiti (jaise angreji mein bheed)".[10]

shabd-vyutpatti

kathaboli ko kai bhaashaaon mein 'slaing' kaha jaata haibhaashaavaijnyaaanikon ko is shabd ki jadein abhi gyaat naheen hain. iska sambandh choron ki kubhaasha se hai aur iska sabse pehla praamaanik prayog (1756) "nimn ya gair-pratishthit logon ki shabdaavali se hai, haalaanki iske alaava iska mool spasht naheen hai. ek skaindineviyaai srot ka prastaav kiya gaya hai (udaaharan ke liye naarve ke 'sleinjanem' shabd se tulana karein), lekin 'tithi aur poorv sambandhon' ke aadhaar par ise Oxford angreji shabdakosh dvaara chhod diya gaya hai.[11][12]

inhein bhi dekhein

  • kainting kroo ki praacheen aur aadhunik shabdon ka ek naya shabdakosh.
  • rajistar
  • daayanar lingo

sandarbh

  1. An Introduction to English Slang: A Description of Its Morphology, Semantics and Sociology, Elisa Mattiello, Polimetrica s.a.s., 2008, ISBN 978-88-7699-113-4, ... Slang is defined both as a group-related variety and as an informal vocabulary of more general use ...
  2. American Slang 4e, Barbara Ann Kipfer, Robert L. Chapman, Page xi, HarperCollins, 2008, ISBN 978-0-06-117947-1, ... Slang is a universal mode of speaking, as old as humankind. Slang actually has its roots in the deepest parts of the mind, in the unconscious itself ...
  3. Talking Adolescence: Perspectives on Communication in the Teenage Years (Language As Social Action), Angie Williams, Crispin Thurlow, pp. 98, Peter Lang, 2005, ISBN 978-0-8204-7097-9, ... appropriate slang usage signals membership, the constant renewal of the lexicon serves a gate-keeping function and allows people to signal local knowledge and membership ...
  4. A detailed analysis of Abdul Ghafur's dictionary of the terms used by criminal tribes in the Panjab, Gottlieb William Leitner, Punjab Government Civil Secretariat Press, 1880, ... When we are told that 'Thulla' is 'Thanadar or Deputy Inspector,' we do not require the sentence 'Thulla aya' ...
  5. Without Fear Or Favour, Joginder Singh, Diamond Pocket Books (P) Ltd., 1998, ISBN 978-81-7182-994-1, ... 'Susu' in Punjabi and also in Hindi means urine ...
  6. a aa Is Slang a Word for Linguists?, Bethany K. Dumas and Jonathan Lighter (1978). American Speech 53 (5): 14–15
  7. online shabd-vyutpatti shabdakosh
  8. kroft, William (2000) eksplening laingvej change: N ivolyooshanari eproch. haarlo: laangamain: 75-6.
  9. A Leet Primer, Anthony Mitchell, Accessed 2007-11-05
  10. "laingvej kauntekt end leksikl enarichmeint in ijaraaili hibroo" mein prushth 21 dekhein, jukaramain, ghilaad dvaara likhit, haundamils: pailagrev maikamiln, 2003.
  11. [ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=slang Online Etymological Dictionary], Accessed 4 March 2010
  12. [ http://dictionary.oed.com/cgi/entry/50226993?query_type=word&queryword=slang Oxford English Dictionary], Accessed 4 March 2010

baahari links

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
slang ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.
  • online slaing dikshanari - ameriki aur angreji shabd, anya saankhyikeeya jaanakaariyaaain shaamil hain.
  • SlangSite.com - gair-spasht ameriki shabd.
  • urban dikshanari - upayogakartaaon ka yogadaan, jyaadaatar ameriki-shabd, vistrut lekin badi maatra mein spasht bhaasha ka prayog shaamil hai.