kannad saahitya

praacheen kannad shilaalekh (578 E ; badaami chaalukya raajavansh; badaami gufa mandir sankhya-3)

kannad saahitya ka itihaas lagbhag dedh hajaar varsh puraana hai.[1][2][3][4][5] kuchh saahityik krutiyaaain jo 9veen shataabdi mein rachi gayeen theen, ab bhi surakshit hain.[6] kannad saahitya ko mukhyat: teen saahityik kaalon mein baanta jaata hai- praacheen kaal (450–1200 CE), madhyakaal (1200–1700 CE) tatha aadhunik kaal (1700 se ab tak).[7] kannad saahitya ki ek vishesh baat yeh hai ki ismein jain, veerashaiv aur vaishnav teenon samradaayon ne saahitya rachana ki jisse madhyakaal mein teen spasht dhaaraaeain dikhteen hain.[8][9][10] yadyapi 18veen shataabdi se poorv ka adhikaansh saahitya dhaarmik tha, kintu kuchh asaampradaayik saahitya bhi racha gaya.[11][12]

anukram

kaal vibhaajan

kannad saahitya ke itihaas par jitne chhote-bade granth rache gaye hain unamein mukhya nimnalikhit hain :

1. san 1875 mein re. ef. kittal dvaara likhi naagavarma ke "chhandonbudhi" naamak granth ki prastaavana,
2. epigraafiya karnaatika mein bi.L. Rice ka lekh,
3. aar. narasinhaachaar ka likha hua "Karnataka kavichrit" (teen bhaagon mein, 1907),
4. E.pi.Rice ki "A history ov kenarees literature" (angreji mein),
5. dau॰aaaar.S.mugali ka "kannad saahitya charitre" (1953).
6. shri.M. mariypp bhatt ka "sankshipt kannad saahitya charitre" (1901).

in itihaason mein kannad saahitya ke itihaas ka kaalavibhaajan bhinn-bhinn aadhaaron par kiya gaya hai. kisi ne 12veen shataabdi ke madhyakaal tak jain yug, 12veen shataabdi ke madhyabhaag se 15veen shati ke madhyabhaag tak "veerashaiv yug", 15 veen shataabdi ke madhyabhaag se 19veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh tak "braahman yug" aur uske baad ke kaal ko aadhunik yug maana hai; aur kisi vidvaan ke anusaar aaranbhakaal 10veen shataabdi tak, dharm-praabalya-kaal, (10vi shataabdi se 19veen shataabdi tak jain kavi, veerashaiv kavi, braahman kavi) ragale, shatapadi evam naveenakal kaha hai. yeh nishchit roop se kaha ja sakta hai ki ab tak likhe gaye kannad saahitya ke itihaason mein dau॰ or.S. mugali ka likha hua kannad saahitya charitre kai drushtiyon se sarvottam hai. at: yeh kah sakte hai ki mugali ka kaalavibhaajan sarvaadhik maanya hai jo is prakaar hai–

1. panpapoorv yug (san 950 tak),
2. panp yug (san 950 se san 1150 tak),
3. basavayug (san 1150 se 1500 tak),
4. kumaaravyaas yug (san 1500 se 1900 tak) aur
5. aadhunik yug (san 1900 se)

pro॰ mugali ne pratyek yug ke sarvaadhik pratibhaasanpann kavi ke naam se us yug ka naamakaran karte hue mote taur par saare saahitya ko maarg yug, sankraman yug, deshi yug ke roop mein vibhaajit kiya hai.

panpapoorv yug

"kaviraajamaarg", kannad ka sarvapratham upalabdh granth hai. chanpoo shaili mein likha hua yeh reetigranth pradhaanataya dandi ke "kaavyaadarsh" par aadharit hai. iska rachanaakaal san 815-877 ke beech maana jaata hai. is baat mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hai ki iske rachayita maanyakhet ke raashtrakoot chakravarti swayam nrupatung the ya unka koi darabaari kavi. dau॰ mugali ka yeh mat hai ki iske lekhak nrupatung ke darabaari kavi shreevijya the.

