kathaasaahitya (sanskrut)

sanskrut bhaasha mein nibddh kathaaon ka prachur saahitya hai jo saikadon varsho se manoranjan karta hua upadesh deta aa raha hai. kathaasaahitya se sambaddh granthon ke aalochan se spasht ho jaata hai ki sanskrut saahitya mein teenon prakaar ki kahaaniyon ke udaaharan milte hain jo vartamaan samay mein pashchimi deshon mein (1) feari tels (pariyon ki kahaaniyaaain), (2) febuls (jantukathaaeain) tatha (3) daayadektik tels (upadeshamayi kahaaniyaaain) kahi jaateen hain.

anukram

katha ka mool srot

kathaaon ke mool srot ki khoj ke liye vaidik sanhitaaon ka anusheelan aavashyak hai. rigved ki mantrasanhita mein anek rochak kahaaniyon ki soochana milti hai jinka paribruhan shaunak ne "bruhaddevata" mein, shadgurushishya ne "kaatyaayan sarvaanukramani" ki vedaarthadeepika mein, yaask ne nirukt mein, saayan ne apne vedabhaashyon mein tatha syaadvived ne "neeti manjari" (rachanaakaal 15veen shati ka ant) mein kiya hai. yaheen se ye kathaaeain puraanon ke maadhyam se hokar janta ke manoranjan tatha shikshan ke nimitt laukik sanskrut saahitya mein avateern hui.

pradhaan granth

kathaasaahitya ke pradhaan granthon ka sankshipt parichay neeche diya jaata hai :

panchatantr

mukhya lekh panchatantr

sanskrut ki kahaaniyon ka yahi sarvashreshth tatha praacheen sangrah hai. panyachatantr ka uddeshya aarambh se hi rochak kathaaon ke dvaara neeti tatha sadaachaar ka shikshan raha hai. dakshin mein mahilaaropya naamak nagar mein amarakeerti raaja ke murkh putron ko neeti tatha vyavahaar ki shiksha dene ke liye vishnu shrma ne is grantharatn ka pranayan kiya. iske anek sanskaran bhinn-bhinn shataabdiyon mein tatha Bhaarat ke bhinn-bhinn praanton mein hote rahe hain jinka saangopaang adhyayan kar Germany ke prasiddh sanskrutajnya daaain. hartel ne iske vikaas ki chaar shreniyaaain batalaai hain. panchatantr ka sabse praacheen roop "tantraakhyaayika" mein surakshit hai jiska mool sthaan Kashmir hai. panchatantr ke vibhinn chaar sanskaran aaj upalabdh hain–

(1) panchatantr ka pahalavi (puraani faarasi) anuvaad,
(2) gunaadhya ki bruhatkatha mein antarnivisht roop,
(3) dakshini panchatantr, nepaali panchatantr tatha hitopadesh ke dvaara nirdisht sanskaran,
(4) vartamaan parivrdhit jain sanskaran.

"tantraakhyaayika" ya "tantraakhyaan" mein kathaaon ki rooparekha bahut hi parimit hai. neetimya padyon ka sankalan bahut hi sankshipt tatha auchityapoorn hai. pahalavi anuvaad ka yahi mool roop hai jiski rachana chaturth shati mein ki gayi thi. aajkal upalabdh panchatantr poornabhadr naamak jain vidvaan ke paribrunhan aur parivrdhan ka parint fal hai. inhonne 1255 vikrami (1199 E.) mein mool granth ka aamool sanshodhan kiya tatha neeti ke padyon ka samaavesh kar ise bhara poora banaaya. panchatantr se praacheenatar kahaaniyon ka sangrah "bauddh jaatakon" mein upalabdh hota hai jo sankhya mein 550 hain tatha jinmein Bhagwan buddh ke praacheen janmon ki kathaaeain di hain aur jo moolat: paali bhaasha mein hain.

in kahaaniyon ka roopagat vaishishtaya yeh hai ki ek badi kahaani ke bheetar chhoti kahaaniyaaain ek ke bheetar ek usi roop mein gooainthi gayi hain jis prakaar cheen desh ke box mein bade box ke bheetar chhote box ek ke bheetar ek banaae jaate hain. panchatantr ke paaainchon prakaranon mein paaainch hi mukhya kahaaniyaaain hain jinke bheetar aavaantar kahaaniyaaain prasang ke anusaar nivisht ki gayi hain.

hitopadesh

sanskrut ke kathaasaahitya mein atyant lokapriya granth hai. rochak hone ke atirikt bhaasha ki drushti se itna saral tatha subodh hai ki Bhaarat mein tatha pashchimi deshon mein sanskrut bhaasha seekhane ke liye yeh pehli pustak hai. iske rachayita Narayan pandit hai jinke aashrayadaata Bengal ke raaja dhavalachandr the. rachana ka kaal 14veen shati hai.

