karaate

Karate
(空aa手)
Karatedo.svg
Hanashiro Chomo.jpg
Hanashiro Chōamo
anya naam Karate-dō (空aa手aa道)
focus Striking
Hardness full contact to non contact
mool desh saaaincha:desh aaainkade Ryūakyū Kingdom Ryūakyū Kingdom / जापान Japan (from Ryukyu Islands indigenous fighting methods and Chinese kenpō[1][2] and further explored in Japan)
Creator Sakukawa Kanga; Matsumura Sōakon; Itosu Ankō; Arakaki Seishō; Higaonna Kanryō; Gichin Funakoshi; Motobu Chōaki
Parenthood Chinese martial arts, indigenous martial arts of Ryukyu Islands (Naha-te, Shuri-te, Tomari-te)[1][2]
olympic khel Not voted in 2005 (for 2012) or in 2009 (for 2016)

Karate (空aa手?) (Japanese pronunciation: [kaɽaaate] ( sunein), IPA: /kəaaˈaarɑaaːaatiː/) yookyoo dweep samooh mein viksit ek maarshal Art hai jo ab okinaava, Japan mein hai. iska vikaas deshi yuddh paddhati se hua tha jise te ( literally: "hand"?) aur cheeni kempo kehte hain.[1][2] karaate ek prahaar kala hai jismein mukkebaaji, paad prahaar aur ghutana prahaar aur mukt-hast praudyogiki jaise naaif-hainds (karaate chop) ke roop mein istemaal kiya jaata hai. kuchh shailiyo mein grepaling, lauks, atakaav, throw aur mahatvapoorn binduon par prahaar karna sikhaaya jaata hai.[3] ek karaate abhyast karmi ko karateka (空aa手aa家?) kaha jaata hai.

19 veen shataabdi mein Japan dvaara yookyu saamraajya ko milaane se pehle yahaan karaate ko viksit kiya gaya tha. Japani aur yookyoovaansh ke beech saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan ke samay ke dauraan 20veen shataabdi ki praarambh mein ise Japan ki mukhya bhoomi mein shaamil kiya gaya tha. 1922 mein Japan ke shiksha mantraalaya ne gichin funaakoshi ko karaate ke pradarshan ke liye tokyo aamantrit kiya tha. 1924 mein keiyo vishvavidyaalaya ne pehla vishvavidyaalaya karaate club ki sthaapana ki aur 1932 tak pramukh Japani vishvavidyaalayon mein karaate club khul chuke the.[4] Japani sainyavaad ke is badhte yug mein,[5] iska naam 唐aa手 se parivartan hua aur ("chaaineej hand") se 空aa手 ("emti hand") ho gaya - Japani shaili mein yuddh roop ko viksit karne ki Japani abhilaasha ka sanket dene ke liye donon ko karaate hi kaha gaya.[6] dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad okinaava sanyukt raajya sainya ka ek mahatvapoorn sthaan ban gaya aur vahaan tainaat sainikon ke beech karaate lokapriya ban gaya.[7]

1960 aur 1970 ke dashak ki filmon ke chalte maarshal Art ki lokapriyta mein kaafi ijaafa hua aur karaate shabd ka prayog sabhi prahaar-aadhaarit oriental maarshal Art ka ullekh karne ke liye ek saamaanya tareeke ki shurooaat ki gayi.[8] uske baad duniya bhar mein karaate school khulne lage the aur kam roochi ke saath-saath jo Art ka gahan adhyayan karna chaahate the, donon ki aavashyakataaon ko dhyaan mein rakh kar schoolon ko khola gaya.

shotokon dojo ke mukhya prashikshak shigeru egaami ne kaha ki "videshi deshon mein karaate ke anuyaayi karaate ka anusaran keval ladaai ke takaneek ke liye karte hain...film aur television...karaate ko ek rahasyamayi yuddh shaili ke roop mein darshaaya gaya hai jismein bataaya gaya hai ki usamein ek ghoonsa bhi chot ya maut ka kaaran banane mein saksham hota hai... aur maas media is chhadm kala ko vaastavikta se kaheen door le jaati hai."[9] shoshin naagaamaain ne kaha ki "karaate ko, apne bheetar ke sangharsh ke roop mein ya ek jeevan-bhar ke marathon ke roop mein jise keval sv-anushaasan ke maadhyam se jeeta ja sakta hai, kathin prashikshan aur swayam ke rachanaatmak prayaas ko suvichaarit kiya ja sakta hai."[10]

kai abhyaasakartaaon ke liye karaate ek gahra daarshanik abhyaas hai. karaate- naitik siddhaanton aur uske anuyaayiyon ke liye aadhyaatmik mahatva ko sikhaata hai. gichin funaakoshi ("aadhunik karaate ke janak") ne apni aatmakatha karaate-du: maai ve of life ka sheershak karaate adhyayan ke kaayaantarit prakruti ko maanyata dene ke liye diya. vartamaan mein karaate ka adhyayan aatm-poornata ke liye, saanskrutik kaaranon ke liye, aatm-raksha ke liye aur ek khel ke roop mein kiya jaata hai. 2005 mein, 117vein IOC (antararaashtreeya olympic samiti mein karaate ko ek olympic khel banaane ke liye aavashyak do tihaai bahumat vote praapt naheen hua tha.[11] web Japan (Japani mantraalaya ke videsh mantraalaya dvaara praayojit) ka daava hai ki duniya bhar mein karaate ke 23 lakh abhyaasakarmi hain[12]

anukram

itihaas

okinaava

inhein bhi dekhein: Okinawan martial arts

karaate ki shurooaat saadhaaran yuddh pranaali ke roop mein hui jise yookyoovans ke pechin varg ke beech te (okinvaan: ti) ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. 1372 mein chujen ke satto King dvaara cheen ke ming saamraajya ke saath vyaapaar sambandhon ko sthaapit karne ke baad, cheen ke aagantuko dvaara yookyoo dweep samooh mein vishesh kar ke fujiyn praant mein cheeni maarshal Art ke kuchh roopon ko aarambh kiya gaya tha. 1392 ke aas-paas cheeni parivaaron ki ek badi samooh saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan ke liye okinaava sthaanaantarit hue, jahaan unhonne kumemura ki samooh ko sthaapit kiya aur cheeni maarshal Art sahit cheeni Art ki vistrut vividhta aur vigyaan ke apne gyaan ka aadaan-pradaan kiya. 1429 mein raaja sho haashi dvaara okinaava ka raajaneetik keindreekaran aur shastr pratibandh lagaane ki neeti ko 1609 mein shimaaju kabeele ke aakraman ke baad okinaava mein laagoo kiya gaya tha aur okinaava mein baad mein nihatthe mukaabala takaneek ka vikaas hone ka bhi kaaran tha.[2]

haalaanki te ki kuchh aupachaarik shailiyaan thi lekin iska paalan karne ke bajaae kai abhyaasakarmiyon ke apne swayam ki paddhatiyaan thi. motobu parivaar se seikichi uhera dvaara motobu-you school se utteern hona ek jeevit udaaharan hai.[13] karaate ke poorv shailiyaan, teen shaharon jahaan se unka vikaas hua tha, aksar shuri-te, naha-te aur tomaari-te ke roop mein saamaanyeekrut kiya gaya tha.[14] pratyek kshetr aur iske shikshakon ka apna ek vishesh kaata, takaneek aur siddhaant tha jo te ke sthaaneeya sanskaran ko doosaron se alag karti thi.

okinaavaan ke uchch vargon ke sadasyon ko raajaneetik aur vyaavahaarik vishyon ka adhyayan karne ke liye cheen ke liye niyamit roop se bheja jaata tha. aanshik roop se is aadaan-pradaan ke kaaran hi okinaavaan mein mukt-hast cheeni voo shoo ka samaavesh hua tha. fujiyn white kren, five ensestar aur geingarou-kaan (hard soft fist; Japani mein gojuken uchcharit) jaise paae gaye fujiyn maarshal Arts ke kaafi saadrushya paaramparik kaata karaate tha.[15] iske alaava dakshin poorv Asia ke - vishesh roop se sumaatra jaava aur melaaka se bhi prabhaavit tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein] saai, tonfa aur nunachaakoo jaise kai okinaavaan shastr ka udbhav yahaan aur dakshin poorv Asia ke aaspaas ho sakta hai.

saakookaava kaanga (1782-1838) ne pugilijm aur staaf (bo) ladaai ka adhyayan cheen mein kiya tha (pauraanik katha ke anusaar, kosanku kaata ka pravartak, kosokun ke nirdeshan ke tahat). 1806 mein unhonne shoori shahar mein ek yuddh kala ka shikshan shuroo kiya jise ve "tudi saakookaava" kehte the, jiska arth hai "cheen hand ka saakookaava." "tudi" kala ka yeh pehla gyaat ullekh darj kiya gaya tha jise 唐 手 ke roop mein likha gaya tha. 1820 ke dashak ke aas-paas saakookaava ke sabse mahatvapoorn chhaatr matasumura sokon (1809–1899) ne te ka mishran (shoori-te aur tomaari-te) aur shaavaleen ki shiksha di (cheeni 少aa林 shaili). baad mein matasumura ki shaili shorin-you shaili mein parivrtit hui.

aadhunik karaate ke pitaamah anko itosu

matasumura ne apni is kala ko anyon ke beech itosu anko (1831-1915) ko prashikshit kiya. matasumura se praapt prashikshan se itosu ne do roopon ka roopaantaran kiya. ye hain kusankoo hain aur chyaang nen[krupaya uddharan jodein]. isne ping'N roop ka nirmaan kiya (Japani mein hiyen ya pinn) jo aarambhik chhaatron ke liye saral kaata tha. 1901 mein okinaava ke pablik schoolon mein karaate shuroo karne mein itosu ne madad ki. in roopon ko praathamik vidyaalaya star par bachchon ko sikhaaya jaata tha. karaate mein itosu ka prabhaav vyaapak hai. jin roopon ko isne nirmaan kiya tha vah lagbhag karaate ke sabhi shailiyon mein saamaanya hain. inke chhaatr karaate ke kuchh prasiddh prashikshukon mein se ek hain jismein gichin funaakoshi, kenva mabuni aur motobu choki shaamil hain. kabhi-kabhi itosu ko aadhunik karaate ka pitaamah ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai.[16]

1881 mein you you ko ke sthaapana jo baad mein naha-te mein parivrtit hua, ke saath shikshan ke varshon baad higaauna kenari cheen se laute the. unke chhaatron mein se ek chhaatr goju-you, chojoon miyaagi ka sansthaapak tha. chojoon miyaagi ne seko higa (jo higaauna ke saath prashikshit) metoku yaagi, miyaajaato eichi aur seikichi toguchi aur apne jeevan ke ant mein kaafi thode samay ke liye enaichi miyaagi (moriyo higaauna dvaara shikshak ka daava) jaise prasiddh karaateka ki shiksha di.

karaate ke te shaili ke aarambhik teen shailiyon ke atirikt kanbun uechi (1877–1948) ek chautha okinaavaan shaili tha. 20 saal ki umr mein ve Japani sena mein jabaradasti bharti hone se bachane ke liye cheen ke fujiyaan praant ke foojau chale gaye the. vahaan par unhonne shooshiva ke adheen adhyayan kiya. us samay mein ve vahaan ke cheeni nanpa shorin-ken ke agrani hasti the.[17] baad mein unhonne sanchin, siyesan aur sanasiyeriyoo kaata ke aadhaar par uechi-you karaate naamak swayam ki ek shaili ka vikaas kiya, jo unhonne cheen mein seekha tha.[18]

Japan

inhein bhi dekhein: Japanese martial arts
tokyo ke karaate guroo tokyo (c. 1930s) kankein toyaama, heeronori ohtsuka, taakeshi shimoda, gichin funaakoshi, motoboo choki, kenava mabuni, genava nakaasone, aur shinken (baane se daane)

shotokan karaate ke sansthaapak gichin funaakoshi, ko Japan ke mukhya dveepon par karaate ki shurooaat aur lokapriya banaane ka aamtaur par shreya diya jaata hai. vaastav mein kai okinaavans shikshan sakriya the aur isi liye ve bhi karaate ke vikaas ke liye utana hi jimmedaar hai. funaakoshi asato anko aur itosu anko donon ke chhaatr the (jisne 1902 mein okinaava preefekchural school system mein karaate ki shurooaat karne mein madad ki thi) is avadhi ke dauraan pramukh shikshakon jo Japan mein karaate ke prasaar ko prabhaavit kiya unamein kenava mabuni, chojoon miyaagi, motobu choki, kanaken toyaama aur kanabun uechi shaamil hain. is kshetr ke itihaas mein yeh ek kalahakaari samay tha. ismein 1872 mein Japan ke okinaavaan dweep samooh par kabja karna, pratham sino-Japani yuddh (1894–1895), rooshi-Japani yuddh (1904–1905), Korea par kabja aur Japani sainyavaad ka udaya (1905–1945) shaamil hain.

us samay Japan cheen par aakraman kar raha tha aur funaakoshi ko pata tha ki taing/cheen hand ki kala ko sveekaar naheen kiya jaaega: is prakaar Art ka naam parivartan kar "ve of the emti hand" kiya gaya. du pratyaya ka taatparya karaatedo hai jo keval yuddh ke takaneeki pahaloo hi naheen hain balki ek aatm gyaan ka tareeka bhi hai. Japan mein adhikaansh prachalit maarshal Art ki tarah hi karaate ne lagbhag 20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein apne roop jitsu se du roop mein parivartan kiya. jaise eikijitsu se eikido, joojootsoo se judo, kenajootsoo se kendo aur iyaaijootsoo se eyaaido alag hain vaise hi "karaate du" mein "du " karaate-jitsu se alag hai.

shotokan karaate ke sansthaapak gichin funaakoshi

funaakoshi ne kai kaata aur kala ke hi naam ko parivrtit kar diya (kam se kam Japan ke mukhya bhoomi par) aur aisa unhonne Japani budo sangathan daai nipon butokoo kaai dvaara karaate ko sveekruti paane ke liye kiya. funaakoshi ne kai kaata ko Japani naam bhi diya tha. pinn ke paanch roop hiyen ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, teen naaienchi roop tekki ke roop mein, siyesan, heingetsoo ke roop mein, chinto, ganakaakoo ke roop mein, vanshoo, empi ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur isi prakaar se. roopon mein saamagri parivartan ke bajaae ye jyaadaatar raajaneetik parivartan kiya gaya hai, haalaanki funaakoshi ne kuchh is tarah ke parivrtanon ko laagoo kiya tha. funaakoshi ne us samay ke okinaavaan karaate ke do lokapriya shaakhaaon shorin-you aur shorei-you mein prashikshit kiya tha. Japan mein ve kendon se prabhaavit the, disteinsing aur timing se sambandhit kuchh tareekon ko apne shaili mein shaamil kiya. ve hamesha hi keval karaate ke roop mein jo sikhaate hain, use sandarbhit karte hain, lekin 1936 mein unhonne tokyo mein dojo ka nirmaan kiya aur dojo ke baad jis shaili ko unhonne peechhe chhod diya use saadhaaranat: shotokan kaha jaata hai.

Japan mein karaate ka aadhunikeekaran aur siddhaantikran mein safed vardi jise kimono aur dogi ya keikogi - adhikaanshat: karaategi kaha jaata hai- aur raink vaale belt ko shaamil kiya gaya hai. donon hi naye prakriyaayon ka udbhav aur lokapriya jigero kaano ke dvaara kiya gaya, jo judo ke sansthaapak aur un vyaktiyon mein se ek the jisse funaakoshi ne karaate ke vikaas mein paraamarsh liya tha.

1922 mein heeronori otsuka ne tokyo khel mahotsav mein bhaag liya, jahaan unhonne funaakoshi ka karaate dekha . otsuka isse kaafi prabhaavit tha ki vah apne pravaas ke dauraan funaakoshi ka usane kai baar daura kiya. otsuka ke karaate ko samajhne ke utsaah aur drudh sankalp ko dekhkar funaakoshi kaafi prabhaavit hue aur use taalim dene ke liye taiyaar ho gaye. aagaami varshon mein otsuka ne maarshal Art choton ke saath nipatne ke liye ek chikitsa abhyaas kiya. maarshal Art mein uske kaushal ke kaaran 30 varsh ki umr mein hi vah shindo yoshin-you joojootsoo ka mukhya prashikshak bana aur funaakoshi ke dojo mein sahaayak prashikshak.

1929 tak otsuka ka panjeekaran Japan maarshal Arts sangh ke ek sadasya ke roop mein ho chuka tha. is samay mein okinaavaan karaate keval kaata ke saath sambaddh tha. otsuka ne socha ki budo jismein raksha aur aakraman par poora dhyaan keindrit hota hai, bhaavana ki kami hai aur vah kaata takaneek jo yathaarthavaadi yuddh sthitiyon mein kaam naheen aati hai. usane doosaron ke saath adhik jujhaaroo shailiyon ka bhi prayog kiya jaise judo, kendo aur eikido. usane okinaavaan karaate ke vyaavahaarik aur upayogi tatvon ke saath joojitsoo aur kendo jisne karaate mein kumaait ke janm se, ya free faaiting se hi netrutv kiya tha, se paaramparik Japani maarshal Art takaneekon ke saath mishran kiya. otsuko ne socha ki karaate ke adhik gatisheel tareeko ka prashikshan dene ki aavashyakta hai aur usane apne swayam ki karaate shaili: vodo-you ko viksit karne par dhyaan keindrit karne ke liye funaakoshi ko chhodne ka faisala kiya. 1934 mein vaado-you karaate aadhikaarik roop se ek svatantr shaili ke roop mein pahachaana gaya tha. is maanyata ka arth tha ek poornakaalik maarshal kalaakaar banane ke liye- otsuka ka uske chikitsa abhyaas se prasthaan karna aur apni jeevan ke uddeshya ko poorn karna.

unhein reinshi-go raink se sammaanit karne ke baad otsuka ki vyaktigat karaate shaili ko aadhikaarik taur par 1938 mein panjeekrut kiya gaya tha. unhonne Japan maarshal Arts federation ke liye vaado-you karaate ka pradarshan prastut kiya. unki apni shaili aur pratibaddhata se ve kaafi prabhaavit hue aur unhein ek uchch ranking ke prashikshak ke roop sveekaar kiya. agale saal Japan maarshal Arts sangh ne sabhi vibhinn shailiyon se unke naam panjeekrut karne ko kaha, otsuka ne apni shaili ko vaado-you naam se darj kiya. 1944 mein otsuka ki niyukti Japan ke mukhya karaate prashikshak ke roop mein kiya gaya.

maasutatsu oyaama dvaara 1957 tak karaate ke ek nae roop jiska naam kyokushin tha, ko opachaarik taur par sthaapit kiya gaya tha (jinka janm ek Korean ke roop mein hua tha, choi iyong-ivi). kyokeshin bade paimaane par shotokan aur goju-you ka ek mishran hai. yeh ek paathyakram hai jo ki jeevantata, shaareerik majabooti aur poorn sampark par jor deti hai kyonki yeh shaareerik, poorn-bal ladaai par jor deti hai aur yahi kaaran hai ki kyokoshin ko vartamaan mein aksar "poorn sampark karaate" ya "naukadaaun karaate" kaha jaata hai (pratiyogita mein iske niyamon ke liye iska yeh naam pada). kai anya karaate sangathan aur shailiyaan kyokoshin adhyayan kram ke hi vanshaj hain.

world karaate federation ne karaate ke in shailiyon ko iske kaata soochi mein maanyata di hai

  • shotokan-you
  • shito-you
  • goju-you
  • vaado-you

karaate-du sangathan ke vishv sangh[19] (WUKO)[20] ne in shailiyon ko iski kaata soochi mein maanyata di hai.

  • goju-you,
  • shito-you,
  • shotokan-you,
  • vaado-you,
  • shorin-you,
  • uechi-you,
  • kyokooshinkaai,
  • budokal

kai school iske ek ya adhik shailiyon ke saath sambaddh honge ya bahut adhik prabhaavit honge.

abhyaas

inhein bhi dekhein: Okinawan kobudō evam Japanese martial arts#Philosophical and strategic concepts

karaate ka abhyaas ek kala (budo) ke roop mein, khel ke roop mein, ek yuddh khel ya aatm raksha prashikshan ke roop mein kiya ja sakta hai. paaramparik karaate ke abhyaas mein aatm vikaas par jor diya jaata hai (budo).[21] aadhunik Japani shaili ke prashikshan mein ek uchit kokoro (mudra) manovaigyaanik tatvon ko shaamil karne par jor deta hai jaise drudhta, nirbhayata, sadaachaar aur netrutv kaushal. khel karaate mein vyaayaam aur pratiyogita par jor diya jaata hai. kuchh shailiyon mein hathiyaar (kobudo) mahatvapoorn prashikshan kriyaakalaap hai.

karaate ka prashikshan saamaanyat: kihon (mool athva aadhaarbhoot), kaata (roop) aur kumaait (yuddh) mein vibhaajit hai.

kihon

karaate shailiyon mein kihon ko alag-alag roopon mein mahatva diya jaata hai. aam taur par yeh karaateka ke samooh dvaara ek takaneek ka ek samaan ya ek takaneek ke sanyojan ka pradarshan hai. kihon ko chhote samooh ya jodon mein yojanaapoorn prashikshan diya ja sakta hai.

kaata

naaihaanchi-daachi mein motuboo choki, ek buniyaadi karaate mudra

kaata (:かaaた) ka shaabdik arth hai "aakaar" ya "model". kaata harkaton ki ek aupachaarik anukram hai jo vibhinn aakraamak aur rakshaatmak mudraaon ka pratinidhitv karti hain. ye mudraaen ladaai ke aadarsh tareekon par aadhaarit hote hain.

kuchh kaata nimn aur vyaapak mudraaon ka upayog karte hain. yeh abhyaas pair ki taakat, sahi mudra aur gun ko viksit karta hai. haathon ki jordaar chaal hrudaya ko svasth aur oopari shareer ki shakti mein vruddhi karta hai. kai harkaton aur kathinaaiyon se kaata mein bhinnata hoti hai. vyaapak kaata mein kaarateka ko kai jatil harkaton ko seekhane ki aavashyakta hoti hai. kathor prashikshan aur sahi hoshiyaari se mukaabala ke siddhaanton ki asli samajh hoti hai.

is prakaar ke gyaan ko sanrakshan karne ka shaareerik dincharya ek taarkik tareeka hota hai. vibhinn harkaton ke vividh vyaakhyaaen aur tareeke hote hain. kyonki vaastavik aatm-raksha ke liye prayojyata itna lacheela hota hai ki sabhi prakaar ke kaata ki vyaakhya ke liye koi nishchit tareeka naheen hota. yahi kaaran hai ki keval uchch ranking ke abhyaasakarmi unki apni shaili ke liye paryaapt roop ka faisala karne ke yogya hote hain. pradarshan ki gunavatta ko pahachaanane ke liye kuchh maapdand hote hain: galat chaal ki anupasthiti; sahi shuruaat aur vishesh roop se samaapan ka sahi hona; suspashtata aur sahajata; sahi gati aur shakti, vishvaas, tareeke ka gyaan. kaata ke isi naam ke saath aksar karaate ke anya shailiyon mein alag tareeke se pradarshan kiya jaata hai. kuchh maamooli parivrtanon ke saath isi shaili ko schoolon ke beech sikhaaya jaata hai. yahaan tak ki kuchh varshon pehle ke kaata se thoda alag ek vishesh kaata ko unheen prashikshakon dvaara sikhaaya jaata hai.

ek aupachaarik pad ko praapt karne ke liye karaateka ko us star ke liye aavashyak vishisht kaata ka saksham pradarshan karna hota hai. gred ya raink ke liye Japani shabdaavali ka saamaanyat: prayog kiya jaata hai. schoolon mein pareekshaaon ke liye aavashyakataaen alag-alag hoti hain.

kumaait

karaate mein haathaapaai ko kumaait kaha jaata hai (组aa手:くaaみaaて). shaabdik roop se iska arth hai "haathon ko milaana". kumaait ka abhyaas khel aur aatm-raksha prashikshan donon ke roop mein hota hai.

haathaapaai ke dauraan shaareerik sampark ka star vishesh roop se bhinn hota hai. poorn sampark karaate mein kai veriyent hote hai. naukadaaun karaate (jaise kyokoshin) mein pratidvandi ko jameen par giraane ke liye sampoorn shakti ke takaneekon ka istemaal kiya jaata hai. kikbauksing praaroop (udaaharan ke liye K-1), mein adhimaanya jeet knockout ke dvaara hota hai. kavach ke saath haathaapaai mein (bogu kumaait) kuchh suraksha ke saath poorn shakti takaneekon ki aajnyaa deti hai. karaate federation world ke tahak kai pratiyogitaaon mein khel kumaait nyoon sampark ya arddh sampark ke saath mukt ya sanrachanaatmak hoti hai aur referee dvaara ank sammaanit kiya jaata hai.

sanrachanaatmak kumaait (yaakusaaku - poorv yojanaabaddh) mein do pratiyogi takaneeko ke nirdeshit shrrunkhala ko pradarshit karte hain jismein ek prahaar karta hai to doosra rokata hai. yeh roop ek vinaashakaari takaneek (hito suki) ke saath samaapt hota hai.

mukt haathaapaai (jeeyu kumaait) mein donon pratibhaagiyon ke paas takaneek scoring ki ek mukt vikalp hoti hai. sveekrut takaneek aur sampark star mukhya roop se khel ya shaili sangathan neeti dvaara nirdhaarit hoti hai lekin pratibhaagiyon ki umr, raink aur ling ke anusaar sanshodhit kiya ja sakta hai. neeche giraana, buhaarana aur kuchh durlabh maamalon mein shaili par nirbhar karta haibhi joojh par bhoomi seemit samay bhi anumati di.XXX

mukt haathaapaai k ek chihnit ya band kshetr mein pradarshit kiya jaata hai. mukkebaaji ek nishchit samay ke liye chalta hai (2 se 3 minute). samay ko badhaaya bhi ja sakta hai (ireekume) ya referee ke faisale se band bhi kiya ja sakta hai. kuchh nyoon sampark ya arddh sampark kumaait mein maapdand ke aadaar par anko se sammaanik kiya jaata hai: utkrusht roop, khel bhaavana, sashakt tareeke, jaagrukta/jnashin, sahi samay aur uchit doori.[22] poorn sampark karaate kumaait mein scoring takaneek ki aupachaarik upasthiti ke bajaae prabhaav ke parinaamon par ank aadhaarit hote hain.

dojo kun

bushido parampara mein dojo kun karaateka ke liye disha-nirdeshon ka set hai. in dishaanirdeshon ka paalan dojo (prashikshan shivir) aur rojamarra ki jindagi donon mein laagoo kiya jaata hai.

kandeeshaning

okinaavaan karaate atirikt prashikshan ka istemaal karta hai jise hojo andu ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. ismein saadhaaran lakdi aur patthar ke bane upakaran ka upayog kiya jaata hai. makivaara ek asaadhaaran kendra hai. nigiri game ek bada jaar hai jiska istemaal pakad shakti ko badhaane ke liye kiya jaata hai. in anupoorak vyaayaamon ka design taakat, sahanashakti gati aur maansapeshiyon ke samanvaya mein vruddhi ke liye kiya gaya hai.[23] khel karaate [[erobik vyaayaam, anaakseeya vyayaam, shakti, furti, lacheelaapan aur tanaav prabandhan|erobik vyaayaam, anaakseeya vyayaam, shakti, furti, lacheelaapan aur tanaav prabandhan]] par jor deti hai. school aur shikshak ke aadhaar par sabhi abhyaas bhinn hote hain.

khel

gichin funaakoshi (船aa越aa义aa珍) ne kaha, "karaate mein koi pratiyogita naheen hoti."[24] okinaava mein poorv dviteeya vishv yuddh ke samay kumaait karaate prashikshan ka hissa naheen tha.[25] 1940 mein shigeroo egaami ne ismein jodte hue kaha ki kuchh karaateka ko unke dojo se bedakhal kar diya gaya kyonki tokyo mein seekhane ke baad unhonne haathaapaai ko apnaaya tha.[26]

karaate shaili sangathanon mein vibhaajit hai. yeh sangathan kabhi-kabhi gair vishisht shaili ke khel mein karaate sangathanon ya sanghon ka sahayog karte hain. khel sangathanon ke udaaharan hain AAKF/ITKF, AOK, TKL, AKA, WKF, WUKO aur WKC.[27] ye sangathan sthaaneeya se antararaashtreeya star ke pratiyogitaaen (tournament) karavaate hain. virodhi schoolon ke sadasyon se match karaane aur kaata ke doosare shailiyon, haathaapaai aur hathiyaar pradarshan ke liye tournament ka design kiya jaata hai. ve aksar sanbhavat: vibhinn niyamon ya in kaarakon ke maanak aadhaar par umr, raink auऱ ling se alag hote hain. tournament vishesh roop se ek vishesh shaili ke sadasyo ke liye (seemit) ho sakta hai ya ek jismein koi bhi shaili se ek maarshal kalaakaar ismein pratiyogita ke niyamon ke saath bhaag le sakta hai (mukt). kuchh shaili sangathan jaise kyokushinkaai aur shotokan apne vyavastha ko hi pasand karte hain aur apne hi niyamon ke saath pratispardha karte hain.

world karaate federation (WKF) sabse bada karaate khel sangathan hai aur antararaashtreeya olympic samiti (IOC) dvaara olanpik khel mein karaate pratiyogitaaon ke liye hamesha se jimmevaar hone ke roop mein ise maanyata praapt hai. WKF ne sabhi shailiyon ko niyantrit karne ke liye saamaanya niyamon ko viksit kiya hai. raashtreeya WKF sangathan ne apne vishisht raashtreeya olympic samiti ke saath sanyojan kiya hai.

2012 ke olympic mein karaate ka naam naheen hai. 117vein IOC satr (July 2005) mein karaate ko aadhe se adhik vote praapt hue the, lekin do tihaai bahumat praapt naheen hua jiski aavashyakta aadhikaarik roop se olanpik khel banane ke liye hoti hai.

WKF karaate pratiyogita mein do vyavasthaaen hoti hain: haathaapaai (kumaait) aur roop (kaata) ke pratiyogi vaiyaktik roop se ya team ke sadasya ke roop mein bhaag le sakte hain. kaata aur kobudo ka moolyaankan nirnaayako ke ek panel dvaara kiya jaata hai aur kobudō nyaayaadheeshon ke ek dvaara kiya jaata hai jabki haathaapaai ka nirnaya haathaapaai kshetr ki taraf ek sahaayak referee ke saath ek mukhya referee dvaara nirnaya kiya jaata hai. haathaapaai match aam taur par vajan, umr, ling aur anubhav ke aadhaar par kiya jaata hai.

WKF keval ek raashtreeya sangathan/mahaasangh ke maadhyam se pratyek desh ko sadasyata ki anumati deta hai jo club mein shaamil ho sakte hain. karaate-du sangathan ke vishv sangh (WUKO)[28] bhinn-bhinn shailiyon aur mahaasanghon ko unke shailiyon mein kisi samjhauta aur aakaar ke bina vishv roop mein shaamil hone ka prastaav prastut karta hai. WUKO prati desh ek se adhik mahaasangh sangh ya samiti sveekaar karta hai.

vibhinn karaate shaili aur khel sangathan vibhinn pratispardha pranaaliyon ka istemaal karte hain, nyoon sampark vaale jaise WKF, WUKO aur WKC kumaait mein istemaal niyam jatthe se lekar poorn sampark karaate mein jaise naukadaaun karaate ke vibhinn niyamon ka kyokushinkaai, ashihaara karaate, shidokan, sedokaikan aur anya kai shaili sangathanon dvaara istemaal kiya jaata hai. ya bogu kumaait niyamon ke bhinn roopon ko koshiki karaate ke roop mein jaana jaata hai (surakshaatmak vistaar ke saath poorn sampark), jiska istemaal Japan ke sabhi koshiki karaate -du sangathan[29] khel samiti mein kiya jaata hai. Japan mein abhi bhi kuchh anya khel sangathan jaise shinkaraatedo mahaasangh[30] glovd karaate niyamon ka prayog karte hain (aisa kaha jaata hai kyonki ve boksing dastaane pahanate hain) jo kikboksing ki tarah dikhaai deta hai. sanyukt raajya America ke bheetar, raajya khel praadhikaari se ab bhi niyam kuchh adhikaar-kshetr ke antargat ho sakte hain, jaise raajya boksing aayog.

raink

apne dojo ke samaksh ek yuva chhaatr ne belt mein ek raink ke snaatak.

1924 mein shotokan karaate sansthaapak gichin funaakoshi ne judo ke sansthaapak jigoro kaano[31] se dan pranaali ko apnaaya aur belt kalar ke ek seemit set ke saath raink yojana ka istemaal kiya. anya okinvaan shikshakon ne bhi is abhyaas ko apnaaya. kyoo/dan pranaali mein praarambhik gred ek uchch sankhya kyoo ke saath hota hai (e.g., 10vein kyoo ya jukyoo) aur yeh prakriya nimn sankhya kyoo ki or badhti hai. dan prakriya mein pehli dan se (shodan ya 'praarambhik dan') uchch ki or agrasar hoti hai. kyoo-gred karaateka ko "kalar belt" ya mudansha ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai ("dan/raink ke bina"). dan-gred karaateka ko yudaansha ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai (dan/raink ke dhaarakon ke liye). aam taur par yudaansha ek black belt pahanata hai. raink ke liye aavashyakataaen shailiyon, sangathanon aur schoolon ke beech alag-alag hote hain. kyoo rainks tanaav mudra, santulan aur taalamel hota hai. uchch gred mein gati aur shakti ko joda jaata hai. raink mein nyoonatam umr aur samay kaarak hai jo padonnati ko prabhaavit karte hain. pareekshakon ke ek panel ke saamane takaneekon ka pradarshan pareekshan mein shaamil hota hai. ismein school ke hisaab se bhinnata hoti hai, lekin pareekshan mein us samay tak seekhe sab kuchh ya keval nai vidya shaamil ho sakti hai. pradarshan ek nae raink ke liye praarthana patra hota hai (shinsha) aur ismein, kaata, bankai, aatm-raksha, dincharya, tamesheevari (breking) aur/ya kumaait (haathaapaai) shaamil ho sakte hain. black belt ke pareekshan mein ek likhit pareeksha bhi shaamil ho sakta hai.

anaitik abhyaas

maarshal Art ki lokapriyta ke kaaran, maas media aur vaastavikta donon par ek badi sankhya mein ashobhaneeya, dhokhaadhadi, ya pathabhrasht shikshakon aur, lagbhag pichhle 40 saal se is prakaar ke schoolon ka udaya hua hai. saamaanyat: ise "maikadojo" ya ek "black belt mil" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai[32], in schoolon ka netrutv saamaanyat: ya to sandigdh kaushal ya vyavasaaya neeti ke maarshal kalaakaaron dvaara kiya jaata hai.

darshan

gichin funaakoshi ne karaate-du ke "kaara" ki vyaakhya [kisi] ke svaarthi aur bure vichaaron ko shuddh karne ke arth mein kiya hai. ek spasht man ke liye aur vivek ke saath hi [abhyaasakarmi] us [gyaan] ko samajh sakte hain ki jo usane praapt kiya hai. funaakoshi ka maanana tha ki inhein "andar se vinmr aur baahar se komal hona jaana chaahiye." keval vinmrataapoorvak bartaav ke dvaara koi karaate ke kai sabak ko seekh sakta hai. yeh shravan aur aalochanaaon ke prati khule najriye ke dvaara kiya jaata hai. ve pramukh mahatva ke namrata se maanate hain. unhonne kaha ki "karaate ko poorn roop se laagoo un durlabh sthitiyon mein hi kiya jaata hai jismein ya to koi doosare ko neecha kar raha ho ya uske dvaara vah khud neecha kiya gaya ho." funaakoshi ne upaasak ko jeevan bhar mein shaayad ek baar se jyaada karaate ka istemaal vaastavik mukaabala mein karne ko asaamaanya maana hai. unhonne kaha ki karaate abhyaasakarmiyon ko "aasaani se ek ladaai ke liye kabhi taiyaar naheen hona chaahiye." yeh samjha jaata hai ki ek asli visheshagya dvaara ek jhatke ka arth maut ho sakta hai. yeh spasht hai ki jo apne seekhe hue gyaan ka durupayog karta hai asal mein vah khud ko apamaanit karta hai. unhonne vyaktigat aparaadh siddhi ke charitra visheshata ko badhaava diya. "saarvajanik mrutyu sankat ke samay mein, ... ek lakh aur ek virodhiyon ka saamana karne ke liye uske paas himmat rakhana chaahiye hai" unhonne sikhaaya hai ki hichkichaahat ek kamjori hai.[33]

vyutpatti

anumaanat:, Japani vaakyaansh ka shaabdik arth "emti hand" ke baad se kisi bhi nihatthe yuddh pranaali ko poorn roop se "karaate" kaha ja sakta hai. yeh aavashyak roop se sveekaarya nishkarsh naheen hai. fainsi tathya se alag karne ke liye raashtravaad, vansh, pradhaanata aur darshan ke muddon ki samajh ki aavashyakta hai.

chaaineej hand

chaaineej hand ke roop mein mool karaate ko kaanji mein likha gaya tha. baad mein yeh homofon mein parivrtit ho gaya jiska arth emti hand hai. mudran mein mool karaate shabd ka prayog itosu anko ko shreya diya gaya hai. unhonne ise vartamaan mein istemaal 空aa手:かaaらaaて (emti hand) ke bajaay kaanji mein 唐aa手:かaaらaaて (taing daayanesti hand) likha. cheen ke taing vansh ka ant AD 907 mein hua. baad mein okinaava mein aamtaur par China ko sandarbhit karne ke ek tareeke ke roop mein kaanji ne iska pratinidhitv kiya. is prakaar karaate shabd mool roop se "chaaineej hand ", ya "cheen ke maarshal Art " ko abhivyakt karne ka ek tareeka tha.

Since there are no written records it is not known definitely whether the kara in karate was originally written with the character 唐 meaning China or the character 空 meaning empty. During the time when admiration for China and things Chinese was at its height in the Ryūakyūas it was the custom to use the former character when referring to things of fine quality...

is par dhyaan dena aavashyak hai ki likhe hue shabdon ka prayog ka karaate ke mool se juda hona jaroori naheen hai.

emti hand

"chaaineej hand", "taing hand", "chaaineej fist" ya "cheeni takaneek" ke mool prayog "cheeni (唐aa手 ke vyaakhya par nirbhar) karaate par cheeni prabhaav ke pramaan ko darshaata hai. pehla praamaanik prayog logograam ke homofon ke dvaara taing daayanesti (唐 かaaら) ke arth ko badalate hue kaara uchchaarit hua tha aur karaate kumaait mein ek charitra arth emti (空 かaaら) ne jagah le liya. yeh kitaab hanaashiro chomo (1869–1945) dvaara likha gaya hai jiska prakaashan August 1905 mein kiya gaya tha. 20veen sadi ke praarambh mein Japan ka cheen ke saath achhe sambandh naheen the. 1932 mein Japan ne cheen par hamla kiya aur iske uttari kshetr par kabja kar liya. us samay ke sandarbhit cheeni mool ke karaate ko raajanaitik roop se galat maana jaata tha.[34]


In 1933, the Okinawan art of karate was recognized as a Japanese martial art by the Japanese Martial Arts Committee known as the "Butoku Kai". Until 1935, "karate" was written as "唐aa手" (Chinese hand). But in 1935, the masters of the various styles of Okinawan karate conferred to decide a new name for their art. They decided to call their art "karate" written in Japanese characters as "空aa手" (empty hand).[14]

naamakaran

karaate shabd ke ant mein du (道:どaaう) ka yog anya saanketik vikaas hai. du ek pratyaya hai aur iske kai arth hain jismein sadak, path, maarg aur tareeka shaamil hai. iska istemaal kai maarshal Art mein kiya jaata hai jo ki Japan ke saamanti sanskruti se aadhunik samay gujarane ke dauraan bacha raha. iska arth yeh hai ki ye kala keval ek yuddh pranaali naheen hain lekin jab ise abhyaas ke roop mein protsaahit karne ke dauraan ismein aadhyaatmik tatv bhi shaamil hai. is sandarbh mein du ka aam taur par anuvaad "jis tarah" ke roop mein hai. udaaharanasvaroop eikido (合 気: 道 あaaいaaき どaaう), judo (柔aa道: じaaゅaaう どaaう) aur kendo hai (剣 道: けaaん どaaう). is prakaar karaatedu, emti hand takaneekon se thoda adhik hai. yeh jis tarah emti hand hai.

Japan ke baahar karaate

kainada

1930 aur 1940 ke dashak mein Canada mein karaate ki shurooaat hui choonki is samay mein Japani log is desh mein aakar basane lage the. yahaan par karaate ka abhyaas bade paimaane par sangathanon ke bina hi kiya jaata tha. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan, kai Japani Canada ke parivaar british Columbia ke sudoor ilaake mein chale gaye the. 13 saal ki umr mein masaaroo shintani kitigaava ke tahat Japani shivir mein shorin-you karaate ka adhyayan shuroo kiya. 1956 mein 9 varshon ke kitigaava ke saath prashikshan ke baad shintani ne Japan ki yaatra ki aur hironori otsuka (vaado you) se mile. 1958 mein otsuka ne shintani ko apne vaado kaai sangathan mein shaamil hone ke liye aamantrit kiya aur 1969 mein unhonne shintani ko aadhikaarik taur par unki shaili ko vaado kehne ke liye kaha.[35]

Canada mein isi samay ke dauraan karaate ki shurooaat masaami surooka ke dvaara bhi kiya gaya tha jisne 1940 ke dashak mein suyoshi chitose ke tahat Japan mein shiksha praapt ki thi. 1954 mein surooka ne Canada mein pehli karaate pratiyogita ki shurooaat ki aur raashtreeya karaate association ke liye neenv rakhi.

1950 ke dashak mein shintani, ontaariyo ke liye chale gaye aur haimiltan mein Japani saanskrutik kendra mein karaate aur judo ka adhyaapan shuroo kiya. 1966 mein unhonne (otsuka ke samarthan ke saath) Shintani Wado Kai Karate Federation ki shurooaat ki. 1970 ke dashak ke dauraan otsuka ne uttari America mein vaado kaai ke pradhaan prashikshak par shintani ko niyukt kiya. 1979 mein otsuka ne saarvajanik roop se shintani ka padonnati karte hue haachidn (8 dan) pradaan kiya aur niji taur par use ek kudaan pramaanapatr (9 dan) bhi diya jise shintani dvaara 1995 mein iska khulaasa kiya gaya tha. shintani aur otsuka ne kai baar ek saath Japan aur Canada ka daura kiya, unka pichhla daura otsuka ki maut ke do varsh pehle 1980 mein tha. shintani ki mrutyu 7 May 2000 ko hui thi.[35]

Korea

inhein bhi dekhein: Korea under Japanese rule

Korea aur Japan ke beech pichhle sangharsh ke kaaran, sabse khaaskar 20veen sadi ke Japani kabje ke dauraan, Korean maarshal Art par karaate prabhaav ek vivaadaaspad mudda hai. 1910 se 1939 tak, kai Koreai Japan chale gaye the[36] aur Japani maarshal Art ko ujaagar kiya. Japan se fir se svatantrata haasil karne ke baad, kai Koreai maarshal Art schoolon mein cheeni, Japani aur Koreai prashikshan ke saath cheeni gurooon dvaara sthaapit kiye gaye the.

udaaharan ke liye, taaikondo ke itihaas mein ek mahatvapoorn vyakti choi haang hi ne Japan mein shotokan karaate ka adhyayan kiya.[37] taaikondon ke poorv sansthaapakon ke apni kala ko ek nishchit roop dene ke liye karaate ek mahatvapoorn tulanaatmak model pranaali bhi pradaan karti hai kuchh kaata aur belt raink pranaali viraasat mein paaya.XXX yeh not kiya jaana chaahiye jaise ki samakaaleen taaikondo takaneeki rup se karaate se bahut alag hai (e.g. haathon ki bajaae pairon par adhik nirbhar hona, atyadhik uchch paad prahaar, adhik chhalaang lagaana, aadi ko ismein shaamil kiya jaata hai).

soviyt sangh

1960 ke dashak ke madhya mein khruschev ke antararaashtreeya sudhaar neeti ke dauraan karaate ko soviyt sangh mein paaya gaya. sabse pehla shotokan club Moscow ke vishvavidyaalayon khole gaye.[38] haalaanki, 1973 mein sarkaar ne sabhi videshi maarshal Arts ke saath--karaate ko pratibandhit kar diya tha--aur keval soviyt maarshal Art sambo ka samarthan kiya. lekin in aniyantrit samoohon ko dabaane mein samiti asafal rahi, iseeliye USSR ke khel samiti ne December 1978 mein soviyt sangh ke karaate federation ki sthaapana ki.[38] 17 May 1984 mein soviyt karaate federation ko bhang kiya gaya aur fir se sabhi karaate avaidh ban gaye the. 1989 mein karaate ka abhyaas fir se kaanooni bana lekin sarkaar ke sakht niyamon ke tahat aur 1992 mein soviyt sangh ke vightan ke baad hi svatantr karaate ko schoolon mein fir se shuroo kiya gaya aur isliye sanghon ka gathan kiya gaya aur raashtreeya tournament mein praamaanik shaili ko shuroo kiya gaya.[39]

United Kingdom

1950 ke dashak aur 1960 ke dashak mein kai Japani karaate gurooon ne United Kingdom mein is kala ko seekhaana shuroo kiya. 1965 mein London mein tatsuo Suzuki ne vaado-you ka adhyaapan shuroo kiya. 1966 mein, british karaate federation ke poorv sadasyon ne mukhya prashikshak ke roop mein hirokaaju kaanaajaava ke adheen great Britain ke karaate sangh (KUGB) ko sthaapit kiya,[40] aur JKA se sambaddh tha. isi samay kaanasuke enoda kaanaajaava ke roop mein ingalaind aae aur leevarapul mein dojo ka prashikshan diya. kanaajaava ne 3 saal ke baad Britain chhod diya aur enoda ne padabhaar ko sambhaala. 2003 mein enoda ki mrutyu ke baad, KUGB ne mukhya prashikshak ke roop mein Andy sheri ko chuna. is ke fauran baad, KUGB se ek naya sangh JKA England vibhaajit hua.'

isse pehle KUGB se ek aur mahatvapoorn vibhaajan 1991 mein hua tha, jab ek samooh ko KUGB varishth guroo Steve kaital dvaara ek english shotokan academy [2] (ESA) ka gathan kiya tha. is samooh ka uddeshya taaji kaase ke shikshan ka anukaran karna tha, Europe mein JKA ke poorv mukhya guroo jinhonne hiroshi shiraaj ke saath milkar vishv shotokan karaate-du academy (WKSA) ka nirmaan kiya tha, 1989 mein unka "khel karaate" ke roop mein jo vichaar tha uske virooddh budo karaate ka prashikshan diya. kaase ne shotokan karaate ke abhyaas ko apne maarshal Arts ki jado mein vaapas laane ke liye talaash kiya aur mukt hast aur uchhaal takaneekon ko anya cheejon ke beech pun: laagoo kiya jo ki JKA dvaara shurooaat pratiyogita niyamon ke parinaamon ke roop mein usamein kinaare ke laaine thi. ESA aur WKSA donon mein (2004 mein kaasa ki mrutyu ke baad kaase-ha shotokan-you karaate-du academy [3] (KSKA) pun: naamakaran) aaj tak yeh niyam jaari hai.

sanyukt raajya

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad sainya America ke sadasyon ne okinaava ya Japan mein karaate seekha aur fir USA mein school khola. 1945 mein Robert triyaas ne sanyukt raajya ke foniks, erijona mein pratham dojo, shoori-you karaate dojo ki shurooaat ki. 1950 ke dashak mein, Edward kaalaaudis, William dometarich (chito-you), Ed paarkar (kenpo), sesil petarasan (vaade-you), gordon dovarasola (okinaava-te), Louis kaavaloski, Don naagle (ishin-you), jaurd maitasan (uechi-you), paul arel (sankaata, kyukoshin aur kokonda) auऱ Peter urban (goju-kaai) sabhi ne US ko prashikshan dena shuroo kiya.

veseda vishvavidyaalaya mein chhaatr ke dauraan sutomu ohshima ne karaate ka adhyayan shuroo kiya aur 1948 mein shuruaat kiya aur 1952 mein vishvavidyaalaya ke karaate club ke kaptaan bana. 1953 tak vah shotokan ke sansthaapak gichin funaakoshi se prashikshan praapt kiya. funaakoshi ne 1952 mein vyaktigat roop se ohshima ko unke sandan raink se sammaanit kiya ko (3 degree black belt). 1957 mein ohshima ne unke godaan ko praapt kiya, (paanchavein degree black belt) jo ki funaakoshi dvaara uchchatam pad se sammaanit kiya gaya tha. isse vah SKA mein uchchatam star par aa gaya. 1952 mein ohshima ne aadhunik karaate pratiyogita mein istemaal nirdhaaran pranaali ko banaaya. haalaanki, unhonne chhaatron ko chetaaya ki tournament ko vaastavik karaate ki abhivyakti ke roop mein naheen dekha jaana chaahiye.

ohshima ne UCLA par apni padhaai jaari rakhane ke liye 1955 mein Japan ko chhoda. usane 1956 mein apni pehli America abhyaas ka netrutv kiya aur sanyukt raajya America mein kailatek mein 1957 mein pehla vishvavidyaalaya karaate club ki sthaapana ki. 1959 mein usane dakshini California karaate association (SCKA) ko atirikt shotokan dojo ke roop mein sthaapana ki. 1969 mein is sangathan ka pun: naamakaran karte hue iska naam America ke shaatokan karaate diya gaya tha.

1960 ke dashak mein J trombale (goju-you), enthauni miraakiyen (goju-you), Steve aarmstraaaing, brus teril, richrd kim (shorinji-you), teriyuki okaajaaki (shotokan), John pechivaas, aalen steen, siya O choi (hapakido), gosei yaamaaguchi (goju-you) aur J. jait barlesan sabhi ne desh bhar mein maarshal Art ka adhyaapan shuroo kiya.[41]

1961 mein, hidetaaka nishiyaama, JKA ka sah- sansthaapak aur maasaatoshi naakaayaama ka chhaatr ne sanyukt raajya mein adhyaapan ki shurooaat ki. taakaayuki mikaami ko 1963 mein JKA dvaara new oraliyens ke liye bheja gaya tha.

1964 mein, gosuko-you ka sansthaapak, taakaayuki kubota, ne antarraashtreeya karaate association ko tokyo se California sthaanaantarit kiya.

seedo karaate ki sthaapana tadaashi naakaamura dvaara kiya gaya tha.

1970 mein paul arel ne kokondo karaate ki sthaapana ki jo ki 1959 mein viksit jukido joojitsoo ki sahaayak shaili hai. kokondo mishrit takaneek aur arel ki ishin you, sankaata aur kyookoshin karaate ki poorv anubhav kaata hai.

film aur lokapriya sanskruti

karaate pashchim mein teji se lokapriya sanskruti ke maadhyam se fail gaya hai. 1950 ke dashak ke lokapriya kahaaniyaan paathakon ko pauraanik-sharton par us samay ka varnan karta hai aur hathiyaar rahit yuddh ke pashchami visheshagyon ko isi tarah ke poorvi maarshal Arts ke anajaan roop mein darshaana vishvasaneeya tha.[42] 1970 ke dashak tak, maarshal Art filmon ne apne ko mukhya dhaara ki shaili se joda jisse karaate aur anya maarshal Arts ki lokapriyta kaafi badh gayi.[43]

  • the karaate kid (1984) film mein ek ameriki kishor ki kaalpanik katha hai jiska parichay karaate se hota hai.[44]
  • chak noris: karaato kanmaadoj (1986), bachchon ki ek animated sho hai, jismein chak noris swayam episode ko shuru karne aur episode ki naitik baaton ke liye aate hain.
filmi sitaare aur unki shaili
abhyaasakarmi yuddh shaili
sonne chiba goju-you aur yokusheen
scene koneri yokusheen
fyumiyo demura sheeto-you
dolf lundagren yokusheen
jin-kloude ven dem shotokon
Michael jaya white yokusheen, Michael aur goju-you
richrd nortan goju-you
sinthiya lastar goju-you
vesli snaaips shotokon
glen marfi yokusheen

mishrit maarshal Art

karaate ka abhyaas kuchh mishrit maarshal Art ladaakuon dvaara kiya gaya.[43][45]

yeh bhi dekhein

  • karaate shailiyon ki tulana
  • Japani maarshal Art
  • ameriki karaate
  • karaate mudra
  • karaate kaata
  • okinaavan maarshal Art
  • maarshal Art ki soochi
  • karaate chop
  • kaaraategi
  • poorn sampark karaate

sandarbh

  1. a aa i Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques. pp. 17. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87040-595-0.
  2. a aa i E http://www.wonder-okinawa.jp/023/eng/001/001/index.html okinvaan karaate ka itihaas
  3. Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate. pp. 153–166. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7136-5666-2. adhyaaya 9 mein motobu-you aur bujeikan, do ti shaili ke saath grepaling aur mahatvapoorn binduon mein prahaar takaneek ko bataaya gaya hai. prushth 165, seitoku higa: "ek prahaar ko nishprabhaav karne ke liye mahatvapoorn binduon par dabaav, kalaai par pakad, grepaling, prahaar aur paad prahaar ka prayog ek saumya tareeka hai."
  4. "唐aa手aa研aa究aa会aa、aa次aaいaaでaa空aa手aa部aaのaa創aa立". Keio Univ. Karate Team. http://www.keiokarate.net/column/page01.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-03-14. (Japani)
  5. Miyagi, Chojun (1993) [1934]. McCarthy, Patrick. ed. Karate-doh Gaisetsu [An Outline of Karate-Do]. pp. 9. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 4-900613-05-3.
  6. Draeger & Smith (1969). Comprehensive Asian Fighting Arts. pp. 60. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-87011-436-6.
  7. Bishop, Mark (1999). Okinawan Karate Second Edition. pp. 11. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-8048-3205-2.
  8. Dr. Gary J. Krug: the Feet of the Master: Three Stages in the Appropriation of Okinawan Karate Into Anglo-American Culture
  9. Shigeru, Egami (1976). The Heart of Karate-Do. pp. 13. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87011-816-1.
  10. Nagamine, Shoshin (1976). Okinawan Karate-do. pp. 47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-8048-2110-0.
  11. News from the 117th IOC
  12. Web Japan
  13. Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate. pp. 154. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7136-5666-2. Motobu-ryū & Seikichi Uehara
  14. a aa Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques. pp. 19. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87040-595-0.
  15. Bishop, Mark (1989). Okinawan Karate. pp. 28. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7136-5666-2. udaaharan ke liye chojun miyaagi ne tensho mein white kren ke rokushu ko roopaantarit kiya.
  16. Patrick McCarthy, footnote #4
  17. Kanbun Uechi history
  18. Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005). 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. Okinawa: Ozata Print. pp. 28.
  19. WUKO World Union of Karate-do Organizations
  20. WUKO World Union of Karate-do Organizations
  21. International Traditional Karate Federation (ITKF)
  22. World Karate Federation Competition Rules
  23. Higaonna, Morio (1985). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 1 Fundamental Techniques. pp. 67. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87040-595-0.
  24. Shigeru, Egami (1976). The Heart of Karatedo. pp. 111. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87011-816-1.
  25. Higaonna, Morio (1990). Traditional Karatedo Vol. 4 Applications of the Kata. pp. 136. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87040-848-9.
  26. Shigeru, Egami (1976). The Heart of Karatedo. pp. 113. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-87011-816-1.
  27. World Karate Confederation
  28. WUKO - World Union of Karate-Do Organizations
  29. http://www.koshiki.org/ World Koshiki Karatedo Federation
  30. Shinkaratedo Renmei
  31. Hokama, Tetsuhiro (2005). 100 Masters of Okinawan Karate. Okinawa: Ozata Print. pp. 20.
  32. [1] A kronolaujikl history of the maarshal Art: dogalas kopalaind noval jenereshan X, jo mekajob ko ek kam- bhugataan, kam pratishtha, kam sammaan, kam laabh, naukri kshetr mein koi bhaavi-naukri naheen" ke roop mein paribhaashit kiya hai, yeh pustika mein prakat hota hai aur hafton ke bheetar, "mekadojo" shabd rec.martial-arts mein haimataadhikaar maarshal Art school ke roop mein dikhaai deta hai jo ki pratibha se jyaada ahankaar ke logon dvaara chalaaya jaata hai.
  33. funaakoshi, gichin. "karaate-du kyohan - the master tekst" tokyo. kodansha international, 1973.
  34. http://www.newpaltzkarate.com/article/Article1SA.html, levij, maure (1998) vhaats in A name? how the mining of the tarm karaate haij chenjad, new paaltj karaate academy, Inc.
  35. a aa Robert, T. (2006). "no title given". Journal of Asian Martial Arts (this issue is not available as a back issue) 15 (4). http://journalofasianmartialarts.com/cms2/journal-issues/15.html.
  36. Nozaki, Yoshiko; Hiromitsu Inokuchi, Tae-young Kim. "Legal Categories, Demographic Change and Japan's Korean Residents in the Long Twentieth Century". http://www.japanfocus.org/products/details/2220. abhigman tithi: 2007-02-19.
  37. "A History Of Taekwon Do". http://utf.whsites.net/history.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-30.
  38. a aa karate-shotokan.net sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "karate-shotokan.net" defined multiple times with different content
  39. "History of Shotokan (Russian)". http://karate-shotokan.net/php/his.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-15.
  40. International Association of Shotokan Karate (IASK)
  41. the orijinl maarshal Arts enasaaiklopeediya, John korakoran aur emil farkas, pgs. 170-197
  42. udaaharan ke liye, Ian fleming ki pustak goldafingar (1959, p.91-95) mein mukhya naayak James bond ka varnan nihatthe mukaabale ka ek visheshagya, jo ki karaate aur iske pradarshan se poori tarah se anbhigya hai aur Korea ke odajaub ka varnan in shabdon mein karta hai: goldafingar sed, "haiv yu evar hard of karaate? no? vel dait main is van of the three in the world hoo haiv achivd the black belt in karaate. karaate is A branch of judo, bat it is tu judo what A spandaau is tu ketaapalt..." sach A deskripsan in A popular novel ejyoomd end rilaaed apan karaate bing almost ananon in the vest.
  43. a aa Schneiderman, R. M. (2009-05-23). "Contender Shores Up Karate's Reputation Among U.F.C. Fans". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/05/23/sports/23karate.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-01-30.
  44. "The Karate Generation". Newsweek. 2010-02-18. http://www.newsweek.com/id/85866.
  45. "Lyoto Machida and the Revenge of Karate". Sherdog. http://www.sherdog.com/news/articles/Lyoto-Machida-and-the-Revenge-of-Karate-17521. abhigman tithi: 2010-02-13.

baahari kadiyaaain

saaaincha:Karate schools saaaincha:Karateka saaaincha:Martial arts saaaincha:Manav by country saaaincha:World Karate Federation