kaviraajamaarg ka pratipaadya vishay alankaar hai. granth teen parichhedon mein vibhaajit hai. dviteeya tatha truteeya parichhedon mein kramash: shabdaalankaaron tatha arthaalankaaron ka niroopan udaaharan sahit kiya gaya hai. pratham pachhied mein kaavya ke doshaadosh (gun, dosh) ka vichaar kiya gaya hai. saath hi dhvani, ras, bhaav, dakshini aur uttari kaavyapaddhatiyaaain, kaavyaprayojan, saahityakaar ki saadhana, saahityavimrsh ke svaroop aadi ka sankshep mein parichay diya gaya hai. kannad bhaasha, kannad saahitya, kannad pradesh, Karnataka ki janta ki sanskruti aadi kai baaton ki drushti se kaviraaj maarg ek atyant mahatvapoorn granth hai.

is kaal ka doosra granth hai "vaddaaraadhane" jismein 19 jain mahaapurushon ki kahaaniyaaain gadya mein nirupit hain. iske lekhak tatha rachanaakaal ke sambandh mein yahi samjha jaata hai ki shivkotayaachaarya naamak jain kavi ne ise san 900-1070 ke beech racha tha. yeh praakrut ke "bhagavateeaaraadhana" naamak granth ke aadhaar par racha gaya hai aur ismein uttam kaavya ke gun milte hain. is granth ki sabse badi mahatta yeh hai ki ismein kannad ke gadya ka sarvapratham roop praapt hota hai.

uparyukt do granthon ke atirikt ab tak is kaal ka anya koi granth upalabdh naheen hua hai.

panp yug

kannad saahitya ke itihaas mein panp ka kaal vishesh mahatvapoorn hai, jo "svarnayug" ke naam se bhi prasiddh hai. is kaal ka doosra naam hai "jain yug", kyonki is avadhi mein kannad saahitya ki shreevruddhi karanevaalon mein jain mataavalanbi kaviyon ka vishesh haath raha. in jain kaviyon mein pratyek ne pradhaanataya do prakaar ke kaavya rache–ek jain dharm sambandhi kaavya athva dhaarmik kaavya ki vastu kisi teerthakar ya mahaapurush ki kahaani hoti thi aur laukik kaavya mein pauraanik kaavyon ke kathaanakon ka chitran hota tha. is prakaar do-do granth rachane ka uddeshya ek aur jain dharm ke tatvon ka prachaar karna tha aur doosari or sanskrut ke lokapriya mahaakaavyon ka kannad mein pratiroop prastut karke logon ko apne dharm ki or aakarshit karna tha. ye jain kavi sanskrut, praakrut tatha apabhransh bhaashaaon ke vidvaan the, saahityashaastr ke marmajnya the aur pratibhaasanpann kavi bhi. in kaviyon ne aavashyak parivartan ke saath pauraanik kathaanakon ko apne dharm ke anukool avashya banaaya, kintu unki maulikta ko nasht na hone dekar rochakata ko banaae rakha. jain kaviyon ki rachanaaon se kannad bhaasha aur saahitya ka bada upakaar hua. is avadhi mein chanpoo kaavyashaili ka vishesh prachaar hua. is samay ke dhaarmik kaavyon mein adbhoot tatha shaant aur laukik kaavyon mein veer tatha raudr rason ki vishesh roop se abhivyanjana hui. uparyukt do prakaar ke kaavyon ke atirikt chhand, ras, alankaar, vyaakaran, kosh, jyotish, vaidyak aadi vibhinn vishyon par bhi granth likhe gaye. is prakaar is yug mein kannad saahitya ki sarvatomukhi unnati hui.

is yug ke prasiddh kavi teen the–panp, ponn tatha rann jo "rannatrayi" ke naam se prasiddh hain. mahaakavi panp athva aadi panp ne do kaavya rache–"aadipuraan" aur "vikramaarjunavijya" athva "panpabhaarat". aadipuraan mein jinsenaachaaryakrut sanskrut poorvapuraan ke aadhaar par pratham teerthakar vrushabhanaath ka jeevanacharit chitrit kiya gaya hai aur "vikramaarjunavijya" mein mahaabhaarat ke kathaanak ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. ye donon chanpookaavya hain. panp kannad ke aadikvi maane jaate hain. inka samay san 941 ke lagbhag maana jaata hai.