bruhatkatha

paishaachi bhaasha mein nibddh praacheen granth hai jiski kahaaniyon ki jaankaari hamein iske sanskrut anuvaadon se hoti hai.

dekhiye kathaasaritsaagar.

vetaal panchavinshati (baitaalapacheesi)

is kathaachakr ka sambandh raaja vikramaaditya ke alaukik tatha shauryamandit jeevan se hai. kathaasaritsaagar tatha bruhatkathaamanjari mein ye kahaaniyaaain praaya: ek roop mein upalabdh hoti hain. iske anek lokapriya sanskaran gadya-padya mein milte hain. shivdaasarachit "panchavinshati" mein kathaaeain adhiktar gadya mein varnit hain, parantu beech-beech mein use shlokon ke uddharanon se paripusht kiya gaya hai. janbhaladatt ka sanskaran bilkul gadyaatmak hai. kahaaniyon mein sthal-sthal par antar hone par bhi yeh sanskaran Kashmiri sanskaran se vishesh milta hai. ye kahaaniyaaain manoranjak, jnyaaanavardhak aur kautoohalajanak hain jinmein raaja vikramaaditya ki alokasaamaanya chaaturi tatha veerata ka varnan bade sundar dhang se kiya gaya hai.

sinhaasan dvaatrinshika (sinhaasanabateesi)

sinhaasan dvaatrinshika bhi raaja vikram ke charit se sambaddh hai aur iseeliye iska naam "vikramacharit" bhi hai. jain muni kshemakar ka sanskaran uttari vaachanika ka pratinidhi maana jaata hai jiske oopar bangaali sanskaran aashrit hai. dakshin Bhaarat mein ye hi kahaaniyaaain "vikramacharit" naam se prakhyaat hain. dau॰ hartel ki drushti mein jain vivran hi mool granth ke sameep aata hai, parantu dau॰aedgartan ke vichaar se dakshini vaachanika hi maulik tatha praacheenatar hai. donon sanskaran 13veen shati se praacheen naheen ho sakte, kyonki donon mein hemaadri (13shatak) ke "daanakhand" ka ullekh milta hai.

shukasaptati

shukasaptati ki kahaaniyaaain kam rochak naheen hain jinmein koi sugga apne gruhasvaami ke paradesh chale jaane par parapurashon ke aakarshanajaal se apni svaamini ko bachaata hai. iski vistrut vaachanika ke lekhak koi chintaamani bhatt hain jinka samay 12 shatak se poorvavarti hona chaahiye, kyonki unhonne is granth mein poornabhadr ke dvaara sanskrut "panchatantr" ka sthaan-sthaan par upayog kiya hai.

anya kathaagranth

in kathaaon ke atirikt anek jain tatha bauddh kahaaniyon ke sangrah upalabdh hain. jain log kahaaniyon ki rachana mein bade patu the aur is saahityik kaavyaroop ko unhonne apne dharmaprachaar ka samarth saadhan banaaya tha. bharatak dvaatrinshika tatha kathaaratnaakaar ki kahaaniyaaain isi koti ki hain. "jain prabandhi" mein bhi lokapriya kahaaniyaaain khoji ja sakti hain. bauddh saahitya mein kathaasaahitya ka ek vishaal sangrah hai jo avadaanon ke naam se prakhyaat hai. madhyayug mein bhi kahaaniyon ki rachana hoti rahi hai. aisi kahaaniyon ka madhyayugeen sangrah maithilkokil vidyaapati (14veen shati) ke manoram granth purushapareeksha mein upalabdh hota hai. is prakaar sanskrut ka katha saahitya naana granthon mein apna vaibhav bikher raha hai tatha apne prabhaav se vishv ke shisht saahitya ko apna anvarat rini bana raha hai.

