kathaasaritsaagar

kathaasaritsaagar ke ek sanskaran se 16veen shataabdi ka ek foliyo

kathaasaritsaagar, sanskrut katha saahitya ka shiromani granth hai. iski rachana Kashmir mein pandit somadev (bhatt) ne trigrt athva kulloo kaangada ke raaja ki putri, Kashmir ke raaja anant ki raani sooryamati ke manovinodaarth 1063 E aur 1082 E. ke madhya sanskrut mein ki.

somadev rachit kathaasaritsaagar gunaadhya ki bruhatkatha ka sabse behtar, bada aur saras roopaantaran hai. vaastavik arthon mein ise bhaarateeya katha parampara ka mahaakosh aur bhaarateeya kahaani evam jaateeya viraasat ka sabse achha pratinidhi maana ja sakta hai. mithk, itihaas yathaarth, faintesi, sachaai, indrajaal aadi ka anootha sangam in kathaaon mein hai. isa lekar madhyakaal tak ki bhaarateeya paranparaaon aur saanskrutik dhaaraaon ke is dastaavej mein taantrik anushthaanon, praaketar ghatnaaon tatha gandharv, kinnar, vidyaadhar aadi divya yoni ke praaniyon ke baare mein dheron kathaaen hain. saath hi manovijnyaaan satya, hamaari saamaajik-aarthik sthitiyon tatha dhaarmik aasthaaon ki chhavi aur vikramaaditya, baitaal pacheesi, sinhaasan batteesi, kissa tota maina aadi kai kathaachakron ka samaavesh bhi ismein hain.

kathaasaritsaagar mein 21,388 padm hain aur ise 124 tarangon mein baaainta gaya hai. iska ek doosra sanskaran bhi praapt hai jismein 18 lanbak hain. lanbak ka mool sanskrut roop 'lanbhak' tha. vivaah dvaara stri ki praapti "lanbh" kahalaati thi aur usi ki katha ke liye lanbhak shabd prayukt hota tha. iseeliye ratnaprabha lanbak, madanamanchuka lanbak, sooryaprabha lanbak aadi alag-alag kathaaon ke aadhaar par vibhinn sheershak diye gaye honge.

anukram

mool srot

kathaasaritsaagar gunaadhyakrut baddakaha (bruhatkatha) par aadhrut hai jo paishaachi bhaasha mein thi. somadev ne swayam kathaasaritsaagar ke aarambh mein kaha hai : main bruhatkatha ke saar ka sangrah kar raha hooain. baddaakaha ki rachana gunaadhaya ne saatavaahan raajaaon ke shaasanakaal mein ki thi jinka samay isa ki pratham dviteeya shati ke lagbhag maana jaata hai. Andhra-saatavaahanayug mein bhaarateeya vyaapaar unnati ke charam shikhar par tha. sthal tatha jal maargo par anek saarthavaah naukaaeain aur potasamooh din-raat chalte the. at: vyaapaariyon aur unke sahakarmiyon ke manoranjanaarth, desh-deshaantar-bhraman mein praapt anubhavon ke aadhaar par anek kathaaon ki rachana svaabhaavik thi. gunaadhaya ne saartho, naavikon aur saanyaatrik vyaapaariyon mein prachalit vividh kathaaon ko apni vilkshan pratibha se gunfit kar, baddakaha ke roop mein prastut kar diya tha.

mool baddakaha ab praapya naheen hai, parantu iske jo do roopaantar bane, unamein chaar ab tak praapt hain. inmein sabse puraana budhasvaameekrut bruhatkatha shlokasangrah hai. yeh sanskrut mein hai aur iska pranayan, ek mat se, lagbhag isa ki paaainchaveen shati mein tatha doosare mat se, aathaveen athva naveen shati mein hua. moolat: ismein 28 sarg tatha 4,539 shlok the kintu ab yeh khandash:praapt hai. iske karta budhasvaami ne bruhatkatha ko guptakaaleen svarnayug ki sanskruti ke anuroop dhaalane ka yatn kiya hai. bruhatkatha shlokasangrah ko viddhaan bruhatkatha ki nepaali vaachana maanate hain kintu iska keval hastalekh hi Nepal mein mila hai, anya koi nepaali prabhaav ismein dikhaai naheen padta.

bruhatkatha ke mool roop ka anumaan lagaane ke liye sanghadaasaganikrut vasudev hindi ka praapt hona mahatvapoorn ghatna hai. iski rachana bhi bruhatkatha shlokasangrah ke praaya: saath hi ya sambhavat: 100 varsh ke bheetar hui. vasudev hinddi ka aadhaar bhi yadyapi bruhatkatha hi hai, to bhi granth ke thaat aur uddeshya mein kaafi ferabadal kar diya gaya hai. bruhatkatha maatr laukik kaamakatha thi jismein vatsaraaj udayan ke putr naravaahanadatt ke vibhinn vivaahon ke aakhyaan the, lekin vasudev hindi mein jain dharm sambandhi anek prasang sammilit karke, use dharmakatha ka roop de diya gaya hai. itna hi naheen, iska naayak naravaahanadatt na hokar, andhak vrushni vansh ke prasiddh purush vasudev hain. "hindi" shabd ka arth 'paryatan' athva 'paribhraman' hai. vasudev hindi mein 29 lanbak hain aur mahaaraashtri praakrut bhaasha mein gadya shaili ke maadhyam se lagbhag 11,000 shlok pramaan ki saamagri mein vasudev ke 100 varsh ke paribhraman ka vruttaant hai jismein ve 29 vivaah karte hain. sab kuchh milaakar lagta hai ki vasudev hindi bruhatkatha ka paryaapt praacheen roopaantar hai.

vasudev hindi ke anantar kshemeindr krut bruhatkathaamanjari ka sthaan hai. kshemeindr kashmeeranaresh anant (1029-1064) ki sabha ke sabhaasad the. unka mool naam vyaasadaas tha. raamaayanamanjari, bhaaratamanjari, avadaanakalpalata, kalaavilaas, deshopadesh, narmamaala aur samayamaatruka naamak granthon mein kshemeindr ki pratibha ka utkrusht roop milta hai. kshemeindrakrut bruhatkathaamanjari mein 18 lanbak hain aur unke naam bhi somadev ke lanbakon se milte hain. ismein lagbhag 7,540 shlok hain aur lekhak ne shabdalaaghav ke maadhyam se sankshep mein suruchipoorn premakathaaeain prastut ki hain jinka moolaadhaar bruhatkatha ki kahaaniyaaain hi hain.

bruhadkatha ke vibhinn sanskaranon (roopon) mein sambhaavit sambandh

kathaasaritsaagar ke lanbak evam kathaanak

kathaasaritsaagar mein pehla lanbak kathaapeeth hai. gunaadhya kavi sambandhi kathaanak usaka vishay hai jismein paarvati ke shaap se Shiv ka gan pushpadant vararuchi kaatyaayan ke roop mein janm leta hai aur usaka bhaai maalyavaan gunaadhya ke naam se utpann hota hai. vararuchi vindhyaparvatamaala mein kaanabhooti naamak pishaach ko shankar dvaara paarvati ko sunaai gayi saat kathaaeain sunaata hai. gunaadhaya kaan bhoomi se ukt kathaaeain sunakar bruhatkatha ki rachana karta hai jiske chhah bhaag aag mein nasht ho jaate hain aur keval saatavaaain bhaag hi shesh bachata hai jiske aadhaar par kathaasaritsaagar ki rachana ki jaati hai.

doosra lanbak kathaamukh aur teesara laavanak hai jismein vatsaraaj udayan, usaki raani vaasavadatta, mantri yaugandharaayan, padmaavati aadi ki kathaaeain hain. chauthe lanbak mein naravaahanadatt ka janm hai. shesh chaturdaarika, madanamanchuka, ratnaprabha, sooryaprabha, alankaaravati, shaktiyshas, vela, shashaankavati, madiraavati, panch, mahaabhishek, suratamanjari, padmaavati tatha vishmasheel ityaadi lanbakon mein naravaahanadatt ke saahasik krutyon, yaatraaon, vivaahon aadi ki romaanchak kathaaeain hain jinmein adbhut kanyaaon aur unke saahasi premiyon, raajaaon tatha nagaron, raajatantr evam shadyantr, jaadoo aur tone, chhal evam kapat, hatya aur yuddh, raktapaayi vetaal, pishaach, yaksh aur pret, pashupakshiyon ki sachchi aur gadhi hui kahaaniyaaain evam bhikhmange, saadhu, piykkad, juaari, veshya, vit tatha kuttani aadi ki vividh kahaaniyaaain sankalit hain. itna hi naheen, vetaal panchavinshati ya betaal pachcheesi ki 25 kahaaniyaaain tatha panchatantr ki bhi anek kahaaniyaaain ismein mil jaati hain.

si.H. taani aur N.M. peinjar ne kathaasaritsaagar ka ek praamaanik angreji anuvaad (1924-28 E.) 10 bhaagon mein di oshan ov story naam se prakaashit karavaaya hai jismein anek paadatippaniyon tatha nibandhon ke maadhyam se bhaarateeya kathaaon evam kathaanak roodhiyon par bahumoolya saamagri jutaai gayi hai.

kathaasaritsaagar par vidvaanon ke vichaar

freinch vidvaan lokaat ne gunaadhaya evam bruhatkatha naamak apni pustak (1908 E mein prakaashit) mein likha hai :

apne do kaashmeeri roopaantaron (kathaasaritsaagar aur bruhatkathaamanjari) mein gunaadhaya ki mool bruhatkatha atyant bhrasht evam avyavasthit roop mein upalabdh hai. in granthon mein anek sthalon par mool granth ka sankshipt saaroddhaar kar diya gaya hai aur inmein mool granth ke kai ansh chhod bhi diye gaye hain evam kitne hi nae ansh prakshep roop mein jod diye gaye hain. is tarah mool granth ki vastu aur aayojana mein bedhange ferafaar ho gaye. falasvaroop, in kaashameeri krutiyon mein kai prakaar ki asangatiyaaain aa gayi aur jode hue anshon ke kaaran mool granth ka svaroop paryaapt bhrasht ho gaya. is sthiti mein budhasvaami ke granth mein vastu ki aayojana dvaara mool praacheen bruhatkatha ka sachcha chitr praapt hota hai. kintu khed hai ki yeh chitr poora naheen hai, kyonki budhasvaami ke granth ka keval chaturthaansh hi upalabdh hai. isliye keval usi ansh ka kaashmeeri krutiyon ke saath tulanaatmak Milan shakya hai.

kaha ja sakta hai ki somadev ne saral aur akrutrim rahate hue aakarshak evam sundar roop mein kathaasaritsaagar ke maadhyam se anek kathaaeain prastut ki hain jo nishchit hi bhaarateeya maneesha ka ek anyatam udaaharan hai.

kathaasaritsaagar ka aadhunik sandarbh mein punarlekhan

is kaalajayi rachana ka aakarshan aadhunik kathaakaaron ke liye bhi bahut prabal hai. hindi ke pratishthit kathaakaar Krishna baladev vaid ne kathaasaritsaagar ki kuchh prasiddh kathaaon ka apne dhang se punarlekhan karte hue is praacheen katha ko aadhunik jama pahanaane ki saahasik pahal bhi ki hai. 'badachalan' beeviyon ka dweep' aur 'bodhitsav ki beevi' unki isi tarah ki rachanaaen hai!

sambandhit kadiyaaain

baahari kadiyaaain

anya kathaaeain