ponn panp ke samakaaleen the. unhonne teen granth rache the–"shaantipuraan", "jinaaksharamaala" tatha "bhuvanaikaraamaabhyudaya". antim granth upalabdh naheen hai. rann ki mukhya rachanaaeain do hain– "ajitpuraan" tatha "saahas bheemavijya" athva "gadaayuddh". gadaayuddh ke naayak bheem hain. gadaayuddh mein veeraras ki anoothi vyanjana hui hai. isi kaavya se rann ki rkeeti achal hui hai.

panp yug ke anya kaviyon mein chaaundaraaya, naagavarm (pratham), durgasinh, chandraraaj, naagachandr, naagavarm (dviteeya) aadi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. chaaundaraaya ka "chaaundaraayuparaan" praacheen kannad gadya ka sundar namoona hai. naagavarm pratham ke do granth praapt hue hain– "Karnataka kaandabari" tatha "chhandonbudhi". "karnaatakakaadanbari" baan ki kaadanbari ka kannad pratiroop hai. yeh chanpoo shaili mein hai. pro॰ mugali ka mat hai ki kannad mein anoodit jitne granth hain unamein naagavarm (pratham) ki karnaatakakaadanbari sarvashreshth hai–chandraraaj aur shreedharaachaarya naagavarm (pratham) ke samakaaleen kavi hain. chandraraaj ka kaamashaastr par likha hua "madanatilk" naamak granth aur shreedharaachaarya ka "jaatakatilk" naamak jyotish granth, donon uttam krutiyaaain hain. isi kaal mein durgasinh ne, jo Bhagwat sanpradaaya ke kavi the, sanskrut "panchatantr" ka anuvaad prastut kiya.

11veen aur 12veen shataabdiyon ke beech ek anya prasiddh kavi hue, jinka naam naagachandr tha. kyonki inhonne panpabhaarat se prerana paakar raamaayan ki rachana ki, isliye inka doosra naam "Abhinav panp" pada. naagachandr ne bhi poorvavarti jain kaviyon ki bhaaainti do kaavya rache–"mallinaathapuraan" tatha "raamachandracharitpuraan" athva "panparaamaayan". panparaamaayan hi kannad ke upalabdh raamakatha sambandhi kaavyon mein sabse praacheen hai.

panpayug mein mahaakaviyon ka aavirbhaav hua aur unhonne apni mahaan krutiyon se kannad ko samruddh banaaya. yadyapi is kaal mein bade-bade kalaatmak praudh kaavyon ka nirmaan hua, to bhi samaaj ke saadhaaran logon ke jeevan ke saath saahitya ka sampark naheen tha. iska mukhya kaaran yeh tha ki is samay ke kavi raajaaon ke aashray mein rahate the aur ve jo kuchh likhte the, ya to apne aashrayadaata raajaaon ka yash gaane ke liye likhte the ya darbaar ke anya panditon ke beech vaahavaahi lutane ke liye athva apne dharm ka prachaar karne ke liye. iska parinaam yeh hua ki bolachaal ki bhaasha saahitya surgeon ke liye upayukt naheen samajhi gayi. sarvatr sanskrut ka prabhaav pada. chanpoo shaili mein jo praudh kaavya rache gaye ve saadhaaran janta ki vastu na hokar panditon tak seemit rahe.

basav yug

12veen shataabdi ki kannad kavayitri : akka mahaadevi

12 veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh se 15veen shataabdi tak ka kaal basav yug kahalaata hai. is yug ka doosra naam "kraantiyug" hai. is samay Karnataka mein dhaarmik, saamaajik ya raajaneetik, aisa koi kshetr naheen tha jo kraanti se achhoota rah saka ho. is kraanti ke unnaayak basav, basavann athva basaveshvar the, iliye is yug ka naam basav yug pada.

is kaal mein sanskrutanishth kannad ke sthaan par bolachaal ki kannad saahitya ke nirmaan ke liye uparyukt samajhi gayi aur sanskrut ki kaavyashaili ke badle deshi chhandon ko vishesh protsaahan diya gaya. pichhli shataabdiyon mein jain mataavalanbiyon ka saahityakshetr mein sarvaadhikaar tha. is yug mein bhinn-bhinn mataavalanbiyon ne saahitya ke nirmaan mein yog diya. saahitya ki shreevruddhi mein bhakti ek prabal prerak shakti ke roop mein sahaayak hui.

12veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein basaveshvar ka aavirbhaav hua. unhonne veerashaiv mat ka pun: sanghatan karke Karnataka ke dhaarmik evam saamaajik jeevan mein badi uthal puthal machaai. basav tatha unke anuyaayiyon ne apne mat ke prachaar ke liye bolachaal ki kannad ko maadhyam banaaya. veerashaiv bhakton ne bhakti, gyaan, vairaagya, sadaachaar evam neeti par niraadanbar shaili mein apne anubhavon ki baatein sunaai, jo vachan saahitya ke naam se prasiddh hui. in veerashaiv bhakton athva shivsharanon ke vachan ek prakaar ke gadyageet hain. shivsharanon ne saahitya ke liye saahitya naheen racha. unka mukhya uddeshya apne vichaaron ka prachaar karna hi tha. unke vichaaron mein saralata thi, sachaai thi aur sachche jijnyaaasu ki rasamagnata tha. isliye unki vaani mein saahityik saushthav apne aap aa gaya. in shivsharanon ke vachanon ne Karnataka mein vahi kaarya kiya jo kabeer tatha unke anuyaayiyon ne uttar Bhaarat mein kiya.

basav ne bhakti ka upadesh diya aur is bhakti ki saadhana mein vaidik karmakaand, moortipooja, jaati paaainti ka bhedabhaav, avataaravaad, andhashraddha aadi ko baadhak thaharaaya. jaatirhit, varnarahit, vargarahit samaaj ke nirmaan dvaara unhonne aadhyaatmik saadhan ka maarg sarvasulabh banaana chaaha. basav ke samakaaleen veerashaiv bhakton mein allamaprabhu, akkamahaadevi, chenn-bansav tatha siddharaam pramukh hain.

in vachanakaar shivsharanon ke atirikt veerashaiv mataavalanbi bahut se aise kavi hue jinhonne bhaktibhaavapradhaan naana prakaar ke kaavyagranth deshi chhandon ka prayog karte hue prastut kiye. 12veen aur 13veen shataabdiyon ke beech teen shreshth kavi hue harihr, raaghavaank aur padmaras. is kaal ke jain kaviyon mein nemichandr, bandhuvarma, jann, mallikaarjun, keshiraaj, rattakavi aur kumudeindu muni ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

13veen shataabdi mein Karnataka ki dhaarmik sthiti mein fir se uthal puthal hui. ek or Karnataka raamaanujaachaarya dvaara sthaapit shreevaishnav sanpradaaya se prabhaavit hua aur doosari or usamein madhvaachaarya ke dvait mat ki bhakti ki nai lahar chali. in donon vaishnav sanpradaayon dvaara chalaai gayi bhaktidhaara se kannad saahitya mein nootan shakti ka sanchaar hua. parinaamasvaroop pauraanik mahaakaavyon ke kathaanakon ka kannad mein nae sire se vishuddh mool roop mein niroopan hua. is avadhi mein rudrabhatt naamak ek vaishnav kavi hue jinka "jagannaathavijya" kannad ka sarvapratham vaishnav prabandh kaavya maana jaata hai. yeh chanpoo shaili mein likha gaya hai aur iski kathaavastu Krishna se sambandhit hai.

kumaaravyaas yug

vaishnav saahitya ke poshak raaja krushnadevaraaya
kanak das (1509 E --1609 E)

15veen shataabdi se 19veen shtaabdi ke ant tak ka kaal kumaaravyaas yug kahalaata hai. is avadhi mein vijyanagar ke samraaton tatha Mysore ke raajaaon ne kannad saahitya ki shreevruddhi mein vishesh haath baintaaya. vaishnav dharm ki pratishtha badhi jiski pratikriya kannad saahitya mein bhi dikhaai padi. vaishnav dharm dvaara prachaarit bhakti saahityasarjan mein prerak shakti ke roop mein prakat hui. saahitya janta ke ati nikat sampark mein aaya. is kaal ke sarvashreshth kavi naarnapp (naaranapp) hain jo apni lokapriyta ke kaaran "kumaaravyaas" ke abhidhaan se prakhyaat hue. kumaaravyaas Bhagwat sanpradaaya ke pramukh kavi the.

