kasheruki praani

kasheruki jantu
jeevaashm kaal: 525–0 million varsh
PreЄ
Є
O
S
D
C
P
T
J
K
Pg
N
Ordovician - Recent
Fossilized skeleton of Diplodocus, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates
Fossilized skeleton of Diplodocus, showing an extreme example of the backbone that characterizes the vertebrates
vaigyaanik vargeekaran
adhijgat: Eukarya
jagat: Animalia
sangh: Chordata
(unranked) Craniata
upasangh: Vertebrata
Cuvier, 1812
Groups
  • Fishes
    • Tetrapodes
kasheruki jantu

kasheruki ya kasherukadandi (vartebret, Vertebrate) praanisaamraajya ke kauradeta (Chordata) samudaaya ka sabse bada upasamudaaya hai. jiske sadasyon mein reedh ki haddiyaaain (backbones) ya prushthavansh (spinal comumns) vidyamaan rahate hain. is samudaaya mein is samay lagbhag 58,000 prajaatiyaaain varnit hain. ismein bina jabade waali machhaliyaan, shaark, re, ubhayachar, sareesrup, stanaposhi tatha chidiyaaain shaamil hain. gyaat jantuon mein lagbhag 5% kasherooki hain aur shesh akesherooki.

anukram

pramukh visheshataaeain

nimnalikhit gunonvaale sabhi kauradeta ismein parignit hote hain :

1. jo karoti (skal, Skull) vaale hote hain.

2. jinke vayask mein notokaurd ka sthaan kasherukaaeain le leti hain.

3. jinke mastik ki rachana jatil hoti hai.

4. jinka hrudaya teen ya chaar khandon mein bainta rahata hai.

5. jinmein shaakhaangon ke do jode pakhon (fin, ktd) ya haath-pair ke roop mein hote hain.

6. jinke shareer mein laal raktakan paae jaate hain.

prakaar

kasherukadandi do prakaar ke hain : aignetha (Agnatha) tatha gnethostometa (Gnathostomata)

aignetha

aignetha ki ek hi shreni hai–chakramukhi (saaiklostometa, Cyclostomata). chakramukhi praani jabade rahit aur chooshak mukh (saktoriyl maauth, suctorial mouth) vaale hote hain jismein kaadar daaaint lage rahate hain. ye jalachar hote hain. inki tvacha chikni aur shalkarahit hoti hai. pankh ayugm hote hain. chhah le lekar 14 jodi tak galafad hote hain. kankaal kaasthijaatik (calcified) hota hai. lainpri (Lamprey) tatha haig (Hag) machhaliyaaain iske udaaharan hain.

gnethostometa

gnethostometa kasherukadandi jabadevaale praani hain. ye paaainch vargon mein vibhkt hain, jinka parichay nimnokt hain :

matsya (Pisces)

is shreni mein sabhi prakaar ki machhaliyaaain aati hain. machhaliyaaain jalavaasi jeev hain aur galafadon dvaara shvasan karti hain.

galafad jeevan paryant upasthit rahate hain. saadhaaranataya tvacha shalkon se dhaki rahati hai. prachalan ke liye ans tatha shroni pakh (pektoral aind pelvik fins, Pectoral and pelvic fins) aur ayugm prushtheeya (dorsal), audarik tatha puchh pankh hote hain. pankhon mein kankaaleeya pankharashmiyaaain hoti hain. inke atirikt adhiktar machhaliyon mein vaatavasti (air blaidar, air bladder) upasthit hoti hai. hrudaya ek alind tatha ek nilya, do khandon mein bainta rahata hai. is shreni ke udaaharan shaark, katala, rohoo, mrugal, teingada, singhi tatha kevai ityaadi machhaliyaaain hain.

ubhayachar (ainfeebiya, Amphibia)

ye machhali tatha urag donon shreniyon ke beech ke praani hain, jo jal tatha sthal donon hi par rah sakte hain. inki tvacha praaya: komal, nam tatha chikni hoti hai aur usapar kisi prakaar ke shalk naheen hote. inmein adhikaansh apni beingachi (tadpole) avastha mein galafadon dvaara or vayask avastha mein fuffuson dvaara shvasan karte hain, kintu kuchh jeevan paryant galafadon dvaara hi shvasan karte hain. shaakhaang kabhi pakh ke roop mein naheen hote. shaakhaang jab vartamaan hote hain to unki rachana panchaangulik hoti hai jo chalne firne tatha tairane ke liye hote hain tatha unamein kisi prakaar ke naakhoon naheen hote. hrudaya mein do alind aur ek nilya hota hain. inke jeevan mein praaya: roopaantaran hota rahata hai. is shreni ke udaaharan sailaamaindar (Salamander), daadur, medhak tatha siseeliyn hain.

urag (repteeliya, Reptilia)

is shreni ke praaniyon ke pair itne chhote hote hain ki chalte samay aisa prateet hota hai maano ye pet ke bal reing rahe hon. urag sheetarakteeya kasherukadandi hain. inki tvacha shrrungi (horny) shalkon se dhaki rahati hai aur kuchh mein in shalkon ke sthaan par shrrungi ya asthi pattikaaeain hoti hain. hrudaya mein do alind aur apoorn roop se, daaeain tatha baaeain mein vibhaajit, nilya hota hai, kintu magaramachh mein nilya poorn roop se do khandon mein bainta rahata hai. is shreni mein chhipkaliyaaain, girgit, saaainp, kachhue, magaramachh tatha nakr ityaadi aate hain.

pakshi (eveej Aves)

is shreni mein ve jantu sammilit hain jinhein ham pakshi kehte hain. ye ushnarakteeya do paironvaale jantu hote hain. inka shareer paron se dhainka rahata hai. agrashaakhaang dainon mein parivrtit hote hain. oordhv tatha adhohanvikaaeain milkar chonch banaati hain, jo ek shrrungi chhaad (Horny sheath) se dhaki rahati hai. inhein daaaint naheen hote. hrudaya poorn roop se chatushkoshtheeya (do alind tatha do vilay) hota hai. is shreni ke antargat sabhi prakaar ki chidiyaaain, jaise kauve, gauraiva, cheel, baaj, murga, battakh, shuturamurg, neelakanth, koyal, mor, bulabul ityaadi aate hain.

stanadhaari (maimeliya, Mammalia)

is shreni mein ve kasherukadandi jantu aate hain jinki maada stanonvaali hoti hain. bachchon ke poshan ke liye stanon se doodh sraavit hota hai. nar mein vrushan andakosh mein sthit hote hain. inke atirikt stanadhaariyon ke shareer par baal paae jaate hain; shareer ke madhya anuprasth disha mein faila hua ek mahaapat (daayafऱaaam, diaphragm) hrudaya chatushkotheeya tatha kaan ka baahari chhidr karnashushkuli se dhaka hota hai. ye ushnarakteeya tatha vaayushvasaneeya praani hain. inke laal raktakanon mein keindrak ka abhaav hota hai. saadhaaranataya bachche poorn viksit avastha mein hi maada ke shareer se baahar nikalte hain. is shreni ke udaaharan vanachoncha, cheentokhor, kangaaroo, bakari, bhed, gaaya, bhains, kuta, siyaar, bhaaloo, sher, haathi, hvel, kharagosh, gilhari, bandar tatha manushya ityaadi hain.

inhein bhi dekhein