bhaarateeya kahaaniyon ki videshayaatra

sanskrut ka kathaasaahitya aur visheshat: panchatantr, vishvasaahitya ko Bhaarat ki den hai. ye kahaaniyaaain Bhaarat ke nivaasiyon ka hi shikshan aur manoranjan naheen karateen, pratyut vishv ke sabhya saahitya ka ang bankar naana deshon ke nivaasiyon ka bhi manoranjan karti hain. bhaarateeya katha ki videshayaatra ki yeh raamakahaani badi hi rochak tatha shikshaaprad hai. faaras (iraan) ke prasiddh samraat khusaron nausheravaaain (531i.-579 E.) ke raajyakaal mein panchatantr ki kahaaniyaaain pahalavi bhaasha (puraani) mein prathamat: 533 E. mein anoodit ki gayi. anuvaadak ka naam tha hakeem burajoi. pratham tantr ke shrugaalabandhuon – karatak aur damanak – ke naam par yeh anuvaad "kalelaah-va-dimnaah" ke naam se prasiddh hua. 560 E. mein "bud" naamak ek isaai sant ne is pahalavi anuvaad ko Syriai bhaasha mein roopaantarit kiya. 750 E. mein Syriai se arabi anuvaad karne ka shreya praapt hai abdulla-bin-alamukaffa ko, jo swayam to musalmaan tha, parantu jiska pita paarasi tha. is anuvaad ke bhi anek anuvaad laitin, greek, Spanish, itaaleeya, jarman tatha angreji bhaashaaon mein bhinn-bhinn shataabdiyon mein hote rahe aur is prakaar ye kahaaniyaaain 16veen shati se poorv hi Europe ke vibhinn deshon mein ghar kar gayi. un deshon ke nivaasiyaun ko inke bhaarateeya hone ka tanik bhi bhaan naheen tha. ye "vidaapai" ki kahaaniyon ke naam se sarvatr vikhyaat ho gayi. yoonaan ke prakhyaat kathaasangrah isap febul tatha arab ki manoranjak kahaaniyon (aliflaila) ki aadhaarbhoot ye hi bhaarateeya kathaaeain hain. Europe tatha arab ke nivaasi inhein apne saahitya ki nidhi maanate the. iska vichitr parinaam yeh hua ki Bhagwan buddh isaai santon ki shreni mein viraajane lage. Europe ke madhyayug ki ek vikhyaat kahaani thi – baralaam aur jojef ki kahaani, jismein jojef ne apne upadeshon se baralaam naamak raaja ko isaai mat mein Dixit kar liya. ismein jojef naam "budasaf" ke roop mein "bodhistv" ka hi apabhransh hai aur jojef swayam buddh hi hai. yeh kam aashcharya ki baat naheen hai ki inheen kahaaniyon ki krupa se buddh apne se virodhi dharm ke maanya sant ke roop mein isaai dharm mein gruheet hain.

yeh to hui madhyayug mein bhaarateeya kathaaon ki pashchimi desh ki yaatra. isse bhi pehle sudoor praacheen kaal mein bhi hibroo (yahoodi) logon ko in kahaaniyon ka parichay mil chuka tha. "sulemaan ka nyaaya" (saalomans jajameint) ke naam se prasiddh kahaani ka mool bhi bhaarateeya hai. baaibil ki anek kathaaeain moolat: bhaarateeya hain. prasiddh yoonaani samraat sikandar ke vishay ki vah lokapriya kahaani bhi bhaarateeya hi hai jismein usaki maata ke teevr putrashok ko kam karne ke liye kisi tatvavetta ne aise ghar se sarason ki khoj mein niraash hone par hi us vruddha ko deh ki nashvarata ki vyaavahaarik shiksha mili thi. yeh katha bhi Bhagwan buddh dvaara "kisa gotami" (krusha gautami) ko diye gaye upadesh ko pratidhvanit karti hai. itna hi naheen, chhathi shati se poorv hi ye bhaarateeya kathaaeain cheen desh ke do atyant pracheen vishvakoshon mein anoodit ki gayi upalabdh hoti hain. falat: samast sabhya sansaar ke log praacheen tatha madhyayug mein in bhaarateeya kahaaniyon se aanand uthaate the aur apne jeevan ko sukhamaya banaate the. madhyayug ka ek prakhyaat katha-chakr tha jo Italy desh ke kavi petraark ke vishvavishrut katha granth "dekaameraaain" mein aaj bhi surakshit hai. aalochakon se yeh baat paroksh naheen hai ki sheksapiyr ke anek naatakon ki kathaavastu isi rochak granth se gruheet hai. dekaameraaain ki adhikaansh kahaaniyaaain bhaaratavarsh ki kahaaniyon ka kinchit parivrdhit tatha parivrtit roop hain. "shakusaptati" ki kahaaniyaaain bhi faaras mein bahut hi prakhyaat aur lokapriya theen. 1329-30 mein haafij aur saadi ke samakaaleen ek lekhak ne "tooteenaama" ke naam se faarasi mein iska anuvaad prastut kiya jiska Turkey bhaasha mein anuvaad sau varsh ke bheetar hi kiya gaya. 18veen shati mein kaadiri naamak lekhak ne iska naya anuvaad taiyaar kiya. is faarasi anuvaad ki bahut si kahaaniyaaain Europe mein fail gayi. Germany ke prasiddh praachyavid dau॰ thiodor benafi ne bade adhyavasaaya se bhaarateeya kahaaniyon ki is yaatra ka saangopaang vivran prastut kiya hai. falat: vishvasaahitya ko bhaaratavarsh ki denon mein kathaaon ki den badi hi vyaapak, rochak tatha lokapriya hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain