karkat rog

Cancer
vargeekaran evam baahya saadhan
Tumor Mesothelioma2 legend.jpg
A coronal CT scan showing malignant cancer of the lung sac.
Legend: → tumor ←, ★ central pleural effusion, 1&3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7&8 kidneys, 9 liver.
dijeej-deebi 28843
medalaain plas 001289
M.iesaech D009369

karkat (chikitsakeeya pad: durdam navavruddhi) rogon ka ek varg hai jismein koshikaaon ka ek samooh aniyantrit vruddhi (saamaanya seema se adhik vibhaajan), rog aakraman (aas-paas ke utakon ka vinaash aur un par aakraman) aur kabhi kabhi apararoopaantaran athva metaastaisis (lasika ya rakt ke maadhyam se shareer ke anya bhaagon mein fail jaata hai) pradarshit karta hai. karkat ke ye teen durdam lakshan ise saumya gaaainth (tyoomar ya aburd) se vibhedit karte hain, jo swayam seemit hain, aakraamak naheen hain ya apararoopaantaran prardashit naheen karte hain. adhikaansh karkat ek gaaainth ya aburd (tyoomar) banaate hain, lekin kuchh, jaise rakt karkat (shvetaraktata) gaaainth naheen banaata hai. chikitsa ki vah shaakha jo karkat ke adhyayan, nidaan, upachaar aur rokathaam se sambandhit hai, onkolauji ya arbudavijnyaaan kahalaati hai.

karkat sabhi umr ke logon ko, yahaaain tak ki bhroon ko bhi prabhaavit kar sakta hai, lekin adhikaansh kismon ka jokhim umr ke saath badhta hai.[1] karkat mein se 13% ka kaaran hai.[2] American Cancer society ke anusaar, 2007 ke dauraan pure vishv mein 76 lakh logon ki mrutyu karkat ke kaaran hui.[3] karkat sabhi jaanvaron ko prabhaavit kar sakta hai.

lagbhag sabhi karkat roopaantarit koshikaaon ke aanuvanshik padaarth mein asaamaanyataaon ke kaaran hote hain.[4] ye asaamaanyataaen kaarsinojan ya ka karkatajan (karkat paida karne vaale kaarak) ke kaaran ho sakti hain jaise tambaakoo dhoomrapaan, vikirn, rasaayan, ya sankraamak kaarak. karkat ko utpann karne waali anya aanuvanshik asaamaanyataaen kabhi kabhi DNA karkat (DNA) pratikruti mein truti ke kaaran ho sakti hain, ya aanuvanshik roop se praapt ho sakti hain aur is prakaar se janm se hi sabhi koshikaaon mein upasthit hoti hain.

karkat ki aanuvanshikta saamaanyataya kaarsinojan aur poshak ke jeenom ke beech jatil antarkriya se prabhaavit hoti hai. karkat rogajanan ki aanuvanshiki ke nae pahaloo jaise DNA (DNA) methilikran aur micro RNA (aaraenae), ka mahattv teji se badh raha hai.

karkat mein pai jaane waali aanuvanshik asaamaanyataaen aamtaur par jeen ke do saamaanya vargon ko prabhaavit karti hain. karkat ko badhaava dene vaale arbudajeen praaroopik roop se karkat ki koshikaaon mein sakriya hote hain, un koshikaaon ko nae gun de dete hain, jaise saamaanya se adhik vruddhi aur vibhaajan, kramaadeshit koshika mrutyu se suraksha, saamaanya utak seemaaon ka abhaav aur vividh ootak vaataavaran mein sthaapit hone ki kshamata.

iske baad gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen karkat ki koshikaaon mein nishkriya ho jaate hain, jiske parinaamasvaroop un koshikaaon ki saamaanya kriyaaon mein kami aa jaati hai, jaise sahi DNA (DNA) pratikruti, koshika chakr par niyantran, ootakon ke bheetar abhivinyaas aur aasanjan aur pratirksha tantr ki surakshaatmak koshikaaon ke saath paarasparik kriya.

aam taur par iske nidaan ke liye ek rog nidaan vigyaani ko ek utak baayopsi namoone ka ootak vaigyaanik pareekshan karna padta hai, yadyapi durdamata ke praarambhik sanket vikirn lekhi chitran asamaanyata ke lakshan ho sakte hain.

adhikaansh karkat rogon ka ilaaj kiya ja sakta hai, kuchh ko theek bhi kiya ja sakta hai, yeh karkat ke vishesh prakaar, sthiti aur avastha par nirbhar karta hai. ek baar nidaan ho jaane par, karkat ka upachaar shalya chikitsa, rasaayan chikitsa aur vikirn chikitsa ke sanyojan ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. anusandhaan ke vikaas ke saath, karkat ki vibhinn kismon ke liye upachaar aur adhik vishisht ho rahe hain.lakshit therepi davaaon ke vikaas mein mahatvapoorn pragati hui hai jo vishisht gaaainth mein jaanch yogya aanavik asaamaanyataaon par vishesh roop se kaarya karti hain aur saamaanya koshikaaon mein kshati ko kam karti hain. karkat ke rogiyon ka poorv nidaan karkat ke prakaar se bahut adhik prabhaavit hota hai, saath hi rog ki avastha aur seema ka bhi is par prabhaav padta hai. iske alaava, autak vaigyaanik (histolojik) shreneekaran aur vishisht aanavik chihnak ki upasthiti bhi rog ke poorv nidaan mein tatha vyaktigat upachaar ke nirdhaaran mein sahaayak ho sakti hai.

anukram

shabdakosh

nimnalikhit nikat sambandhit shabdon ka upayog asaamaanya vruddhi ko naamit karne ke liye kiya ja sakta hai:

  • gaaainth ya aburd: moolat:, iska arth hai koi bhi asaamaanya soojan, maans ka pind ya tukadau॰

vartamaan angreji mein, yadyapi, shabd tyoomar, niyoplaasm, vishesh roop se thos niyoplaasm ka paryaaya ban gaya hai. dhyaan dein ki kuchh niyoplaasm, jaise rakt karkat (shvetaraktata), gaaainth (tyoomar) ka nirmaan naheen karte hain.

  • niyoplaasm : ek vaigyaanik shabd jo aanuvanshik roop se parivrtit koshikaaon ke asaamaanya prachurodabhavan ka varnan karta hai. niyoplaasm durdam ya saumya ho sakta hai.
    • durdam niyoplaasm ya durdam gaaainth : karkat ka paryaaya hai.
    • saumya niyoplaasm ya saumya gaaainth : ek gaaainth (thos niyoplaasm) jiski vruddhi khud hi ruk jaati hai, yeh anya utakon par aakraman naheen karti hai aur metaastesis prardashit naheen karti hai.
  • aakraamak ya sankraamak gaaainth ka karkat ka ek anya paryaaya hai. is naam ka upayog aas-paas ke utakon ke sankraman ke liye kiya jaata hai.
  • poorv-durdamata, poorv karkat ya asankraamak gaaainth: ek niyaaplaasm jo sankraamak naheen hai lekin upachaar naheen kiye jaane par karkataka roop le sakti hain (sankraamak ho sakti hain).ye ghaav karkataki kshamata ke badhne ke aarohi kram mein hain, ye hain etaaipiya, displaajiya aur kaarsinoma svasthaani .

ek karkataka varnan karne ke liye nimn shabdon ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai.

  • screening : svasth vyaktiyon mein kiya jaane wala ek pareekshan jo gaaainth ke utpann hone se pehle hi unki jaanch ke liye kiya jaata hai. ek memograam ek screening pareekshan hai.
  • nidaan : ek gaanth ki karkat prakruti ki pushti.ismein saamaanyataya ek baayopsi ya shalya chikitsa ke dvaara gaaainth ko hataaya jaata hai, aisa ek rogavijnyaaani ke pareekshan ke baad kiya jaata hai.
  • shalya vichhedan : ek tyoomar ko ek shalya chikitsak ke dvaara hataaya jaana.
    • shalya haashiye : ek shalya chikitsak ke dvaara hataaye gaye utak ke kinaaron ka ek rogavijnyaaani ke dvaara moolyaankan jisse yeh nirdhaarit kiya jaata hai ki gaaainth ko poori tarah se hata diya gaya hai ("nakaaraatmak haashiye") ya gaaainth bach gayi hai ("sakaaraatmak haashiye").
  • shreni : ek rogavijnyaaani ke dvaara sthaapit ki gayi sankhya (saamaanyataya 3 ke paimaane par) jo aas paas ke saumya utak ki gaaainth ke saath samaanata ke ansh ka varnan karne ke liye di jaati hai.
  • avastha : ek sankhya (saamaanyataya 4 ke paimaane par) jo ek karkat vigyaani gaaainth ke dvaara shareer par aakraman ke ansh ka varnan karne ke liye deta hai.
  • punaraavrutti : nai gaaainth jo shalya chikitsa ke baad pehle waali gaaainth ke sthaan par hi utpann hoti hai.
  • metaastesis : nayi gaaainth jo ki mool gaaainth se door utpann hoti hai.
  • roopaantaran : avadhaarana jiske anusaar samay ke saath ek kam shreni ki gaaainth, ek uchch shreni ki gaaainth mein roopaantarit ho jaati hai. udaaharan: richter ka roopaantaran.
  • chemotherapy : davaaon se ilaaj.
  • vikirn chikitsa : vikirn se upachaar.
  • sahayogi chikitsa : upachaar, ya to keemotherapi ya vikirn chikitsa, jo shalya chikitsa ke baad shesh karkat ki koshikaaon ko maarane ke liye diya jaata hai.
  • poorvaanumaan : therepi ke baad upachaar ki sanbhaavanaaise saamaanyataya nidaan ke baad paaainch saal jeevit rahane ki sambhaavana ke roop mein vyakt kiya jaata hai. vaikalpik roop se, ise varshon ki sankhya ke roop mein vyakt kiya ja sakta hai jab 50% rogi abhi bhi jeevit hon.donon hi sankhyaaeain sainkadon samaan rogiyon se sanchit kiye gaye aankadon se utpann hui vyutpann hui hain jo kapalan-mayor vakr banaati hain .

vargeekaran

stan ke ek namoone mein ek bada aakraamak dakatal kaarsinoma (vaahiniprak karkat)

karkat ko koshika ke prakaar ke aadhaar par vargeekrut kiya jaata hai jo gaaainth se samaanata rakhati hai, iseeliye, utak ko gaaainth se utpann maana ja sakta hai. ye kramash: utak vigyaan aur sthaan hain. saamaanya shreni ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hain:

  • kaarsinoma : upakala koshikaaon se vyutpann durdam gaaainth.yeh samooh sabse saamaanya kainsaron ko abhivyakt karta hai, jismein stan, prostet, fefade aur badi aant ke karkat ke saamaanya roop shaamil hain.
  • saarkoma : sanyoji ootak, ya madhyotak koshikaaon se vyutpann durdam gaaainth.
  • linfoma aur rakt karkat (shvetaraktata) : durdamata himetopoyatik (rakt-banaane waali) koshikaaon se utpann hoti hai.
  • janan koshika gaaainth : toteepoteint koshika se utpann gaaainth. vayaskon mein aksar shukr granthi aur andaashaya mein paaya jaata hai; bhroon, bachchon aur chhote bachchon mein adhikaanshataya shareer ki madhya rekha par, vishesh roop se puchh asthi ke sheersh par paaya jaata hai; ghodon mein aksar pol (khopadi ke aadhaar) par paaya jaata hai.
  • blaastik gaaainth ya blaastoma: ek gaaainth (aamtaur par durdam) jo ek aparipkv ya bhrooneeya utak ke samaan hoti hai.

in mein se adhikansh gaanthein bachchon mein aam hain.

durdam gaanthon (karkat) ke naam mein aam taur par -kaarsinoma, -saarkoma ya -blaastoma jaise shabdon ka upayog pratyaya ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, iske saath mool shabd ke roop mein utpatti ke ang ke liye laitin ya greek shabd ka prayog kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye, yakrut ka karkat hipetokaarsinoma kahalaata hai; vasa koshikaaon ka karkat liposaarkoma kahalaata hai. aam kainsaron ke liye, ang ke angreji naam ka prayog kiya jaata hai. udaaharan ke liye stan Cancer ka sabse saamaanya prakaar stan ka vaahini parak kaarsinoma ya memeri dakatal kaarsinoma kahalaata hai.

yahaaain par visheshan dakatal ka upayog sookshmadarshi mein dikhaayi dene vaale us karkat ke sandarbh mein kiya jaata hai, jo saamaanya stan ki vaahiniyon se samaanata rakhati hain.

vaahini shabd ka upayog, sookshmadarshi mein dikhaai dene waali stan vaahiniyon ke karkat ke liye kiya gaya hai.

saumya gaaainth (jo karkat naheen hain) unke naam mein -oma pratyaya ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jismein mool shabd ang ka naam hota hai. udaaharan ke liye, garbhaashaya ki chikni peshi ki ek saumya gaaainth liyomaayoma kahalaati hai. (praay: paayi jaane waali is gaaainth ka saamaanya naam hai faaibroid arthaat reshedaar).durbhaagya se, kuchh tarah ke kainsaron ke liye bhi -oma pratyaya ka prayog kiya jaata hai, jaise melenoma aur seminoma.

chinh aur lakshan

vikshep karkat ke lakshan jo aburd ki sthiti par nirbhar karte hain.

mote taur par, karkat ke lakshanon ko teen samoohon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai:

  • sthaaneeya lakshan : asaamaanya gaaainth ya soojan (aburd), raktasraav (khoon bahana), peeda aur / ya vranodabhavan (alsar ka nirmaan). aaspaas ke ootakon mein sanpeedn ki vajah se peeliya jaise lakshan paida ho sakte hain (aankhon aur tvacha ka peelaapan).
  • metaastesis (failana) ke lakshan : lasika parvon ka aakaar mein badhna, khaaainsi aur himopataayasis, hipetomigeli (yakrut ka aakaar mein badhna), asthi peeda (haddi mein dard), prabhaavit asthiyon ka tootana aur tantreekeeya lakshan.

yadyapi viksit ho chuke karkat mein dard ho sakta hai, aksar yeh praarambhik lakshan naheen hota hai.

  • pranaaleegat lakshan : vajan ghatna, bhookh mein kami, thakaan aur kaicheksiya (vyarth hona), atyadhik paseena aana (raat ko paseena aana), raktaalpata aur vishisht peraaniyoplaastik ghatna, arthaat vishesh paristhitiyaan jo sakriya karkat ke kaaran hoti hain jaise ghanaastrata (thrombosis) ya haarmon parivartan.


uparokt soochi mein se pratyek lakshan kai prakaar ki sthitiyon ke kaaran ho sakta hai (jiski ek soochi vibhedak nidaan ke roop mein di gayi hai).karkat pratyek mad ke liye ek aam ya asaamaanya kaaran ho sakta hai.

kaaran

karkat bhinn rogon ka ek varg hai jo apne kaaranon aur jaiv-vigyaan mein vyaapak bhinnata rakhate hain. koi bhi jeev, yahaan tak ki paudhon, mein bhi karkat Cancer ho sakta hai. lagbhag sabhi karkat Cancer dheere dheere badhte hain, karkat aur Cancer ki koshikaaon aur iski putri koshikaaon mein truti utpann ho jaati hai (saamaanya prakaar ki trutiyon ke liye kriyaavidhi bhaag dekhein).

koi bhi cheej jo pratikruti karti hai (hamaari koshikaaen) sanbhavataya trutiyon se peedit ho sakti hain (utparivrtan). yadi truti sudhaar aur rokathaam theek prakaar se na kiya jaaye trutiyaan bani raheingi aur putri koshikaaon ko bhi sthaanaantarit ho sakti hain.

aam taur par, shareer kai vidhiyon ke maadhyam se karkat ke khilaaf bachane ki koshish karta hai, jaise: epoptosis, sahaayak anu (kuchh DNA poleemarej), sambhavat: jeernata aadi. haalaanki ye truti sudhaar vidhiyaan chhote maayanon mein aksar asafal ho jaati hain, vishesh roop se aise vaataavaran mein jahaan trutiyon ke utpann hone aur badhne ki sambhaavnaaen adhik hoti hain.

udaaharan ke liye, aise vaataaran mein vightanakaari tatv shaamil ho sakte hain jo kaarsinojan (karkat paida karne vaale kaarak) kahalaate hain. ya aavadhik chot (bhautik, ooshma aadi) ho sakti hai, ya vaataavaran jismein koshikaaen apne astitv ke liye viksit naheen hui hon, jaise haaipoksiya[5] (dekhein upabhaag).

is prakaar se karkat ek pragatisheel rog hai aur ye pragatisheel trutiyaan dheere dheere koshika mein sanchit hoti rahati hain jab tak jantu mein upasthit koshika apne kaaryon ke vipreet kaarya naheen karne lagti.

ve trutiyaan jo karkat ka kaaran hoti hain, aksar sv-pravardhanasheel hoti hain, antat: ek ghaateeya dar (dhan ki tarah) par badhti hain.

udaaharan ke liye:

  • ek koshika truti sudhaar machinery mein ek utparivrtan, us koshika aur usaki santati mein trutiyon ke adhik teji se sanchit hone ka kaaran ban sakta hai.
  • koshika ki sanketan (ant: sraavi) machinery mein ek utparivrtan, aas paas ki koshikaaon mein truti utpann karne vaale sanket bhej sakta hai.
  • ek utparivrtan ke kaaran koshikaaen niyoplaastik ban sakti hain, jiske kaaran ve sthaanaantarit hokar adhik svasth koshikaaon ke kaarya ko baadhit kar sakti hain.
  • ek utparivrtan ke kaaran koshika amar ban sakti hai (dekhein telomeyars), jiske kaaran ve hamesha ke liye svasth koshikaaon ko baadhit karti hain.

is prakaar se karkat aksar kuchh trutiyon ke kaaran ek shrrunkhala abhikriya ke roop mein visfotit hota hai, ye trutiyaan sanyukt hokar adhik gambhir trutiyaan banaati hain.

aisi trutiyaan jo adhik trutiyaan utpann karti hain, ve prabhaavi roop se karkat ka mool kaaran hain aur saath hi, ye is baat ka kaaran bhi hain ki karkat ka upachaar bahut mushkil hai: chaahe karkat ki 10,000,000,000 koshikaaon mein se sab ko maar dene ke baad, unamein se (aur truti pravan poorv karkat koshikaaen) keval 10 koshikaaen apni pratikruti kar sakti hain ya truti utpann karne vaale sanketon ko anya koshikaaon ko bhej sakti hain to prakriya fir se shuroo ho jaati hai. yeh vidroh sadrush paridrushya avaanchhaneeya yogyatam ki uttarajeevita hai, jahaan vikaasavaadi bal khud shareer ke design aur vyavastha ko laagoo karne ke viruddh kaarya karte hain

vaastav mein, ek baar jab karkat viksit hona shuroo ho jaata hai, yahi bal nirntar adhik aakraamak avasthaaon ki or karkat ki pragati mein sahaayak hota hai, or yeh klonal vikaas kahalaata hai.[6]

karkat ke kaaranon ke baare mein anusandhaan aksar nimnalikhit shreniyon mein aate hain:

  • kaarak (udaaharan virus) or ghatnaaen (udaaharan utparivrtan) jo koshikaaon mein aanuvanshik parivrtanon ke dvaara karkat ko janm dete hain.
  • aanuvanshik kshati ki yathaarth prakruti aur jeen jo iske dvaara prabhaavit hote hain.
  • koshika ke jeev vigyaan par un aanuvanshik parivrtanon ke parinaam, ek karkat koshika ke laakshanik gunon ko utpann karne mein aur saath hi atirikt aanuvanshik ghatnaaon ko badhaava dene mein jo aage karkat ke vikaas mein sahaayak hain.

utparivrtan: raasaayanik karsinojan (karkat paida karne vaale kaarak)

karkat rog janan ka kaaran hai DNA (DNA) utparivrtan jo koshika vruddhi aur metaastesis ko prabhaavit karta hai.

ve padaarth jo DNA (DNA) utparivrtan ka kaaran hain utparivrtajan kahalaate hain aur ve utparivrtajan jo karkat ka kaaran hain, kaarsinojan kahalaate hain. kai vishesh prakaar ke padaarth vishisht prakaar ke vikshepase jude hue hain.tambaakoo dhoomrapaan karkat ke kai roopon se sambandhit hai,[7] aur 90% fefadon ke Cancer ka kaaran hai.[8] lambe samay tak esbestas faaibar ke sampark mein rahane se mijothelioma ho sakta hai.[9]

anek utparivrtajan kaarsinojan bhi hain, lekin kuchh kaarsinojan utparivrtajan naheen hain.elkohal ek raasaayanik kaarsinojan ka udaaharan hai jo utparivrtajan naheen hai.[10] is prakaar ke rasaayan koshika vibhaajan ki dar ko utprerit karke Cancer ko badhaava dete hain. pratikruti ki tej dar enjaaimon ki marammat ke liye kam samay deti hai jisse DNA (DNA) pratikruti ke dauraan kshatigrast DNA (DNA) ki marammat ke liye paryaapt samay naheen mil pata hai, jiske kaaran ek utparivrtan ki sambhaavana badh jaati hai.

fefadon ke Cancer ke maamale dhoomrapaan ke saath atyadhik sambandhit hai. srot: NIH.

kai dashakon ke anusandhaan tambaakoo ke upayog aur fuffus, svar yantr, sir, gardan, aamaashaya, mootraashaya, vrukk, grasani aur agnaashaya ke Cancer ke beech sambandh ko prardashit karte hain.[11] tambaakoo dhoomrapaan mein naaitrosemaain aur bahuchakreeya hydrocarbon sahit pachaas gyaat kaarsinojan paae jaate hain[12] tambaakoo viksit duniya mein teen mein se ek Cancer mrutyu ke liye uttaradaayi hai,[7] aur duniya bhar mein lagbhag paanch mein se ek mrutyu ke liye.[12] daraasal, sanyukt raajya America mein fuffus ki Cancer mrutyu ki dar ne dhumrapaan ke pratiroop ko pratibinbit kiya hai, jiske anusaar dhumrapaan mein vruddhi ke saath fuffus Cancer mrutyu dar mein vruddhi hoti hai aur adhik haal hi mein darshaaya gaya ki dhumrapaan mein kami se purushon mein fuffus Cancer mrutyu dar mein bhi kami hoti hai.

haalaanki, duniya bhar mein abhi bhi dhumrapaan karne vaalon ki sankhya badh rahi hai, kuchh sangathanon ke dvaara iske kaaran utpann waali sthiti ko tambaakoo mahaamaari ke roop mein varnit kiya gaya hai.[13]

utparivrtan: aayaneekaran karne vaale vikirn

aayaneekaran karne vaale vikirn ke srot jaise redon gas, Cancer paida kar sakte hain. soorya ke paraabaingani vikirn ke lambe samay tak sampark mein rahane se melenoma aur anya tvacha durdamataaen ho sakti hain.[14]

mobile phone aur anya sroton se nikalne vaale gair-aayaneekaran aavruti vikirn bhi Cancer ka kaaran maane gaye hain, lekin aise sambandh ke bahut kam pramaan mile hain.[15] fir bhi kuchh visheshagya ehatiyaati siddhaant ke aadhaar par lambe samay tak ऎsi cheejon ke sampark mein rahane se bachane ki salaah dete hain.[16]

virus ya jeevaanu ka sankraman

kuchh karkat rogajnak ke sankraman ke kaaran ho sakte hain.[17] kai Cancer ek virus ke sankraman ke kaaran hote hain; yeh vishesh roop se jantuon jaise pakshiyon mein dekha jaata hai, lekin manushyon mein bhi aisa hota hai, poori duniya mein 15% maanav Cancer ke liye virus hi jimmedaar hain. maanav ke Cancer se sambandhit mukhya virus hain maanav pepiloma virus, haipetaaitis bi aur hepetaaitis si virus, epasteen-baar virus aur maanav ti -limfotropik virus.

praayogik aur mahaamaari aankade virus ki ek kaarak bhoomika ka sanket dete hain aur ve maanav mein Cancer ke vikaas ke liye doosare sabse mahatvapoorn jokhim kaarak ke roop mein saamane aaye hain, jabki pehla kaarak tambaakoo ka upayog hai.[18] virus-prerit gaanthon ko do prakaaron mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai, teevrata se roopaantarit hone vaale aur dheere dheere roopaantarit hone vaale .

teevrata se roopaantarit hone vaale vaayarason mein virus ek atiskriya onkojeen ko sanvaahit karta hai jise vaayaral-onkojeen (v-onc) kaha jaata hai aur sankramit koshika v-onc ki abhivyakti ke saath tunrat hi roopaantarit ho jaati hai. iske vipreet, dheere dheere roopaantarit hone vaale virus mein, virus jeenom, poshi ke jeenom mein ek proto-onkojeen ke paas pravisht hota hai.

ab vaayaral pravartak ya anya pratilekhan viniyman tatv us proto-onkojeen ki ati-abhivyakti ka kaaran bante hain. ismein aniyantrit koshika vibhaajan shaamil hai. kyonki pravishti ka sthaan proto-onkojeen ke liye vishisht naheen hota hai aur kisi bhi proto-onkojeen ke paas pravishti ki sambhaavana kam hoti hai, dheemi gati se roopaantarit hone vaale virus, teevrata se roopaantarit hone vaale virus ki tulana mein, sankraman ke adhik lambe samay ke baad gaaainth paida karte hain.

haipetaaitis bi aur hepetaaitis si sahit hepetaaitis virus, ek deerghakaalik (kronik) vaayaral sankraman ko prerit kar sakta hai, jo prativrsh haipetaaitis bi ke 0.47% rogiyon mein (vishesh roop se Asia mein, uttari America mein aisa kam dekha gaya hai) aur prati varsh hepetaaitis si ke 1.4% rogiyon mein yakrut Cancer ka kaaran hai. leevar sirosis, chaahe kronik vaayaral haipetaaitis sankraman ke kaaran ho ya sharaab peene ke kaaran, yeh yakrut Cancer ke vikaas se sambandhit hota hai aur sirosis aur vaayaral haipetaaitis ka sanyojan yakrut Cancer vikaas ke uchchatam jokhim ka kaaran hai. duniya bhar mein vaayaral haipetaaitis ke sancharan aur rog ke bhaari bojh ke kaaran, yakrut Cancer sabse aam aur sabse adhik ghaatak kainsaron mein se ek hai.

Cancer anusandhaan mein aadhunikeekaran ne Cancer ko rokane ke liye ek vekseen ko design kiya hai. 2006 mein, you. S. food end drag edaministreshan ne ek maanav pepiloma virus vekseen ko sveekruti di jise gaardaasil kaha jaata hai. vekseen chaar HPV (echapeevi) prakaaron se suraksha karti hai, jo 70% garbhaashaya greeva ke Cancer aur 90% jananaang masson ka kaaran hain. March 2007 mein, you. S. seintars for dijeej control end priveinshan (CDC) pratirksha prakriyaaon par salaahakaar samiti (ACIP) ne adhikaarik roop se salaah di ki 11-12 aayu varg ki ladkiyon ko vekseen di jaani chaahiye aur ingit kiya ki 9 saal ki chhoti ladkiyon se lekar 26 saal ki aayu tak ki mahilaaen is pratirksha ke liye paatr hain arthaat unhein yeh teeka lagaaya ja sakta hai.

virus ke alaava, shodhakartaaon ne jeevaanu aur kuchh vishesh prakaar ke karkat ke beech sambandh paaya hai. sabse pramukh udaaharan hai aamaashaya ke karkat aur aamaashaya ki deevaar ke helikobektar paayalori ke dvaara jeern sankraman ke beech sambandh.[19][20] haalaanki bahut kam maamalon mein helikobektar ka sankraman jeernamein viksit hota hai, choonki yeh rogajanak bahut aam hai, yeh sanbhavataya is prakaar ke adhikaansh karkaton ke liye uttaradaayi hai.[21]

haarmonal asantulan

isi prakaar se kuchh horamon gair-utparivrtajanik karsinojans ki tarah vyavahaar karte hain, ve atirikt koshika vruddhi ko uttejit kar sakte hain. ek achha udaaharan hai-antargarbhaashayakala ke karkat ko viksit karne mein haaipar estrojenik (estrojan horamon ki maatra ka badhna) avasthaaon ki bhoomika.

pratirksha tantr ki kriya pranaali mein kharaabi

HIV (echaaaivi) kai prakaar ki durdamataaon se sambandhit hai jismein shaamil hai kaaposi saarkoma, gair-hojakins limfoma aur HPV (echapeevi)-sambandhit durdamataaen jaise guda Cancer aur garbhaashaya greeva ka karkat . AIDS (eds)- ko paribhaashit karne waali beemaariyon mein lambe samay se ye nidaan shaamil hain. HIV (echaaaivi) rogiyon mein durdamata ki badhti hui ghatnaaen karkat ki ek sambhav itiyoloji ke roop mein pratirksha nigraani ke tootane ki or ishaara karti hain.[22] anya vishisht pratirksha ki kami ki avasthaaen (udaaharan aam bhinn pratirksha kshati or IgA ki kami) bhi durdamata ke jokhim ke badhne se sambandhit hain.[23]

aanuvanshikta

Cancer ke adhiktar roop vikeern (sporedik) hote hain, arthaat unka koi aanuvanshik kaaran naheen hota hai.

haalaanki, aise kai sindrom hain jinmein Cancer ke liye anuvaanshik roop se praapt poorv pravruti ya vishesh sugraahyata hoti hai, aisa aksar ek jeen mein dosh ke kaaran hota hai jo gaaainth ke nirmaan ke viruddh raksha karta hai. prasiddh udaaharan hain:

  • BRCA1 aur BRCA2 jeenon mein nishchit aanuvanshik utparivrtan stan Cancer aur dimbagranthi ke Cancer ke jokhim ko badhaate hain.
  • ekaadhik ant: sraavi niyoplaajiya mein bhinn ant: sraavi angon ki gaanthein (MEN prakaar 1, 2a, 2b)
  • p53 ke utparivrtanon ke kaaran li-fraameni sindrom (vibhinn tyoomar jaise ostiyo saarkoma, stan Cancer, komal ootak saarkoma, mastishk ka tyoomar).
  • tarakot sindrom (mastishk ka tyoom aur vruhad aantreeya poli posis)
  • femiliyl edinometas poleeposis APC jeen mein ek vanshaagat utparivrtan jo bruhadaantr kaarsinoma ki shuruaat ka kaaran hai.
  • vanshaanugat naun-poliposis badi aant-malaashaya ka Cancer (HNPCC, linch sindrom ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai) bruhadaantr polips ki pramukhata ke bina badi aant ke Cancer, garbhaashaya ke karkat, aamaashaya ke Cancer aur dimbagranthi ke karkat, ke parichit maamale shaamil ho sakte hain.
  • drushti patal ka prasoo - arbud, jab chhote bachchon mein hota hai, to yeh drushti patal ka prasoo - arbud jeen mein ek vanshaanugat utparivrtan ke kaaran hota hai.
  • daaun sindrom ke rogi, jinmein ek atirikt gunasootr 21 hota hai, unamein shvetaraktata aur shukr granthi karkat ke maamale dekhe gaye hain, yadyapi is kaaran ko theek prakaar se samjha naheen gaya hai.

anya kaaran

garbhadhaaran ke saath aur keval ek seemaant roop mein kuchh ang daataaon ke saath is rog ka sancharan kabhi kabhi ho jaata hai, anyatha Cancer saamanyataya ek sankraamak rog naheen hai. iska mukhya kaaran hai pramukh utak anuroopata jatil asangati ya bejodta ke kaaran ootak graaft asveekruti.[24] maanav aur anya kasherukiyon mein, pratirkshi tantr "sv" aur "gair-sv" koshikaaon ke beech vibhedan karne ke liye MHC pratijnon ka upayog karta hai, kyonki ye pratijn pratyek vyakti mein alag hote hain.

jab gair sv pratijnon ka saamana hota hai, to pratirksha tantr upayukt koshika ke khilaaf pratikriya karta hai. aisi abhikriyaaen pratyaaropit koshikaaon ko nasht karke gaaainth koshika graafting ke khilaaf suraksha karti hain sanyukt raajya America mein, prativrsh lagbhag 3500 garbhavati mahilaaon mein durdamata paayi jaati hai, plesanta (apara) ke maadhyam se maan se bhroon mein teevr rakt Cancer, limfoma, melaanoma aur kaarsinoma ke sancharan ko dekha gaya hai.[24] ang pratyaaropan ke dvaara daata se vyutpann gaaainth bahut kam paayi jaati hai.

ang pratyaaropan se sambandhit gaaainth ka mukhya kaaran hai durdam melaanoma, jo ang ko hataane ke samay gyaat naheen tha,[25] haalaanki anya maamale upasthit the[26].

vaastav mein, ek jeev se Cancer aamtaur par usi prajaati ke doosare jeev mein tabhi vruddhi karta hai jab un donon mein samaan utak asangati ke jeen hon[27], choohon ka upayog karke aisa siddh kiya gaya hai; haalaanki oopar varnit sthiti ke alaava vaastavik duniya mein aisa kabhi naheen hota hai.

maanav ke alaava anya jeevon mein kuchh aise prakaar ke Cancer paae gaye hain jo khud gaaainth ki koshikaaon ke sancharan ke dvaara hote hain. yeh ghatna stikr saarkoma se yukt kutton mein dekhi gayi hai, jo kenaayan traansamisibl venaral tyoomar[28] aur tasmaaniyn devil mein devil chehare ke tyoomar ki beemaari ke roop mein bhi jaani jaati hai.

kriya pranaali

Cancer utparivaartanon ki ek shrrunkhala ke kaaran hote hain. pratyek utparivrtan kisi tarah se koshika ke vyavahaar ko parivrtit karta hai.

Cancer moolaroop mein ootak vikaas ke viniyman ka ek rog hai. ek saamaanya koshika ko Cancer koshika mein roopaantarit karne ke liye, koshika vruddhi aur vibhedan ko niyamit karne vaale jeenon mein roopaantaran hona chaahiye.[29] aanuvanshik parivartan kai staron par ho sakte hain, ye poor gunasootr ke laabh ya haani ke roop mein ho sakte hain, jo utparivrtan ka hi ek roop hai aur ek maatr DNA nyukliotaaid ko prabhaavit karta hai.

jeen ki do vyaapak shreniyaan hain, jo in parivrtanon se prabhaavit hoti hain.onkojeen saamaanya jeen ho sakte hain, jo anupayukt roop se uchch star par prakat hote hain, ya parivrtit jeen jinmein noval gun hote hain. kisi bhi maamale mein, in jeenon ki abhivyakti Cancer ki koshikaaon ke durdam lakshan praaroop ko badhaava deti hai. gaanth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ve jeen hai jo Cancer ki koshikaaon ke koshika vibhaajan, astitv, ya anya gunon ko sandamit karte hain. gaanth ka shaman karne vaale jeen aksar Cancer ko badhaava dene vaale aanuvanshik parivrtanon ke dvaara aksham ho jaate hain. aamtaur par, ek saamaanya koshika ko Cancer koshika mein roopaantarit karne ke liye kai jeenon mein parivartan hone jaruri hain.[30]

vibhinn jeenomik parivrtanon ke liye ek vividh vargeekaran yojana hai, jo Cancer koshikaaon ke utpaadan mein yogadaan kar sakti hai. in mein se adhikaansh parivartan utparivrtan hote hain, ya jeenomik DNA ke nyukliyotaaid anukraman mein parivartan hote hain. enyuploidi, gunasootron ki ek asaamaanya sankhya ki upasthiti, ek jeenomik parivartan hai, jo ek utparivrtan naheen hai aur ismein samasootri vibhaajan mein truti ke dvaara ek ya adhik gunasootron ka laabh ya haani shaamil ho sakti hai.

bade paimaane ke utparivrtano mein shaamil hain ek gunasootr ke ek bhaag ki kshati ya vruddhi. jeenomik pravardhan tab hota hai jab ek koshika ek chhote gunasootri lokas ki kai pratilipiyaan (praay: 20 ya adhik) praapt kar leti hai, saamaanyataya ismein ek ya adhik onkojeen hote hain aur aasann aanuvanshik saamagri hoti hai.sthaaneekaran (traansalokeshan) tab hota hai jab do alag alag gunasootri kshetr asaamaanya roop se, ek vishisht sthaan par sangalit ho jaate hain. iska ek jaana maana udaaharan hai filaadelfiya gunasootr ya gunasootr 9 aur 22 ka sthaaneekaran, jo teevr majja janit rakt Cancer mein hota hai, iske parinaamasvaroop BCR-abl sanglan proteen, ek onkojenik taayarosin kaainej ka utpaadan hota hai.

chhote paimaane ke utparivrtanon mein shaamil hain bindu utparivrtan, kami ya badhotari, jo ek jeen ke pravartak mein ho sakti hai, yeh iski abhivyakti ko prabhaavit karti hai. ya jeen ke anukram kodan mein ho sakti hai aur iske proteen utpaad ke sthaayitv ya kriya ko roopaantarit kar sakti hai. ekamaatr jeen ka vightan, ek DNA (DNA) virus ya ritro virus se jeenomik saamagri ke ekeekaran ke parinaamasvarup ho sakta hai aur is prakaar ki ghatna ke parinaamasvaroop prabhaavit koshika aur usaki santati mein vaayaral onkojeen ki abhivyakti ho sakti hai.

adhi-anuvaanshiki

adhi-anuvaanshiki, DNA (DNA) saranchana mein raasaayanik, gair utparivrtaneeya parivrtanon ke maadhyam se jeen abhivyakti ke niyman ka adhyayan hai.

Cancer rogajanan mein adhi-anuvaanshiki ka siddhaant hai ki DNA (DNA) mein gair utparivrtaneeya parivartan jeen abhivyakti mein parivartan kar dete hain.

saamaanya roop se, onkojeen shaant hote hain, udaaharan ke liye aisa DNA (DNA) methilikran ke kaaran hota hai. is methilikran mein kshati onkojeen ki vipthi abhivyakti ko prerit karti hai, jo Cancer rogajanan ka kaaran hai. adhi-anuvaanshik parivartan ki gyaat pranaali mein shaamil hai DNA methilikran aur gunasootr ke DNA (DNA) par vishesh sthiti par jude hue histon proteen ka methilikran ya esitileekaran.

chikitsa ke varg jo HDAC sandamak aur DNA (DNA) mithaail traansafarej sandamak ke roop mein jaane jaate hain, ve Cancer koshika mein adhi-anuvaanshik sanketan ko pun: niyamit kar sakte hain.

onkojeens

onkojeen kai prakaar se koshika vruddhi ko badhaava dete hai. kai haarmon bana sakte hain, yeh koshikaaon ke beech ek raasaayanik sandeshavaahak hota hai jo samasootri vibhaajan ko prerit karta hai, jiska prabhaav graahi utak ya koshika ke sanket paaragaman par nirbhar karta hai. doosare shabdon mein, jab ek praaptakarta koshika par ek haarmon graahi uttejit hota hai, sanket koshika ki satah se koshika ke kendrak ko sanvahit hota hai, yeh kendreeya star par jeen pratilekhan viniyman mein kuchh parivrtanon ko prabhaavit karta hai. kuchh onkojeen khud sanket paaragaman tantr ka bhaag hote hain, ya koshikaaon aur ootakon mein sanket graahi ka ek bhaag hote hain, is prakaar se aise hormonon ki sanvedanasheelata ko niyantrit karte hain. onkojeen aksar samasootrajan utpann karte hain, ya proteen sanshleshan mein DNA (DNA) ke pratilekhan mein sanlagn hote hain, jo proteen aur enjaaim banaata hai, ye proteen aur enjaaim un utpaadon aur jaiv rasaayanon ke nirmaan ke liye uttaradaayi hain, jinke saath koshikaaen antarkriya karti hain aur jinka koshikaaen upayog karti hain.

aadya-onkojeen mein utparivrtan, jo saamaanyataya onkojeen ke sthir samakaksh hain, unki abhivyakti aur kriya ko sanshodhit kar sakte hain aur utpaad proteen ki kriya ya maatra ko badhaate hain. jab aisa hota hai, aadya-onkojeen onkojeen ban jaate hain aur yeh sankraman koshika mein koshika chakr viniyman ke saamaanya santulan ko bigaad deta hai, jisse aniyantrit koshika vruddhi sambhav ho jaati hai.

chaahe sambhav bhi ho jaaye to bhi jeenom mein se aadya-onkojeen ko hata kar Cancer ki sambhaavana ko kam naheen kiya ja sakta hai, kyonki ve jeev ki vruddhi, marammat aur samasthaapan ke liye jatil hote hain. aisa keval tab hota hai jab ve utparivrtit ho jaate hain aur vruddhi ke sanket atyadhik ho jaate hain.

Cancer anusandhaan mein paribhaashit kiye jaane vaale pehle onkojeenon mein se ek hai raas onkojeen.aadya-onkojeen ke raas parivaar (H-raas, N-raas aur K-raas) mein utparivrtan bahut aam hain, ye sabhi maanav gaanthon ke 20% se 30% mein paae jaate hain.[31] raas ko mool roop se haarve saarkoma virus jeenom mein pahachaana gaya tha aur shodhakarta is baat se aashcharyachakit ho gaye ki na keval maanav jeenom mein yeh jeen upasthiti tha balki, ek utprerak niyantran tatv se juda hua tha, jo koshika rekha sanvardhan mein Cancer ko prerit kar sakta tha.[32]

gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen

gaaainth ka shaman karne wala jeen prachurodabhavan virodhi sanketon aur proteenon ke liye anukodan karta hai, jo samasootri vibhaajan aur koshika vruddhi ka shaman kar dete hain.

saamaanyat:, gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen pratilekhan kaarak hain jo koshikeeya tanaav ya DNA (DNA) kshati ke dvaara sakriya hote hain. aksar DNA (DNA) kshati ke kaaran mukt-utplaavi aanuvanshik padaarth ki upasthiti aur saath hi anya lakshan dekhe ja sakte hain, jo aise enjaaimon aur maarg ko prerit karte hain jo gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ke sakriyn ke liye uttaradaayi hai. aise jeenon ka kaarya hai DNA (DNA) ki marammat ke liye koshika chakr ke aage badhne par niyantran, jo utparivrtan ko putri koshika tak sthaanaantarit hone se rokata hai.p53 proteen, jo sabse jyaada adhyayan kiye gaye gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeenon mein se ek hai, ek pratilekhan kaarak hai jo haaipoksiya aur paraabaingani vikirn kshati sahit kai koshikeeya tanaavakaariyon ke dvaara sakriya hote hain.

p53 roopaantaran mein shaamil sabhi kainsaron ke lagbhag aadhe ke alaava, iske gaaainth ke shaman kaarya ko bhali prakaar se samjha naheen gaya hai. spasht roop se p53 ke do kaarya hain: ek pratilekhan kaarak ke roop mein ek naabhikeeya bhoomika aur doosra koshika chakr, koshika vibhaajan aur epopatosis viniyman mein koshika dravyi bhoomika.

vaarabarg parikalpana ke anusaar Cancer ki vruddhi ke liye urja hetu glaaikolaaisis ka adhimaanya prayog hota hai. p53 shvasan se glaaikolaaitik path ko sthaanaantaran ka niyman karta hai.[33]

haalaanki, ek utparivrtan, khud "ise band karte hue" gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ko ya is sanket maarg ko kshati pahuaincha sakta hai, jo ise sakriya karta hai, is ka achal parinaam hai ki DNA (DNA) ki marammat baadhit ya sandamit ho jaati hai: marammat rahit DNA kshati ka sangrah nishchit roop Cancer ka kaaran banta hai.

gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeenon ke utparivrtan jo janan star koshikaaon mein utpann hote hain, ve santati mein sthaanaantarit ho jaate hain aur agali peedhiyon mein Cancer ki sambhaavana ko badha dete hain.

in parivaaron ke sadasyon ne aisi ghatnaaon mein vruddhi ki hai aur isse bahul tyoomar ki vilanbata mein kami I hai. gaaainth ke prakaar gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale utparivrtan ke pratyek prakaar ke liye praaroopik hote hain, kuchh utparivrtan vishesh prakaar ke Cancer ka kaaran hain, jabki anya utparivrtan anya prakaar ke Cancer ka kaaran hain. utparivrti tyoomar shaamak ki vanshaagati ka prakaar yeh hai ki ek prabhaavi sadasya ek doshapoorn pratilipi ko ek janak se aur saamaanya pratilipi ko doosare janak se praapt karta hai. udaaharan ke liye, ek vyakti jo ek utparivrti p53 eleel ko vanshaagat roop se praapt karta hai (aur isliye utparivrtit p53 ke liye visham yugmaji hai) vah melaanoma aur agnaashayi Cancer viksit kar sakta hai jo li-fraameni sindrom kahalaata hai. anya vanshaagat gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen sindrom mein shaamil hai retino blaastoma se sambandhit Rb utparivrtan aur aidinopoleeposis badi aant ke Cancer se jude APC jeen utparivrtan.aidinopoleeposis badi aant ka Cancer bachapan ki avastha mein badi aant mein hajaaron polip se sambandhit hain, jo apekshaakrut kam umr mein badi aant ka Cancer utpann karte hain. ant mein, BRCA1 aur BRCA2 mein vanshaagat utparivrtan stan Cancer ki praarambhik shuruaat ka kaaran bante hain.

1971 mein yeh prastaav diya gaya ki Cancer ka vikaas kam se kam do utparivrtan ghatnaaon par nirbhar karta hai. nudasan ki do chot ki parikalpana ke anusaar ek gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen mein ek vanshaagat janan star utparivrtan Cancer ko keval tabhi utpann karega jab jeev ke jeevan mein baad mein koi anya utparivrtan ghatit hota hai, yeh us gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ke anya eleel ko nishkriya kar dega.[34]

aamtaur par, onkojeen prabhaavi hote hain, kyonki unamein kriya-ka-laabh utparivrtan shaamil hota hai, jabki utparivrtit tyoomar shaamak aprabhaavi hote hain, kyonki unamein kriya-ki-haani utparivrtan shaamil hota hai. har koshika mein samaan jeen ki do pratilipiyaan hoti hain, inmein se pratyek pratilipi abhibhaavak se praapt ki jaati hai aur adhikaansh maamalon ke antargat ek vishesh proto-onkojeen ki keval ek pratilipi mein kriya-ka-laabh utparivrtan, us jeen ko ek vaastavik onkojeen banaane ke liye paryaapt hota hai. doosari or, kriya-ki-haani utparivrtan ka, gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ki donon pratilipiyon mein hona aavashyak hai taaki jeen ko poori tarah se kriyaaheen banaaya ja sake.haalaanki, aise maamale hain jinmein gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale jeen ki ek utparivrtit pratilipi anya jangali-prakaar pratilipi ko kriyaaheen bana deti hai. yeh ghatna prabhaavi nakaaraatmak prabhaav kahalaati hai aur kai p53 utparivrtanon mein dekhi jaati hai.

nudasan ke do chot ke modal ko haal hi mein kai jaanchakartaaon dvaara chunauti di gayi hai. gaaainth ka shaman karne vaale kuchh jeenon ke ek eleel ka nishkriykaran tyoomar ko utpann karne ke liye paryaapt hai. yeh ghatna agunit aparyaaptata kahalaati hai aur ise kai prayogaatmak drushtikonon ke dvaara pradarshit kiya gaya hai.agunit aparyaaptata se utpann hui gaaainth ki shuruaat aam taur par der se hoti hai, jab iski tulana ek ek do chot ki prakriya se ki jaati hai.[35]

Cancer koshika jeev vigyaan

utak ko saamaanya se lekar Cancer tak ek satat spectrum mein sangathit kiya ja sakta hai.

aksar, bahul aanuvanshik parivartan jinka parinaam Cancer hota hai, unhein sanchit hone mein kai saal lag sakte hain. is samay ke dauraan, poorv durdam koshikaaon ka jaivik vyavahaar dheere dheere saamaanya koshika se badal kar Cancer koshika ka ho jaata hai. sookshmadarshi ki sahaayata se poorv durdam ootak mein vibhedak gun dekhe ja sakte hain. vibhedak lakshanon mein hai vibhaajit hoti hui koshikaaon ki badhi hui sankhya, kendrak ke aakaar aur aakruti mein bhinnata, koshika ke aakaar aur aakruti mein bhinnata, vishishteekrut koshikaaon ke gunon mein kami aur saamaanya utak sangathan ki kshati. durvikaasita (displejiya) atirikt koshika prachurod bhavan ka ek asaamaanya prakaar hai jo saamaanya utak vyavastha tatha poorv durdam koshikaaon mein koshika saranchana ki haani ke dvaara parilkshit hota hai. ye praarambhik arbudeeya (nioplaastik) parivartan ativrdhan (haaiparaplaajiya) se vibhedit kiye jaane chaahiyein, jo ek baahari uddeepan ke kaaran koshika vibhaajan mein ek utparivrti vruddhi hai, jaise hormoni asantulan ya puraani jalan.

durvikaasita ke sabse gambhir maamalon ko "svasthaani karkaarbud (kaarsinoma)" kaha jaata hai. laitin mein, "svasthaani (in situ)" shabd ka arth hai "sthaan mein", isliye kaarsinoma svasthaani shabd ka arth hai koshikaaon ki aniyantrit vruddhi jo apne mool sthaan par hi bani rahati hai aur jisne anya utakon par koi aakraman naheen darshaaya hai.

fir bhi, kaarsinoma svasthaani ek aakraamak durdamata mein viksit ho sakta hai aur yadi sambhav ho to ise aam taur par shalya kriya ke dvaara hata diya jaata hai.

kloni vikaas

jis tarah se jaanvaron ki aabaadi mein vikaas hota hai, theek usi tarah koshikaaon ki aniyantrit aabaadi mein bhi vikaas hota hai. yeh avaanchhaneeya prakriya kaayik vikaas kahalaati hai aur isi tarah se Cancer utpann hota hai aur adhik durdam ban jaata hai.[36]

koshikeeya upaapachaya mein adhikaansh parivartan jo koshika mein aniyamit tareeke se vibhaajan ka kaaran hain, ve koshika mrutyu ka kaaran hote hain. haalaanki ek baar Cancer shuroo ho jaane par, Cancer ki koshikaaen praakrutik varan ki ek prakriya se hokar gujarati hain: nae aanuvanshik parivrtanon se yukt kuchh koshikaaen jo apne jeevan aur prajanan ko badhaava dene ke liye nirantar bahugunit hoti rahati hain aur jaldi hi viksit hoti hui gaaainth par prabhaavi ho jaati hain, kyonki kam anukoolit aanuvanshik parivrtanon se yukt koshikaaen pratispardha se baahar hoti hain.[37] isi prakaar se MRSA jaise rogajanak pratijaivik-pratirodhi ban jaate hain (ya isi prakaar se HIV drag-pratirodhi ban jaata hai) aur yahi kaaran hai ki fasalon ke blaait aur keet keetanaashak pratirodhi ban jaate hain. isi vikaas ke kaaran Cancer punaraavruti mein aisi koshikaaen hoti hain jo Cancer ki davaaon ke liye pratirodh praapt kar leti hain (ya kuchh maamalon mein vikirn chikitsa ke vikirnon ke liye pratirodhi ho jaati hain)

Cancer ki koshikaaon ke jaivik gun

jab saamaanya koshikaaon kshatigrast ho jaati hain ki unki marammat sambhav na ho, ve epoptosis ke dvaara samaapt kar di jaati hain. Cancer ki koshikaaon mein epoptosis naheen hota hai aur ve ek aniyamit tareeke se nirantar bahugunit hoti rahati hain.

hanaahan aur veenabarg ke dvaara 2000 mein diye gaye ek lekh mein, durdam gaaainth koshikaaon ke jaivik gunon ko nimnaanusaar sankshep mein bataaya gaya:[38]

  • vruddhi ke sanketon mein swayam-prachurata ka adhigrahan, jo aniyantrit vikaas ko badhaava deta hai.
  • vruddhi virodhi sanketon ki sanvedanasheelata mein kshati, bhi aniyantrit vikaas ka kaaran hoti hai.
  • epopatosis ke liye kshamata mein kami, jo aanuvanshik trutiyon aur baahya vruddhi virodhi sanketon ke baavajood, vruddhi ko badhaava deti hai.
  • jeernata ke liye kshamata mein kami, jo aseemit pratikruti kshamata ka kaaran hai. (amaratv)
  • nirantar vaahikaajanan ka adhigrahan, jo nishkriya poshak prasaar ki seemaaon se pare tyoomar ki vruddhi ko badhaava deta hai.
  • aas paas ke ootakon par aakraman karne ki kshamata ka adhigrahan, jo aakraamak kaarsinoma ka paribhaashit gun hai.
  • sudoor sthaanon par apararoopaantaran (metaastesis) ke nirmaan ki kshamata ka adhigrahan, jo durdam gaanth ka mukhya lakshan hai (kaarsinoma ya anya).

in bahul padon ka poora hona nimn ke bina ek bahut hi durlabh ghatna hogi:

  • aanuvanshik trutiyon ki marammat ke liye kshamata mein kami, jo utparivrtan dar (jeenomik asthirta) ko badhaati hai, is prakaar se sabhi anya parivrtanon ko tvarit karti hai.

ye jaivik parivartan kaarsinoma mein mukhya hain; anya durdam gaanthon ko un sab ki praapti ke liye sabhi ki jarurat naheen ho sakti hai. udaaharan ke liye, ootak aakraman aur door ke sthaanon par visthaapan shvet rakt koshikaaon ka saamaanya gun hai; ye pad shvetaraktata (lyookemiya ya rakt ka karkat) ke vikaas ke liye aavashyak naheen hain. vibhinn pad jaruri roop se vyaktigat utparivaartanon ka pratinidhitv naheen karte.udaaharan ke liye, ek vanshaanu (jeen) ka nishkriykaran, P53 proteen ke liye kodan, jeenomik asthirta, epopatosis aur vaahikaajanan (enjiyojinesis) mein vruddhi ka kaaran honge. Cancer ki sabhi koshikaaen vibhaajit naheen hoti hain. balki, ek gaaainth mein koshikaaon ka ek up samuchchaya, karkat mool koshikaaen (Cancer stem koshikaaen) kahalaata hai, jo apne aap ki pratikruti karta hai aur vibhedit koshikaaon ka nirmaan karta hai.[39]

rokathaam

Cancer ki rokathaam ko, Cancer ki ghatnaaon mein kami laane ke liye sakriya upaayon ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya jaata hai. iske liye karkatajan (Cancer paida karne vaale kaarakon) se bachana ya unke upaapachaya ko parivrtit karna, aisi jeevan shaili ya aahaar ko apanaana jo Cancer paida karne vaale kaarakon ko sanshodhit kare aur/ya chikitsa hastakshep (raasaayanik rokathaam, poorv durdam ghaavon ka upachaar) upayogi ho sakta hai.

"rokathaam" ki mahaamaari vigyaan avadhaarana ko saamaanyataya ya to un logon ke liye praathamik rokathaam ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai jinmein kisi vishesh rog ka nidaan naheen kiya gaya hai, ya dviteeyak rokathaam ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya ja sakta hai, jo pehle se nidaan kiye gaye rog ki jatiltaaon ko kam karta hai.

sanshodhan yogya ("jeevan shaili") jokhim kaarak

fuffus ke ek namoone mein shvasani ke paas ek skvaimas sel kaarsinoma (safed gaaainth)

Cancer ke jokhim ke adhikaansh kaarak paryaavaran ya prakruti mein jeevan shaili se sambandhit hain, ye daava karte hain ki Cancer vyaapak roop se rokathaam kiye jaane yogya ek beemaari hai.[40] sanshodhit kiye jaane yogya Cancer ke jokhim kaarakon ke udaaharan hain elkohal ka upabhog, (jo mukh, grasani, stan ke aur anya prakaar ke kainsaron ke jokhim ke badhne se sambandhit hai), dhumrapaan (haalaanki 10% purushon ki tulana mein fuffus ke Cancer se yukt 20% mahilaaen ऎsi hoti hain jinhonne kabhi bhi dhumrapaan naheen kiya hota hai[41]), shaareerik nishkriyta (vruhad aantr, stan aur sanbhavataya anya kainsaron se sambandhit) aur bahut adhik vajan/ motaapa hona (vruhad aantr, stan, ant: garbhaashaya kala aur sanbhavataya anya kainsaron se sambandhit).

mahaamaari vigyaan saakshya ke aadhaar par, ab yeh maana jaata hai ki sharaab ke bahut adhik sevan se bachana vishesh prakaar ke kainsaron ke jokhim ko kam karne mein yogadaan deta hai; haalaanki tanbaakoo ki tulana mein, prabhaav ki maatra bahut kam hai aur pramaan ki kshamata aksar kamjor hoti hai. anya jeevan shaili aur paryaavaraneeya kaarak jo Cancer ke jokhim ko prabhaavit karne ke liye jaane jaate hain, (ya to laabhadaayak ya haanikaarak roop mein) mein shaamil hain, vishisht yaun sanchaarit rog (jaise maanav pepiloma virus ke dvaara sancharit hone vaale rog), bahirjanit hormonon ka upayog, aayaneekaran vikirnon aur paraabaingani vikirnon ke sampark mein aana aur vishisht vyavasaayik aur raasaayanik padaarthon ke sampark mein aana.

har saal poori duniya mein kam se kam 200,000 logon ki mrutyu apne kaaryasthal se sambandhit Cancer ke kaaran hoti hai.[42] kai million shramik aise hain jinmein apne kaarya sthal par nirantar esbestas faaibar aur tambaakoo ke dhueain ke sampark mein rahane ke kaaran fuffus Cancer aur mijotheleeoma ki tarah ke Cancer ke viksit hone ka khtara hota hai ya nirantar beinjeen ke sampark mein rahane ke kaaran rakt Cancer (lyookemiya) ka khtara rahata hai.[42] vartamaan mein, vyavasaayik jokhim kaarakon ki vajah se hone vaale Cancer ke kaaran hone waali mautein adhikaanshataya viksit duniya mein hoti hain.[42] aisa anumaan lagaaya gaya hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein har saal lagbhag 20,000 Cancer mautein aur Cancer ke 40,000 nae maamale vyavasaaya se sambandhit hote hain.[43]

aahaar

aahaar aur Cancer par aam sahamati hai ki motaapa Cancer ke khatre ko badhaata hai. bhinn deshon mein aahaar ki bhinn prathaaen aksar Cancer ki ghatnaaon mein antar ko spasht karti hain, (udaaharan aamaashaya ka Cancer Japan mein aam hai, jabki badi aaaint ka Cancer sanyukt raajya America mein aam hai. is udaaharan mein agunit samoohon ke poorvavarti vichaar shaamil naheen hain).adhyayanon se pata chala hai ki apravaasi aksar ek peedhi tak hi nae desh ke jokhim ko viksit kar lete hain, iske liye aahaar aur Cancer ke beech mahatvapoorn kadi ki sambhaavana ko vyakt kiya gaya hai.[44] ek aabaadi mein motaape ka kam hona Cancer ki ghatnaaon ko bhi kam karta hai yeh agyaat hai.

Cancer ke jokhim par vishesh padaarthon (bhojan sahit) ke laabhakaari aur haanikaari prabhaavon ki riporton ke baavajood, inmein se bahut kam aise hain jinke saath Cancer ke sambandh ko sthaapit kiya ja chuka hai.

ye riportein aksar sanvardhit koshika maadhyam ya jantuon mein kiye gaye adhyayan par aadhaarit hoti hain. saarvajanik svaasthya sifaarishon ko in adhyayanon ke aadhaar par naheen banaaya ja sakta hai, jab tak ve maanav mein pareekshan (ya kabhi kabhi ek avlokan hastakshep) mein sahi saabit na ho jaayein.

ek kolektomi namoone mein ek aakraamak vruhad aantr kaarsinoma (sheersh kendra)

mahaamaari vigyaan sangh ke adhyayan aksar praathamik Cancer ke khatre ko kam karne ke liye prastaavit pathya hastakshep ka paksh lete hain. is tarah ke adhyayan ke udaaharan hain, ve riportein jo bataati hain ki maans ka upabhog kam karne se vruhad aantr ke Cancer ka jokhim kam ho jaata hai,[45] aur riportein ki kaufi ka sevan yakrut Cancer ke khatre ko kam karta hai.[46] adhyayanon ke dvaara grild maans ke upabhog ko[47][47] bruhadaantr Cancer,[48] stan Cancer,[49] aur agnaashaya ke Cancer,[50] ke jokhim ke badhne se sambandhit kiya gaya hai, aisa uchch taap par pakaae jaane vaale bhojan mein kaarsinojan jaise benjopaayareen ki upasthiti ke kaaran hota hai.

2005 ka ek dviteeyak rokathaam adhyayan darshaata hai ki jeevan shaili mein parivartan aur paudhon par aadhaarit aahaar ke sevan se prostet Cancer ke rogi purushon ke ek samooh mein Cancer mein kami I jo us samay par kisi paramparaagat upachaar ka upayog naheen kar rahe the.[51]

in parinaamon ko 2006 ke adhyayan se adhik mahattv mila jismein 2400 se adhik mahilaaon par adhyayan kiya gaya, is dauraan inmein se aadhi mahilaaon ko saamaanya aahaar par rakha gaya aur shesh ko aisa aahaar diya gaya jismein vasa ki kailori 20% se kam ho.December, 2006 ki antarim report mein bataaya gaya ki kam vasa aahaar par rakhi gayi mahilaaon mein stan Cancer punaraavrutti ki maatra kam thi.[52]

haal ke adhyayanon se Cancer ke kuchh roopon aur parishkrut sharkara aur anya saadhaaran kaarbohaaidret ke uchch upabhog ke beech sambhaavit kadi ko pradarshit kiya gaya hai.[53][54][55][56][57] haalaanki sambandhon ke ansh aur kejualti ke ansh vivaad ka mudda hain,[58][59][60] daraasal kuchh sangathan Cancer ke nivaaran ke liye parishkrut sharkara aur staarch ki khapat ko kam karne ki sifaarish karte hain.[61][62][63]

November 2007 mein, American Institute for Cancer research (AICR), ne world Cancer research fund (WCRF) ke sahayog se food, nyootreeshiyn, fijikl ektiviti end di priveinshan of Cancer: a global parsapektiv ka prakaashan kiya, "jo aahaar, shaareerik kriya aur Cancer par sabse vartamaan aur vyaapak vishleshan hai".[64] WCRF / AICR visheshagya report 10 salaahon ki soochi deti hai jinka istemaal log Cancer ke vikaas ke jokhim ko kam karne ke liye kar sakte hain, jismein aahaar ke nimn dishaanirdesh shaamil hain: (1) aise khaadya aur peya padaarthon ke sevan ko kam karna jo vajan badhaate hain, naamat: adhik oorja yukt khaadya aur sharkara yukt peya, (2) adhiktar paadap utpatti ke khaadya ka upabhog, (3) laal maans ke sevan ko seemit karna aur upachaarit maans se parahej karna, (4) elkohal yukt peya padaarthon ke upabhog ko seemit karna aur (5) namak ke sevan ko kam karna aur kaalaateet anaaj (ann) ya daalon (faliyon) se parahej karna.[65][66]

vitaamin

praarambhik prekshanon se praapt vichaar ki vitaamin poorak stem ke maadhyam se Cancer ki rokathaam ki ja sakti hai, maanav rogon ko vitaaminon ki kami se sambandhit karta hai, jaise praanaashi raktaalpata vitaamin B12 ki kami se sambandhit hota hai aur skarvi vitaamin si ki kami se sambandhit hota hai.

yeh vyaapak roop se Cancer ke saath sahi saabit naheen hua hai aur vyaapak roop se vitaamin anupooran Cancer ki rokathaam mein prabhaavi naheen saabit naheen hua hai.

bhojan ke Cancer se ladne vaale avayav pehle ki tulana mein ab adhik asankhya aur vividh maane jaate hain, at: ab rogiyon ko zyaada se zyaada svaasthya laabh ke liye bade paimaane par taaja, aprasanskrut fal aur sabjiyon ke upabhog ki salaah di jaati hai.[67]

mahaamaari vigyaan ke adhyayan darshaate hain ki vitaamin D ki kami Cancer ke jokhim ke badhne se sambandhit hai.[68][69] haalaanki, is tarah ke adhyayanon ke parinaam saavadhaani se upachaarit kiye jaane chaahiye, kyonki ve yeh naheen darsha sakte ki do kaarakon ke beech sambandh ka arth hai ki ek doosare ka kaaran hai (arthaat sambandh kaaran ki aur sanket naheen karta hai)[70] yeh sambhaavana ki vitaamin D Cancer se raksha karta hai, is tathya ke vipreet hai ki dhup ke sampark mein rahane par durdamata ka jokhim badh jaata hai.

soorya ke sampark mein rahane se manushya mein vitaamin D ke praakrutik utpaadan mein vruddhi ho jaati hai, kuchh Cancer anusandhaanakartaaon ne tark diya hai ki soorya ke sampark mein rahane waali tvacha mein atirikt vitaamin D sanshleshan ke Cancer nivaaraneeya prabhaav ke tulana mein durdamata ke prabhaav ke badhne ki sambhaavana adhik haanikr hoti hai. 2002 mein, dau॰ William bi graant ne daava kiya ki America mein saalaana 23,800 samayapoorv Cancer mauton ka kaaran hai aparyaapt UVB ke sampark mein rahana (jaahir taur par vitaamin D ki kami).[71] yeh sankhya melenoma ya skvaimas sel kaarsinoma ke kaaran hui 8800 mauton se kam hai, isliye kul milaakar soorya ke sampark mein rahana laabhakaari hi hai.

ek anya shodh samooh[72][73] anumaan hai ki sanyukt raajya America mein 50,000-63,000 aur Britain mein 19,000- 25,000 vyakti vitaamin D ki kami ke kaaran prativrsh samay poorv Cancer se mar jaate hain.

beeta kairoteen ka maamala yadrichchik naidaanik pareekshanon ke mahattv ka ek udaaharan deta hai. aahaar aur seeram ke staron par adhyayan karne vaale mahaamaari vijnyaaaneeyon ke anusaar vitaamin A ke poorvavarti beeta kairoteen ke uchch star, ek surakshaatmak prabhaav se, sambandhit hain jo Cancer ke jokhim ko kam karte hain. yeh prabhaav vishesh roop se fefadon ke Cancer mein adhik prabal hai. is parikalpana ke aadhaar par 1980 aur 1990 ke dashakon ke dauraan finlaind aur sanyukt raajya America mein kai naidaanik pareekshan ek shrrunkhala mein kiye gaye.

is adhyayan mein 80,000 dhoomrapaan karne vaalon ya poorv dhoomrapaan vaalon ko plesabo ya beeta-keroteen ka dainik poorak aahaar upalabdh karaaya gaya.

ummeed ke vipreet, is pareekshan ke dauraan diye gaye beeta keroteen ke poorak aahaar ne fuffus Cancer ki ghatnaaon ya mrutyu dar ko kam karne mein koi bhoomika naheen nibhaayi. vaastav mein, beeta kairoteen, ke dvaara fefadon ke Cancer ka khatra bahut adhik naheen lekin bahut kam badha, isne praarambhik adhyayan ko yaheen par samaapt kar diya.[74]

journal of American medical association (JAMA) ki 2007 mein di gayi report ke parinaam soochit karte hain ki folik aml ke poorak aahaar badi aaaint ke Cancer ko rokane mein prabhaavi naheen hain aur folet ka upabhog karne vaalon mein badi aaaint ke polip ke banane ki sambhaavana adhik hoti hai.[75]

raasaayanik rokathaam

yeh ek aakarshak avadhaarana hai ki Cancer ko rokane ke liye davaaon ka istemaal kiya ja sakta hai aur kai uchch shreni ke naidaanik parikshan salaah dete hain ki aise raasaayanik rokathaam ko vishesh paristhitiyon mein kaam mein lena chaahiye.

praaroopik roop se 5 varsh ke liye ek chayanaatmak estrojan riseptar modyuletar (SERM), temokseefen ka dainik upayog uchch jokhim yukt mahilaaon mein stan Cancer ke khatre ko lagbhag 50% tak kam kar deta hai. haal hi ke adhyayan ki ek report ke anusaar chayanaatmak estrojan riseptar modyuletar reloksifen bhi temokseefen ki tarah hi laabhakaari hai aur uchch jokhim yukt mahilaaon mein stan Cancer ke khatre ko kam karta hai iske paarshv prabhaavon ka profaail adhik anukool hai.[76]

reloksifen temokseefen ki tarah ek SERM hai; uchch jokhim yukt mahilaaon mein stan Cancer ke khatre ko kam karne mein yeh temokseefen ke samaan hi prabhaavi (STAR pareekshan mein) paaya gaya hai. is pareekshan mein lagbhag 20,000 mahilaaon par adhyayan kiya gaya, reloksifen ke paarshv prabhaav temokseefen se kam hain, yadyapi yeh adhik DCIS banaane ke liye prakriya ko badhaava deta hai.[76]

ek 5-alfa-ridkatej sandamak finesteraaid, prostet Cancer ke khatre ko kam karta hai, yadyapi yeh chhoti shreni ke tyoomar ko adhikaanshataya rok deta hai.[77] bruhadaantr polips ke jokhim par kauks-2 sandamak jaise rofekoksib aur salekoksib ke prabhaav ka adhyayan femiliyl edinometas poleeposis rogiyon mein[78] aur aam janasankhya mein kiya gaya hai.[79][80] donon samoohon mein, bruhadaantr polip ki ghatna mein bahut kami I, lekin iska asar hrudaya sanvahani vishaaktata ki vruddhi ke roop mein dikhaai diya.

aanuvanshik pareekshan

vishesh Cancer sambandhi aanuvanshik utparivrtanon ke liye uchch jokhim yukt vyaktiyon ka aanuvanshik pareekshan pehle se hi upalabdh hai. aanuvanshik utparivrtanon ke vaahak jo Cancer ke jokhim ki ghatnaaon ko badhaate hain, un par adhik nigraani rakhi ja sakti hai, unke liye raasaayanik rokathaam ya jokhim ko kam karne waali shalya chikitsa ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. Cancer ke vanshaagat jokhim ki praarambhik pehchaan aur Cancer ki rokathaam ke upaaya jaise shalya chikitsa ya nigraani, uchch jokhim vaale vyaktiyon ke jeevan ke liye bahut adhik laabhakaari ho sakte hain.

jeen Cancer ke prakaar upalabdhata
BRCA1, BRCA2 stan, dimbagranthi, agnaashayi naidaanik namoonon ke liye vyaavasaayik roop se upalabdh
MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS1, PMS2 bruhadaantr, garbhaashaya, chhoti aant, aamaashaya, mootramaarg naidaanik namoonon ke liye vyaavasaayik roop se upalabdh

teekaakaran

onkojanik sankraamak kaarak jaise virus ke dvaara sankraman ko rokane ke liye rog nirodhi veksinon ya teekon ka vikaas kiya gaya hai aur Cancer vishisht epitops ke khilaaf pratirkshi pratikriya ko uttejit karne ke liye chikitsaatmak teekon ka vikaas kiya ja raha hai.[81]

jaisa ki oopar bataaya gaya hai ki ek nivaarak maanav pepiloma virus vekseen upasthit hai jo maanav pepiloma virus ki vishisht yaun sancharit naslon ko lakshya banaata hai, jo garbhaashaya greeva Cancer aur jananaang masson ke vikaas se sambandhit hain. October 2007 ko baajaar mein keval do HPV teeke upalabdh the gardaasil aur sarvaariks. [168] ek haipetaaitis B vekseen bhi hai, jo haipetaaitis B se virus se hone vaale sankraman ko rokati hai, yeh virus ek sankraamak kaarak hai jo yakrut Cancer ka kaaran hai.[81] ek kenaayan melenoma vekseen ka bhi vikaas kiya gaya hai.[82][83]

screening

Cancer screening ek prayaas hai jo lakshan heen aabaadi mein shankaaheen Cancer ki jaanch ke liye kiya jaata hai. badi sankhya mein svasth logon ke liye upayukt screening test apekshaakrut saste, surakshit hone chaahiye, inki prakriya sankraamak naheen honi chaahiye, sakaaraatmak jhoothe parinaam ki dar bahut kam honi chaahiye. agar Cancer ke lakshan pata lagte hain, to nidaan ko sunishchit karne ke liye adhik nishchit pareekshan kiye jaate hain.

Cancer ke liye screening vishesh maamalon mein praaranbhi nidaan mein sahaayak hai. sheegra nidaan jeevan ko badha sakta hai, lekin aabhaasi roop se mrutyu tak ke samay ko seesa samay poorvaagrah ya lanbaai samay poorvaagrah ke maadhyam se lamba kheench sakta hai.

bhinn durdamataaon ke liye kai vibhinn screening pareekshanon ka vikaas kiya gaya hai. stan Cancer screening ko stan swayam pareeksha, ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai, yadyapi 2005 mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein 300,000 se adhik cheeni mahilaaon mein yeh drushtikon galat saabit hua.

maimograam ke dvaara stan Cancer ki screening ek janasankhya mein stan Cancer ke nidaan ki ausat avastha ko kam karti hai. memografik screening kaaryakram ki shurooaat ke baad ke das varshon ke bheetar ek desh mein nidaan ki avastha mein kami aayi hai.

badi-aaaint malaashaya ke Cancer ko fekal okalt rakt pareekshan aur kolonoskopi ke dvaara jaancha ja sakta hai, jo badi aaaint ke Cancer aur mrutyu dar donon ko kam karta hai, poorv durdam polip ki jaanch karke aur use hataakar aisa sambhav hai. isi prakaar, garbhaashaya greeva ka koshika vigyaan pareekshan (paip smeeyar ka upayog karte hue) poorv Cancer ghaav ki pehchaan mein madad karta hai. samay ke saath, aise pareekshanon ke kaaran garbhaashaya greeva Cancer ki ghatnaaon aur mrutyu dar mein kami aayi hai. 15 varsh ki aayu mein shuruaat mein shukr granthi Cancer ki jaanch ke liye shukr granthi swayam pareeksha ki salaah di jaati hai. prostet Cancer ki screening digital guda pareeksha ke saath prostet vishisht pratijn (PSA) rakt pareekshan, ka upayog karke ki ja sakti hai, haalaanki kuchh adhikaarik sansthaaen (jaise you S priveintiv services taask fors) sabhi purushon mein aisi screening ke khilaaf hain.

Cancer ke liye screening kai maamalon mein vivaad ka vishay hai, jab tak yeh pata na ho ki pareekshan vaastav mein jeevan ko bachaayega.vivaad aur adhik badh jaata hai jab yeh spasht na ho ki screening ke laabh naidaanik pareekshanon aur Cancer ke upachaaron ke sanbhaavi jokhim se adhik prabhaavi hain. udaaharan ke liye: prostet Cancer ki screening ke samay, PSA pareekshan chhote kainsaron ko pata laga sakta hai, jo kabhi bhi jeevan ke liye ghaatak naheen bante, lekin ek baar pata chal jaane par upachaar shuroo karna hi hota hai. yeh sthiti ati nidaan kahalaati hai, jo puroosh ko anaavashyak upachaar jaise shalya chikitsa aur vikirn ki jatiltaaon ka saamana karne ke liye majaboor kar deti hai. prostet Cancer ka nidaan karne ke liye prayukt prakriyaaen (prostet baayopsi) paarshv prabhaavon ka kaaran ho sakti hain jinmein rakt pravaah aur sankraman shaamil hai. prostet Cancer ka ilaaj asanyam (mootr ke pravaah ko niyantrit karne ke liye asamarthata) aur laingik nishkriyta (irekshan yaani shishn ki uttejana jo sanbhog ke liye aparyaapt hai) ka kaaran ho sakta hai. isi prakaar, stan Cancer ke liye, haal hi mein yeh aalochna di gayi hai ki kuchh deshon mein stan screening kaaryakram samasyaaon ko hal karne ke bajaay badha deta hai. aisa isliye hai ki saamaanya janasankhya mein mahilaaon mein screening kai aabhaasi dhanaatmak parinaam de sakti hai, jinhein agrim jaanch ki jarurat hoti hai, jiski vajah se stan Cancer ke keval ek hi maamale ka pata lagaane aur uske upachaar ke liye bahut badi sankhya mein mahilaaon ka upachaar (ya screening) kiya jaata hai.

ek saarvajanik svaasthya pariprekshya ke anusaar paip smeeyar ke maadhyam se greeva Cancer screening, anya sabhi prakaar ke Cancer ki tulana mein keemat ki drushti se adhik laabhakaari hai, yeh bade paimaane par ek virus ke kaaran hota hai, ismein spasht jokhim kaarak (yaun sampark) hain, is Cancer ke praakrutik prasaar ka tareeka yeh hai ki yeh saamaanyataya dheere dheere kai varshon mein failata hai, isliye screening kaaryakram ko ise jaldi pakad mein le lene ke liye adhik samay mil jaata hai. iske alaava, pareekshan apne aap mein sasta aur bahut hi aasaan hai.

inheen kaaranon se, Cancer screening ke liye vichaar karte samay naidaanik prakriya aur upachaar ke laabh tatha jokhim par dhyaan dena mahatvapoorn hai.

spasht lakshanon ke abhaav yukt logon mein Cancer ke liye medical imejing ka upayog, samaan roop se samasya janak hai. haal hi mein khoje gaye inseedenataaloma ki jaanch mein bahut jokhim hai- ek saumya ghaav jise durdam samjha ja sakta hai aur ho sakta hai ki iske liye sambhaavit khatarnaak jaanch ki jaae.

dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein fefadon ke Cancer ke liye seeti scan-aadhaarit screening ke haal hi mein kiye gaye adhyayan ke golamol parinaam saamane aaye hain, July 2007 se vyavasthit screening ki salaah nahi di jaati hai. saade-film ke chhaati ke ex re ke yadrichchik naidaanik pareekshan, jo dhoomrapaan karne vaalon mein fefadon ke Cancer ke liye screen karte hain, is drushtikon ke liye laabhakaari saabit naheen hue hain.

kainaain Cancer ki jaaainch ke sateek parinaam hote hain, lekin yeh abhi bhi anusandhaan ke praarambhik charan mein hai.

nidaan

adhikaansh Cancer ya to apne lakshanon aur sanketon ke dvaara praarambhik roop se pahachaane jaate hain ya screening ke dauraan prakat hote hain. inmein se koi bhi nishchit nidaan naheen hai, jise aam taur par ek rogavijnyaaani ki salaah ki jarurat hoti hai, yeh rog vigyaani ek prakaar ka fijishiyn (medical Doctor) hona chaahiye jo Cancer aur anya rogon ke nidaan mein maahir hai.

jaanch

chhaati ka eksare, baaen fefade mein, fefadon ke Cancer dikhaata hua .

jin logon mein Cancer ka sandeh hota hai unki chikitsa pareekshan ke dvaara jaanch ki jaati hai. ismein saamaanya hain rakt pareekshan, ex kiran, seeti scan aur ant:darshan (endoskopi).

baayopsi

kai kaaranon se Cancer ka sandeh ho sakta hai, lekin adhikaansh durdamataaon ka nishchit nidaan ek rog vigyaani ke dvaara Cancer ki koshikaaon ke utak vaigyaanik pareekshan ke dvaara sunishchit kiya jaana chaahiye.

baayopsi ya shalya chikitsa ke dvaara utak ko praapt kiya ja sakta hai. kai baayopsi (jaise tvacha, stan ya yakrut ki) ek chikitsak ke kaaryaalaya mein hi ki ja sakti hain. anya angon ki baayopsi ek nishchetak ki upasthiti mein ki jaati hai, iske liye shalya chikitsa ke kaksh mein shalya kriya ki aavashyakta hoti hai.

rog vigyaani ke dvaara diye gaye utak nidaan prachurodbhavan karne waali koshika ke prakaar ko bataate hain. saath hi gaaainth ki utak vaigyaanik shreni, aanuvanshik asaamaanyataaon aur anya lakshanon ko bhi spasht karte hain.

saath hi, yeh jaankaari rogi ke poorv nidaan ka moolyaankan karne mein tatha sarvottam ilaaj ka chayan karne mein upayogi hai.koshika aanuvanshiki aur pratirksha utak rasaayan vigyaan pareekshan ke anya prakaar hain jo ek rog vigyaani ek utak ke namoone par kar sakta hai. ye pareekshan un aanvik parivrtanon (jaise utparivrtan, sanlayan jeen aur sankhyaatmak gunasootri parivartan) ke baare mein jaankaari upalabdh kara sakte hain jo Cancer ki koshika mein hue hain aur is prakaar se Cancer ke bhaavi vyavahaar (poorv nidaan) aur sarvottam upachaar ko bhi ingit karte hain.


upachaar

Cancer ka upachaar shalya chikitsa, rasochikitsa (keemotherapi), vikirn chikitsa, pratirksha chikitsa (therepi), monoklonal enteebaudi chikitsa ya anya vidhiyon ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai. therepi ka chayan gaaainth ki sthiti aur shreni tatha rog ki avastha par nirbhar karta hai, saath hi rogi ki saamaanya avastha par bhi nirbhar karta hai (pradarshan ki sthiti).kai prayogaatmak Cancer upachaar bhi viksit ho rahe hain.

shareer ko nuksaan pahuchaaye bina Cancer ko poori tarah se khtm karna upachaar ka uddeshya hota hai. kabhi kabhi ise shalya chikitsa ke dvaara kiya ja sakta hai, lekin Cancer ki aas-paas ke utakon par aakraman karne ki pravruti ya sookshm metaastesis dvaara door ke sthaanon par fail jaane ki pravruti aksar iski prabhaavita ko seemit kar deti hai. keemotherapi ki prabhaavasheelata aksar shareer mein anya utakon ke vishikran ke dvaara seemit ho jaati hai. vikirn saamaanya ootakon ko bhi nuksaan pahuaincha sakte hain.

kyonki "Cancer" ka sandarbh rogon ke ek varg se hai, aisa sambhav naheen hai ki "Cancer ka hamesha ek maatr upachaar" hi rahega, fir bhi sabhi sankraamak rogon ke liye ek hi upachaar hota hai.

shalya chikitsa

saiddhaantik roop se gair himetolojikl Cancer ka ilaaj kiya ja sakta hai yadi ise poori tarah se shalya chikitsa ke dvaara hata diya jaae,[tathya vaanchhit] lekin yeh sada sambhav naheen hai. jab Cancer shalya chikitsa se pehle hi metaastesis ke dvaara shareer ke anya angon tak pahuainch jaata hai, tab poori tarah se shalya kriya dvaara ise hata dena aam taur par asambhav hota hai. Cancer ki pragati ke haalsated namoone mein, gaaainth sthaanik roop se badhati hai, fir lasika parvon tak fail jaati hai aur fir shareer ke anya sabhi bhaagon mein.isi kaaran se chhote kainsaron ke liye sthaanik upachaar jaise shalya chikitsa ki lokapriyta badh gayi hai. yahaaain tak ki chhote sthaaneeyakrut tyoomar mein bhi metaastesis ki bahut adhik kshamata hoti hai.

Cancer ke liye shalyachikitsa ki prakriyaaon ke udaaharanon mein shaamil hain- stan Cancer ke liye stanochhedan (stan ko kaat kar hata dena) aur prostet Cancer ke liye prostet-chhedan (prostet ko kaat kar hata dena). shalya chikitsa ka lakshya hota hai ya to keval gaaainth ko hataana ya poore ang ko nikaal dena.ek Cancer koshika nagn aankhon ke liye adrushya hoti hai, lekin fir se vruddhi kar ke nayi gaaainth bana sakti hai, yeh prakriya punaraavrutti kahalaati hai. is kaaran ke liye, rogavijnyaaani shalya kriya se nikaale gaye namoone ki jaanch karte hain, yadi svasth utak ki seema upasthit hai, to is baat ki sambhaavana kam ho jaati hai ki sookshm Cancer ki koshikaayein rogi ke shareer mein rah gayi hain.

praathamik gaaainth ko nikaalne ke alaava, aksar shalya kriya avastha nirdhaaran ke liye aavashyak hoti hai udaaharan rog ki seema ka nirdhaaran aur is baat ka nirdhaaran ki yeh metaastesis ke dvaara kshetreeya lasika parvon tak pahuainch gaya hai ya naheen. avastha nirdhaaran poorv nidaan ka mukhya nirdhaarak hai aur sahayogi chikitsa ki aavashyakta bhi hai.

aksar, meru rajjoo sanpeedn ya aantr baadha jaise lakshanon ko niyantrit karne ke liye shalya chikitsa jaruri hoti hai. ise shaman upachaar ke roop mein jaana jaata hai.

vikirn chikitsa

vikirn chikitsa (rediyotherepi, ex re chikitsa, vikirnan bhi kahalaati hai) mein Cancer ki koshikaaon aur sankuchit gaanth ko nasht karne ke liye aayaneekaran vikirn ka upayog kiya jaata hai. vikirn chikitsa ko baahya kiran rediyotherepi ke dvaara baahar se hi niyantrit kiya jaata hai ya brekeetherepi ke dvaara andar se niyantrit kiya ja sakta hai. vikirn chikitsa ka prabhaav sthaaneekrut hota hai aur chikitsa kiye jaane vaale kshetr tak hi seemit rahata hai. vikirn chikitsa, ilaaj kiye jaane vaale kshetr ("lakshya ootak") ki koshikaaon ko kshatigrast karti hai ya nasht kar deti hai, is kriya mein in koshikaaon ke aanuvanshik padaarth ko nasht kar diya jaata hai taaki koshikaaon mein aage vibhaajan aur vruddhi na ho paae.yadyapi vikirn Cancer ki koshikaaon aur saamaanya koshikaaon donon ko nasht kar dete hain, adhikaansh saamaanya koshikaaen vikirn ke prabhaav se Uber aati hain aur theek prakaar se kaarya karne lagti hain. vikirn chikitsa ka lakshya hai adhik se adhik Cancer koshikaaon ko nasht karna, jabki aas-paas ke svasth utakon ko hone vaale nuksaan ko seemit karna. isliye, yeh kai bhaagon mein di jaati hai jisse beech ki avadhi mein svasth utakon ko theek hone ka mauka mil jaata hai.

vikirn chikitsa, ka upayog lagbhag har prakaar ki thos gaanth ke upachaar ke liye kiya ja sakta hai, jismein mastishk, stan, garbhaashaya greeva, gala, fefade, agnyaashaya, prostet, tvacha, pet, garbhaashaya, ya komal utak saarkoma ke Cancer shaamil hain. lyookemiya (rakt keinsar) aur limfoma ke upachaar mein bhi vikirn chikitsa ka upayog kiya ja sakta hai. pratyek site ke liye vikirn ki khuraak kai kaarakon par nirbhar karti hai, ye kaarak hain, har prakaar ke Cancer ki radio sanvedanasheelata aur aas-paas ke utak ya ang vikirn se nasht ho sakte hain ya naheen.is prakaar, har prakaar ke upachaar mein, vikirn chikitsa iske paarshv dushprabhaavon ke bina naheen hai.

rasochikitsa

rasochikitsa (keemotherepi) mein un davaaon se Cancer ka upachaar kiya jaata hai ("Cancer virodhi davaaen") jo Cancer ki koshikaaon ko nasht kar sakti hain. vartamaan upayog mein, shabd "rasochikitsa" ka upayog un saaitotoksik ya koshikaavishi davaaon ke liye kiya jaata hai jo lakshit chikitsa ke vipreet, saamaanya roop mein teji se vibhaajit hoti hui koshikaaon ko prabhaavit karti hain. (neeche dekhein). rasochikitsa davaaen bhinn sambhav tareekon se koshika vibhaajan mein baadha daalati hain, udaaharan DNA (DNA) ki pratikruti se ya nav nirmit gunasootron ke pruthakkaran se.keemotherepi ke adhikaansh roop teji se vibhaajit hoti hui sabhi koshikaaon ko lakshya banaate hain, ye keval karkat ki koshikaaon ke liye vishisht naheen hain, yadyapi kuchh vishishtata is vajah se aa jaati hai ki adhikaansh karkat ki koshikaaen DNA kshati ki marammat mein saksham naheen hoti hain jabki saamaanya koshikaaon mein aam taur par par ye kshamata hoti hai. at:, rasochikitsa mein svasth utakon ko nuksaan pahunchaane ki kshamata hoti hai, vishesh roop se ve utak jinmein uchch pratisthaapan dar hoti hai (udaaharan aant ka aantarik star).ye koshikaaen aamtaur par rasochikitsa ke baad apni marammat kar leti hain.

kyonki kuchh davaaen akele ki tulana mein ek saath behtar kaarya karti hain, isliye ek hi samay par do ya adhik davaaen di jaati hain. ise "sanyojan rasochikitsa" kaha jaata hai; adhikaansh rasochikitsa rejimen ek sanyojan mein hi diye jaate hain.

kuchh prakaar ke lyookemiya (rakt Cancer) aur laseekaarbud (linfoma) ke upachaar ke liye keemotherapi ki uchch khuraak ki ya poore shareer ke vikeernan (TBI) ki aavashyakta hoti hai. yeh upachaar asthi majja ko alag kar deta hai aur isliye shareer ki theek hone aur rakt ke punarnimaan ki kshamata pruthakkrut ho jaati hai. is kaaran se, therepi ke pruthakkaran prabhaav se pehle asthi majja, ya paridheeya rakt stambh koshika haarvesting ki jaati hai taaki upachaar ke baad "bachaav" sambhav ho.

ise otolaugas stem koshika pratyaaropan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. vaikalpik roop se, ek Milan kiye gaye asanbandhit daata se li gayi himetopoyatik stem koshikaaen pratyaaropit ki ja sakti hain.

lakshit chikitsa

lakshit therepi jo 1990 ke dashak ke ant mein sabse pehle upalabdh hui, ka kai prakaar ke Cancer ke upachaar mein mukhya prabhaav tha aur vartamaan mein yeh ek bahut hi adhik sakriya anusandhaan kshetr hai. ismein aise kaarakon ka upayog shaamil hai jo Cancer koshikaaon ke proteen ko aniyamit karne ke liye vishishteekrut hote hain. chhote anu lakshit upachaar davaayein aamtaur par Cancer koshikaaon ke bheetar utparivrtit, ati abhivyakt, ya anya jatil proteenon par enjaaimetik domen ki sandamak hoti hain.

pramukh udaaharan hain thaayarosin kaayanej sandamak imaatinib (Gleevec/Glivec) aur jefitinib (Iressa).

monoklonal pratirkshi chikitsa ek anya rananeeti hai jismein upachaar ka kaarak ek pratirkshi hota hai jo Cancer koshikaaon ki satah par ek proteen ke saath vishesh roop se bandh bana leta hai. udaaharanon mein shaamil hain stan Cancer mein prayukt kiya jaane wala anti- HER2/neu pratirkshi traastoojumeb (harasepatin) aur kai prakaar ki B-koshika durdamataaon mein prayukt kiya jaane wala anti CD-20 pratirkshi rituksimeb.

lakshit therepi mein "homing yukti" ke roop mein chhote peptaaid bhi shaamil ho sakte hain, jo gaaainth ke chaaron or prabhaavit baahya koshiki maitriks ke saath ya koshika ki satah par graahi ke saath baandh bana sakte hain.

radio nyukleed jo in pepataaidon (udaaharan RGD) se jude hote hain, antat: Cancer koshika ko maar dete hain yadi nyookleed koshika ke aas paas apaghatit ho raha hai.

vishesh roop se in bandhit padaarthon ke oligo- ya malteemars bahut mahatvapoorn hote hain, chooainki ve gaaainth ki vishishtata aur utkantha ko badhaate hain.

prakaash gatik chikitsa (PDT) Cancer ke liye tihra upachaar hai jismein prakaash sanvedak, utak okseejan, or prakaash (aksar lejar ka upayog) shaamil hain. PDT ka upayog aadhaari koshika kaarsinoma (BCC) ya fefadon ke Cancer ke upachaar ke liye kiya jaata hai; PDT bade tyoomar ko shalya chikitsa ke dvaara hata diye jaane ke baad durdam utak ke bache hue avasheshon ko hataane mein bhi upayogi ho sakta hai.[84]

pratirksha chikitsa

ek vrukk ke namoone mein ek vrukk koshika kaarsinoma (neechala baayaan)

Cancer pratirksha therepi bhinn chikitsa rananeetiyon ka ek samooh hai jise rogi ke apne pratirksha tantr ko prerit karne ke liye design kiya gaya hai taaki vah gaaainth se lad sake. gaaainth ke khilaaf pratirkshi pratikriya utpann karne ke liye kai vidhiyaan hain, ye hain, satahi mutraashyi Cancer ke liye antar dhaaneeya BCG pratirksha chikitsa, tatha vrukk koshika kaarsinoma aur melaanoma ke rogiyon mein pratirkshi pratikriya prerit karne ke liye intaraferon aur anya saaitokaain ka upayog. kai prakaar ki gaanthon, khaas taur par durdam melaanoma aur vrukk koshika kaarsinoma, ke liye vishisht pratirksha pratikriya utpann karne ke liye vekseenon par gahan anusandhaan kiya ja raha hai.

seepulyookal-T prostet Cancer ke liye aadhunik naidaanik pareekshanon mein ek vekseen ki tarah ki rananeeti hai, jismein rogi se li gayi drumaashmi koshikaaon ko prostetik aml fosfetej peptaaids ke saath lod kiya jaata hai, taaki prostet-vyutpann koshikaaon ke khilaaf vishesh pratirksha pratikriya ko prerit kiya ja sake.

ellojinenik himetopoyatik stem koshika pratyaaropan (aanuvanshik roop se asamaan daata se "asthi-majja sthaanaantaran") ko pratirksha therepi ka ek roop maana ja sakta hai, kyonki daata ki pratirksha koshikaaen graaft-banaam-gaaainth prabhaav ke tahat gaaainth par aksar aakraman karti hain. iseeliye, ellojinenik HSCT, kai prakaar ke Cancer ke liye otolaugas pratyaaropan ki tulana mein upachaar ki uchch dar ka kaaran banti hai, yadyapi paarshv dushprabhaav bhi adhik gambhir hote hain.

haarmon therepi (haarmon chikitsa)

kuchh Cancer ki vruddhi ko vishesh hormonon ko upalabdh kara kar ya avaruddh karke sandamit kiya ja sakta hai. haarmon samvedi gaanthon ke kuchh saamaanya udaaharan hain- vishesh prakaar ke stan aur prostet Cancer.estrojan ya testosteron ko hata dena ya avaruddh kar dena aksar ek mahatvapoorn atirikt upachaar hai. vishesh prakaar ke kainsaron mein, haarmon ka prashaasan shithil ho jaata hai, jaise projesatojan chikitsa ki drushti se laabhakaari ho sakta hai.

vaahikaajanan sandamak

vaahikaajanan (enjiyojinesis sandamak rakt vaahiniyon ki vyaapak vruddhi ko rokata hai (enjiyojinesis) jo tyoomar ko jeevit rahane ke liye jaruri hai. kuchh, jaise bevaaseejumeb, ko maanyata de di gayi hai aur chikitsakeeya upayog mein inka upayog kiya ja raha hai. enjiyojinesis virodhi davaaon ke saath ek mukhya samasya yeh hai ki kai kaarak saamaanya aur Cancer yukt koshikaaon mein rakt vaahiniyon ki vruddhi ko uttejit karte hain. enjiyojinesis virodhi davaaye keval ek hi kaarak ko lakshya banaati hain, isliye anya kaarak rakt vaahini ki vruddhi ko uttejit karna jaari rakhate hain. anya samasyaaon mein shaamil hain prashaasan ka maarg, sthirta ka rakh-rakhaav aur tyoomar vaahika sanrachana par kriya aur lakshyeekaran.[85]

lakshan niyantran

yadyapi Cancer ke lakshanon par niyantran ko Cancer ka upachaar naheen maana ja sakta hai, yeh Cancer rogiyon ki jeevan ki gunavatta ka ek mahatvapoorn nirdhaarak hai aur is faisale mein mukhya bhoomika nibhaata hai ki rogi anya upachaar ke liye saksham hai ya naheen.haalaanki doctoron ke paas, Cancer ke rogiyon mein dard, matali, ulti, daayariya, raktasraav aur anya aam samasyaaon ko kam karne ke liye chikitsakeeya kaushal hota hai, rogiyon ke is samooh ki lakshan niyantran ki aavashyakataaon ke liye pratikriya mein prashaamak dekhbhaal ki bahul anushaasanaatmak visheshata ka vikaas hua hai.

dard ki davaaye, jaise ki morfeen aur oksikodon aur michli aur ulti ko rokane ke liye enteeemetiks davaaen, Cancer se sambandhit lakshanon se yukt rogiyon mein aam taur par kaam mein li jaati hain. parishkrut enteeemetiks jaise ondenasetron aur ainaalogyus, saath hi eprepitent ne Cancer rogiyon mein ugr upachaar ko adhik sambhav bana diya hai.

kainsar ke kaaran puraana dard hamesha satat utak kshati ke kaaran hota hai jo rog ya upachaar prakriya se sambandhit hai (yaani shalya chikitsa, rediyeshan, keemotherapi) yadyapi paryaavaraneeya kaarakon aur dard ke vyavahaar ke utpaadan mein prabhaavi gadabadi ki bhi bhoomika hoti hai, Cancer ke dard se yukt rogiyon mein aam taur par pramukh itiyolojik kaaran naheen hote hain. iske alaava, Cancer se sambandhit bhayankar dard se yukt adhikaansh rogi apne jeevan ki antim avastha mein hote hain aur unhein prashaamak chikitsa ki jarurat hoti hai.

mudde jaise nasheele padaarthon ke upayog ka saamaajik kalank, kaam aur kaaryaatmak sthiti aur svaasthya dekhbhaal, samagr maamale ke prabandhan mein adhik mahatvapoorn naheen hain. at:, Cancer dard prabandhan ke liye vishisht rananeeti hai nasheele padaarthon aur anya davaaon, shalya chikitsa aur bhautik tareekon ke upayog ke dvaara rogi ko adhik se adhik aaraam pahuainchane ki koshish karna.Doctor Cancer ke antim sthiti ke rogiyon mein dard ke liye maadak padaarthon ka upayog naheen karna chaahate hain kyon ki isse unhein iski lat ho sakti hai ya unki shvaas kriya mein baadha aa sakti hai.prashaamak dekhbhaal, dekhbhaal aandolan ki ek nai shaakha hai jo Cancer ke rogiyon mein dard ke upachaar mein adhik vyaapak sahayog pradaan karti hai.

thakaan Cancer rogiyon ke liye ek bahut hi aam samasya hai aur haal hi mein Cancer chikitsa vijnyaaaniyon ke liye iska upachaar bahut mahatvapoorn ban gaya hai, yadyapi yeh kai rogiyon mein jeevan ki gunavatta ko lekar mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaata hai.

upachaar ke prayaas

naidaanik pareekshan, jo anusandhaan adhyayan bhi kahalaate hain, Cancer ke rogiyon mein nae upachaaron ka pareekshan bhi karte hain. is shodh ka lakshya hai Cancer ke ilaaj ke liye behtar tareeke khojana aur Cancer rogiyon ki madad karna.naidaanik pareekshan kai prakaar ke upachaaron ka pareekshan karte hain jaise nayi davaaen, surgery ya vikirn chikitsa ke nae drushtikon, upachaar ke nae sanyojan, ya nai vidhiyaan jaise jeen therepi.

ek naidaanik pareekshan, ek lambi aur satark Cancer anusandhaan ki prakriya ke antim charanon mein se ek hai. nae upachaar ke liye khoj prayogashaala mein shuroo hoti hai, jahaaain vaigyaanik pehle nae vichaaron ka pareekshan aur vikaas karte hain. agar ek drushtikon upayogi prateet hota hai to agala kadam hota hai iska jaanavar par pareekshan, jo yeh bataata hai ki Cancer rogi par iska kya prabhaav hoga aur iske koi haanikaarak prabhaav hain ya naheen.beshak, kai upachaar jo prayogashaala mein ya pashuon mein achhi tarah se kaam karte hain, ve hamesha manushya mein kaaragar saabit naheen hote hain. upayogi maane jaane vaale upachaar surakshit aur prabhaavi hain ya naheen, iska pata lagaane ke liye Cancer ke rogiyon mein adhyayan kiye jaate hain.

ho sakta hai ki jo rogi ismein bhaag le raha hai use is upachaar se vyaktigat roop se madad mile.ve Cancer visheshagyon se aadhuniktam suraksha praapt karte hain aur ve ya to jaanch kiya ja raha naya ilaaj praapt karte hain ya Cancer ke liye sarvottam upalabdh maanak upachaar praapt karte hain. saath hi, nae upachaaron mein agyaat jokhim bhi ho sakte hain, lekin yadi nae upachaar prabhaavi ya maanak upachaaron se adhik prabhaavi saabit hote hain, to adhyayan kiya jaane wala rogi iske laabh ko praapt karne wala pehla vyakti ban jaata hai. is baat ki koi guaranty naheen hai ki pareekshan kiya jaane wala naya upachaar ya ek maanak upachaar achhe parinaam dega.Cancer yukt bachchon mein, ek sarvekshan se pata chalta hai ki jin bachchon par aise pareekshan kiya gaye unamein ausatan maanak upachaaron ki tulana mein behtar ya bure parinaam naheen dekhe gaye; isse yeh sunishchit hota hai ki kisi bhi prayogaatmak upachaar ki safalta ya asafalata ka poorvaanumaan naheen lagaaya ja sakta hai.[86]

poorak aur vaikalpik

poorak aur vaikalpik chikitsa (CAM) upachaar, chikitsa, svaasthya raksha pranaaliyon, prathaaon aur utpaadon ke vividh samooh hain, jo paaramparik chikitsa ke bhaag naheen hain.[87] "poorak chikitsa" ka arth un vidhiyon aur padaarthon se hai, jinka upayog paaramparik chikitsa ke saath kiya jaata hai. jabki "vaikalpik chikitsa" ka arth un yaugikon se hai jinka upayog paaramparik chikitsa ke sthaan par kiya jaata hai.[88] CAM ka upayog Cancer se yukt logon mein aam hai; 2000 mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan mein paaya gaya ki 69% Cancer rogiyon ne kam se kam ek CAM chikitsa ka upayog apne Cancer upachaar ke ek hisse ke roop mein kiya hai.[89] Cancer ke liye jyaadaatar poorak aur vaikalpik chikitsaaon ka kathor adhyayan ya pareekshan naheen kiya gaya hai. kuchh vaikalpik upachaar, jin par jaanch ki gayi hai aur ve nishprabhaavi hain, unka lagaataar vipnan ho raha hai aur unhein protsaahan mil raha hai.[90]

garbhaavastha mein

garbhavati maataaon ki badhti hui umr ke kaaran garbhaavastha ke dauraan samavarti Cancer ki ghatnaaon mein vruddhi hui hai,[91] in ghatnaaon mein vruddhi ka ek aur kaaran hai janm poorv altraasaaund pareekshanon ke dauraan praasangik roop se maata mein gaaainth ki jaanch.

maan aur uske bhroon/bachche donon ko kam se kam nuksaan pahunche, iske liye Cancer upachaar ko chayanit karne ki aavashyakta hai. kai maamalon mein ek chikitseeya garbhapaat ki salaah di ja sakti hai.

vikirn chikitsa par aamtaur par koi savaal naheen uthaaye jaate hain aur rasaayan chikitsa (keemo therepi) mein hamesha garbhapaat aur janmajaat viroopataaon ka khtara bana rahata hai.[91] bachche par chikitsa ke prabhaavon ke baare mein bahut kam gyaat hai.

yahaaain tak ki ek dava jis par pareekshan kiya gaya hai ki yeh apara (plesanta) se hokar bachche tak naheen pahunchati hai, Cancer ke kuchh roop apara ko nuksaan pahuncha sakte hain aur dava ismein se hokar chali jaati hai.[91] tvacha Cancer ke kuchh roop metaastesis ke dvaara bachche ke shareer mein bhi pravesh kar sakte hain.[91]

nidaan bhi jyaada kathin ho gaya hai, choonki iski uchch vikirn khuraak ki vajah se kamapyuted tomograafi avyavahaarya hai. fir bhi, chunbakeeya anunaad imejing saamaanya roop se kaam karta hai.[91] haalaanki vipreet media ka upayog naheen kiya ja sakta hai, choonki ve apara ko paar kar jaate hain.[91]

garbhaavastha ke dauraan Cancer ke theek prakaar se nidaan aur upachaar mein aane waali kathinaaiyon ke ek parinaam ke roop mein, vaikalpik tareekon ka istamaal kiya jaata hai, ismein ya to adhik ugr Cancer upachaar shuroo karne ke liye ek seejeriyn sekshan ka upayog kiya jaata hai ya yadi Cancer itna adhik durdam ho chuka hai ki maan ke ilaaj mein aur deri naheen ki ja sakti hai to Cancer ka upachaar karne ke liye garbhapaat kar diya jaata hai.[91]

garbhaashaye (in yutro)

kabhi kabhi garbhaashaya mein rahate hue hi bhrooneeya gaanthon ka nidaan kiya jaata hai. teraatoma bhroon tyoomar ka sabse aam prakaar hai aur aamtaur par saumya hota hai.

poorv nidaan

Cancer ko ek ghaatak rog ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. haalaanki yeh baat nishchit roop se vishesh prakaaron par hi laagoo hoti hai, Cancer ke aitihaasik tathyon ke peechhe chhupi hui sachchaai chikitsa kshetr mein aadhunikeekaran ke kaaran badal gayi hai. Cancer ke kuchh prakaaron mein aise lakshan paae gaye hain, jo kuchh adurdam rogon jaise hrudaya ka asafal hona aur hrudaya aaghaat se behtar hain.

pragatisheel aur teji se failate hue durdam rog ka Cancer rogi ke jeevan ki gunavatta par kaafi prabhaav padta hai aur kai Cancer upachaar (jaise keemotherapi) ke gambhir paarshv dushprabhaav ho sakte hain. Cancer ke unnat charanon mein, kai rogiyon ko vyaapak dekhbhaal ki jarurat hoti hai, yeh uske parivaar ke sadasyon aur mitron ko prabhaavit karta hai.prashaamak dekhbhaal samaadhaan mein sthaayi ya "raahat" dharmashaala nursing shaamil ho sakti hai.

bhaavanaatmak prabhaav

kai sthaaneeya sangathan Cancer rogiyon ke liye kai prakaar ki vyaavahaarik sahaayataayein aur sevaaen upalabdh karaate hain. ye sevaaen hain sahaayata samooh, paraamarsh, salaah, vitteeya sahaayata, upachaar ke sthaan se aur vahaaain tak parivhan, Cancer ke baare mein jaankaari ya filmein.as-paas ke sangathanon, sthaaneeya svaasthya seva pradaataaon, ya kshetr ke aspataalon mein sansaadhan ya sevaaen upalabdh ho sakti hain.

paraamarsh Cancer rogiyon ko bhaavanaatmak sahaara pradaan kar sakta hai, unhein apni beemaari samajhne mein madad karta hai. bhinn prakaar ke paraamarsh meinshaamil hain vyaktigat, samooh, parivaar, saathiyon ke paraamarsh, viyog, rogi-se-rogi ka paraamarsh aur kaamukata.

rogiyon ko Cancer se nipatne mein madad karne ke liye kai kai sarkaari aur dharmaarth sangathan sthaapit kiye gaye hain. ye sangathan aksar Cancer ki rokathaam, Cancer ke upachaar aur Cancer anusandhaan mein rat rahate hain.

mahaamaari vigyaan

Cancer America mein sabhi mauton mein se 25% ke liye jimmedaar hai aur duniya ke kai bhaagon mein ek pramukh saarvajanik svaasthya samasya hai. America mein, fefadon ka Cancer, Cancer mauton mein se 30% ka kaaran hai, lekin yeh Cancer ke nae maamalon ka keval 15% hota hai; purushon mein sabse saamaanya roop se paaya jaane vaal Cancer hai prostet Cancer (nae maamalon ka lagbhag 25%) aur mahilaaon mein sabse saamaanya roop se paaya jaane wala Cancer hai stan Cancer (yeh bhi lagbhag 25% hai).

Cancer chhote bachchon aur kishoron mein bhi ho sakta hai, lekin aisa kam hi hota hai (America mein prati million mein lagbhag 150 maamale), ismein rakt Cancer (lyookemiya) sabse aam hai.[92] America mein jeevan ke pehle varsh mein prati million maamalon mein 230 ऎsi ghatnaaen hoti hain, jinmein sabse saamaanya hai nyooroblaastoma.[93]

duniya bhar mein Cancer mauton ka ek tihaai sambhaavit sanshodhan yogya jokhim kaarakon ke kaaran hota hai. jismein mukhya hain, tambaakoo dhumrapaan, sharaab ka upayog aur aahaar mein fal aur sabjiyon ka kam upabhog. viksit deshon mein adhik vajan aur motaapa bhi Cancer ka ek pramukh kaaran hai aur nimn aur maadhyam aay varg vaale deshon mein maanav pepiloma virus ka laingik sancharan greeva Cancer ke liye mukhya jokhim kaarak hai.[40]

itihaas

chitr:Breast cancer gross appearance.jpg
Cancer ki vishisht aur netron se hi dikhaai dene waali upasthiti.stan ka yeh aakraamak vaahineeparak kaarsinoma (kendra mein ek peela kshetr) darshaata hai ki ek andaakaar tyoomar safed daagadaar utak ki spaaikon se ghira hua hai jo chaaron aur ke peele vasa utak mein hain. yeh silhoot kuchh kekade ki tarah dikhta hai.

vartamaan mein upakala utak se vyutpann ek durdam gaaainth ke liye chikitsakeeya shabd ke roop mein greek shabd kaarsinoma ka upayog kiya jaata hai. selsas ne kaarsinoj ka letin mein anuvaad karke shabd diya Cancer, jiska arth kekada bhi hai. gelan ne sabhi gaanthon ka varnan karne ke liye "onkoj " ka prayog kiya, jo aadhunik shabd onkoloji ka mool hai.[94]

hippokrets ne kai prakaar ke Cancer ka varnan kiya. unhonne saumya tyoomar ko onkos kaha, jiska arth greek mein soojan se hai aur durdam tyoomar ko unhonne kaarsinoj kaha jiska arth greek mein kekada ya krefish hai.

yeh naam ek thos ghaatak tyoomar ki kati hui satah ke kaaran utpann hua hai, "jiske chaaron aur shiraaeain faili hui hain, yeh kekade ke pairon ki tarah dikhti hain, jisse ise yeh naam mila hai"[95] (chitr dekhein) baad mein unhonne pratyaya -oma joda, yoonaani mein iska arth hai soojan aur is prakaar se iska naam kaarsinoma ho gaya. choonki shareer ko kholana yoonaani parampara ke khilaaf tha, hippokrets ne tvacha, naak aur stan par baahar se dikhaai dene vaale tyoomaron ka hi varnan kiya aur unke chitr banaaye.upachaar chaar shaareerik dravyon (kaale aur peele pitt, rakt aur kaf) ke hyoomar siddhaant par aadhaarit tha. rogi ke bhaav ke anusaar, ilaaj ke ke liye aahaar, rakt aur/ya julaab kaam mein liya jaata tha. sadiyon ke dauraan yeh gyaat ho gaya ki Cancer shareer ke kisi bhi bhaag mein ho sakta hai, lekin hyoomar siddhaant par aadhaarit upachaar 19 veen sadi tak lokapriya bana raha jab koshikaaon ki khoj ki gayi.

hamaare praacheenatam varnan aur Cancer ke sarjikl upachaar ki khoj misr mein lagbhag 1600 E.poo. ki gayi. pepaairas ne stan ke 8 alsar ke maamalon ka varnan kiya jinka ilaaj "agni dril" namak upakaran ki sahaayata se daagane ke dvaara kiya gaya.

is beemaari ke baare mein lekhan kehta hai, "iska koi ilaaj naheen hai."[96]

Cancer ke liye anya praarambhik shalya chikitsa ka varnan 1020 mein avisnna (ibn seena) ke dvaara di kenan of medisin mein kiya gaya. unhonne kaha ki chhantaai theek prakaar se honi chaahiye aur sampoorn rog yukt utak ko hata dena chaahiye, ismein vichhedan ka upayog ya tyoomar ki disha mein jaane waali shiraaon ko hataana shaamil hai. unhonne salaah di ki jarurat padne par prabhaavit kshetr ke liye daagane ki kriya ka upayog bhi kiya ja sakta hai.[97]

16 veen aur 17 veen shataabdiyon mein, mrutyu ke kaaran ko khojane ke liye shareer ko kaatna doctoron ke liye adhik sveekaarya ban gaya. jarman professor vilhem febri ka maanana tha ki stan Cancer ek stan vaahini mein doodh ke thakke ke kaaran hota hai. desakaartes ke ek anuyaayi dach praadhyaapak freinkosis de la boe silviys ka maanana tha ki sabhi beemaariyaan raasaayanik prakriya ka parinaam hain aur amleeya lasika dravya Cancer ka kaaran hai.

uske samakaaleen nikolas talp ka maanana tha ki Cancer ek jahar hai jo dheere dheere failata hai aur unhonne nishkarsh nikaala ki yeh sankraamak hai.[98]

Cancer ka pehla aisa kaaran british shalya chikitsak perkivl pot ke dvaara pahachaana gaya, jisne 1775 mein khoj ki ki chimni ki safaai mein sanlagn logon mein andakosh ka Cancer aam hai. anya vyaktigat chikitsakon ke kaarya ne kai drushtikon viksit kiye, lekin jab chikitsakon ne ek saath kaam karna shuroo kiya tab ve thos nishkarsh par pahuainch sake.

18 veen sadi mein sookshmadarshi ke vyaapak upayog se yeh gyaat hua ki 'Cancer ka jhar' apne praathamik tyoomar se anya sthaanon tak limf parvon ke maadhyam se failata hai ("metaastesis").is rog ka yeh drushtikon sabse pehle angreji shalya chikitsak Campbell di maurgan ne 1871 aur 1874 ke beech diya.[99] svachhata ki samasya ke kaaran Cancer ka ilaaj karne ke liye shalya chikitsa ka istemaal karne ke parinaam achhe naheen rahe. mashahoor Scotland ke shalya chikitsak alekjeindar Monroe ne do saal mein shalya chikitsa ke baad jeevit saath mareejon mein se keval do mein stan tyoomar ko dekha.19 veen sadi mein, asepsis ne shalya chikitsa mein svachhata ki drushti se sudhaar kiya aur isse jeevit rahane ke aaainkadon mein vruddhi hui, shalya chikitsa Cancer ka praarambhik upachaar ban gaya.William kaale apavaad the jinhonne 1800 ke ant mein paaya ki asepsis se pehle shalya chikitsa ke baad upachaar ki dar adhik thi, (aur unhonne mishrit parinaamon ke saath tyoomar mein jeevaanu ko injekt kar diya), Cancer ka upachaar shalya chikitsak ki tyoomar ko hataane ki kala par nirbhar ho gaya. isi avadhi ke dauraan, yeh pata laga ki shareer kai ootakon se bana hai jo kai million koshikaaon se bane hain, is vichaar se shareer mein raasaayanik asantulan ke baare mein hyoomar siddhaanton ne janm liya.koshika vikrutivijnyaaan ke yug ka janm hua.

jab 19 veen sadi ke ant mein, meri kyuri aur piyre kyuri ne vikirn ki khoj ki, unhonne Cancer ke liye pehla prabhaavi shalya chikitsa heen upachaar khoja.vikirn ke saath Cancer ke upachaar ke liye bahul anushaasanaatmak drushtikon ke pehle lakshan prakat hue. shalya chikitsak ab sirf operation naheen karte hain, lekin vikirn vigyaani ke saath milkar kaarya karte hain aur rogi ki madad karte hain. isse sanchaar mein jatiltaaen aayeen, saath hi ghar ke bajaay rogi ke upachaar ki jarurat aspataal mein mahasoos hui, saath hi aspataal ki faailon mein rogi se sambandhit aankadon ko sankalit kiya gaya. jisse pehli baar saankhyikeeya rogi adhyayan ki shuruaat hui.

janet len-klepon ki khoj ko prakaashit kiya gaya, jinhonne 1926 mein british svaasthya mantraalaya ke liye jeevan shaili aur samaan prushth bhoomi ke 500 niyantrit rogiyon aur 500 stan Cancer ke maamalon ke ek tulanaatmak adhyayan ka prakaashan kiya. Cancer mahaamaari vigyaan par unke jabaradast kaarya ko richrd dol aur ostin braadaford hil ke dvaara aage badhaaya gaya, jinhonne "fefadon ke Cancer aur dhoomrapaan se sambandhit mrutyu ke anya kaaranon ko prakaashit kiya. amaratv par british doctoron ki doosari report"1956 mein di gayi (anyatha british doctoron ka adhyayan kahalaata hai.) richrd dol ne 1968 mein oksaford kainsar mahaamaari vigyaan ikaai ko shuroo karne ke liye landan chikitsa anusandhaan kendra ko chhod diya.computer ke upayog ke saath, yeh pehli ikaai thi jisne badi maatra mein Cancer par aankadon ka sankalan kiya. aadhunik mahaamaari vigyaan vidhiyaan saarvajanik svaasthya neeti aur rogon ki vartamaan avadhaaranaaon se nikat sambandhit hain. pichhle 50 varshon se, chikitsa abhyaas, aspataal, praanteeya, raajya aur yahaaain tak ki desh ki seemaaon, adi par aankade ekatrit karne ke liye bahut adhik prayaas kiye gaye hain, saath hi is baat par bhi dhyaan diya gaya hai ki paryaavaran aur saanskrutik kaarak Cancer ki ghatna ko kaise prabhaavit karte hain.

dviteeya vishv yudgh tak ek chikitsak ko vyaktigat roop se Cancer rogi ke upachaar aur adhyayan karne ki anumati naheen thi, ab chikitsa anusandhaan kendron ne khoja ki rog ki ghatna mein kaafi antarraashtreeya antar dikhaai dete hain. is antardrushti ke kaaran raashtreeya saarvajanik svaasthya nikaayon ne aspataalon aur kleenikon mein svaasthya sambandhi aankadon ko sankalit kiya, yeh ek aisi prakriya thi jise aaj kai desh karte hain. Japani medical samudaaya ne prekshit kiya ki hiroshima aur naagaasaaki ke parmaanu visfoton ke shikaar logon ka asthi majja poori tarah se nasht ho gaya tha. unhonne nishkarsh nikaala ki rogagrast asthi majja ko bhi vikirn ke dvaara nasht kiya ja sakta hai aur isse rakt Cancer (lyookemiya) ke liye asthi majja pratyaaropan ki khoj hui.dviteeya vishv yudgh ke baad se Cancer upachaar ki pravrutiyon mein sudhaar ho rahe hain, ismein upasthit upachaar vidhiyon mein sookshm star par sudhaar hua hai, unka maanakeekaran kiya gaya hai aur mahaamaari vigyaan aur antararaashtreeya saajhedaari ke maadhyam se ilaaj ke tareeke ki khoj mein unhein vaishveekrut kiya gaya hai.

anusandhaan nirdesh

Cancer anusandhaan ek gahan vaigyaanik prayaas hai jo rog prakriyaaon ko samajhne ke liye aur sambhav upachaar ki khoj ke liye kiya jaata hai. Cancer anusandhaan ke kaaran aanvik jeev vigyaan aur koshika jeev vigyaan ke gyaan ke badhne se Cancer ke kai nae prabhaavi upachaaron ki khoj hui hai. aisa tab se hua jab se 1971 mein raashtrapati Nixon ne "Cancer par yuddh" ki ghoshana ki.sanyukt raajya America ne 1971 ke baad se Cancer anusandhaan par 200 billion dollar se adhik ka nivesh kiya hai; yeh dhan saarvajanik aur niji kshetron ke dvaara aur sansthaaon ke dvaara lagaaya gaya hai.[100] is bhaari nivesh ke baavajood, 1950 aur 2005 ke beech desh ki Cancer se mrutyu dar mein keval ek paaainch pratishat ki kami dekhi gayi hai (aabaadi ke aakaar aur aayu ke liye samaayojan karte hue).[101]

agrani Cancer anusandhaan sangathanon aur pariyojanaaon mein shaamil hain American association for Cancer research, American Cancer society (ACS), di American society of klinikl onkoloji, di yooropiyn organaaijeshan for research end treetameint of Cancer, raashtreeya Cancer sansthaan, national komprihensiv Cancer network aur di Cancer jeenom etalas project NCI mein.

sandarbh

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