naarnapp athva kumaaravyaas ki janmatithi, janmasthaan tatha unke rachanaakaal ke sambandh mein vidvaanon mein matabhed hain. pro॰ mugali ke anusaar 14veen aur 15veen shataabdiyon ke beech kumaaravyaas jeevit the. kumaaravyaas ne "kannad Bhaarat" athva "gadugin Bhaarat" aur "airaavat" naamak do kaavya likhe the, aisa maana jaata hai. lekin airaavat ke unki kruti hone mein sandeh prakat kiya gaya hai. "kannad Bhaarat" mein vyaasarachit mahaabhaarat ke pratham das parvo ki katha ka niroopan kiya gaya hai. yadyapi panp ne apne "panpabhaarat" dvaara mahaabhaarat ki saari katha ka kannad pratiroop prastut kiya tha to bhi vah kumaaravyaas ke kannadabhaarat ki tarah lokapriya naheen ho saka. iske do kaaran hain– ek yeh hai ki panpabhaarat mein paandityapradarshan ki pravrutti adhik thi aur doosra yeh ki usamein jain dharm ka rang bhi chadha tha.

kumaaravyaas ke kannadabhaarat ke uparaant mahaabhaarat, raamaayan aur Bhagwat ke kathaanakon ke aadhaar par bahut se uttam kaavya shatpadi shaili mein prastut kiye gaye. kumaaravyaas ke dikhlaae hue maarg par chalakar narahari athva kumaaravaalmeeki naamak kavi ne vaalmeeki raamaayan ke aadhaar par kannad mein "toraveraamaayan" ki rachana ki. yeh bhi bhaktipradhaan prabandh kaavya hain, jo praacheen kannad ki ek saras kalaakruti hai. Bhagwat mataavalanbi kaviyon mein timmann kavi, chaatu vitthalanaath, lakshmeesh tatha naagaras ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. kumaaravyaas se prerana paakar timmann kavi ne mahaabhaarat ke antim aath parvo ki katha ka niroopan "krushnaraaj Bhaarat" naamak apne kaavya mein kiya. sabse pehle samagr Bhagwat ka kannad padyaanuvaad chaatu vitthalanaath naamak Bhagwat kavi ne prastut kiya. lagbhag isi kaal mein ek atyant pratibhaasanpann kavi hue jinka naam lakshmeesh tha. inka likha hua "jaiminibhaarat" anupam kaavya hai jismein mahaabhaarat ke katipya rochak prasangon ka sundar evam marmasparshi varnan kiya gaya hai. lokapriyta ki drushti se Karnataka mein kumaaravyaas ke Bhaarat ke baad jaiminibhaarat ka sthaan hai. naagaras naamak kavi ne bhagavadgeeta ka "vaasudevakathaamrutasaar" naamak kannad padyaanuvaad prastut kiya.

jis prakaar is avadhi mein kumaaravyaas, kumaaravaalmeeki, lakshmeesh jaise Bhagwat sanpradaaya ke kaviyon ne Bhaarat, raamaayan, Bhagwat aadi mahaakaavyon se kathaavastu lekar kannad mein bhaktipradhaan prabandh kaavyon ka pranayan kiya, usi prakaar maadhvamataavalanbi bhakton ne bolachaal ki kannad mein geet, bhajan, keertan rachakar bhakti ka sandesh Karnataka ke ghar-ghar pahuainchaaya. in bhakton ki parampara ka aarambh 13veen shataabdi mein narahariteerth dvaara hua tha. is samay in bhakton ki ek badi mandali jut gayi thi jo pradhaanataya do bhaagon mein vibhaajit thi. ek dal ka naam tha "vyaasakoot" aur doosare ka "daasakoot". in donon mein antar yahi tha ki ve bhakt vyaasakoot ke kahalaate the jo adhikaansh braahman the aur jo apne vichaaron ki abhivyakti ke liye sanskrut ko hi upayukt samajhte the, evam ve bhakt daasakoot ke maane jaate the jinmein sabhi jaatiyon ke log sammilit the aur jo kannad ke maadhyam se bhajan, keertan rachate the. sanpradaaya ki tatv sambandhi baaton mein "vyaasakoot" tatha "daasakoot" ke bhakton mein koi antar naheen tha. in donon dalon ke bhakt Karnataka mein haridaas ke naam se prasiddh hain. in haridaason ne bhakti, gyaan, sadaachaar, neeti, prem, lokavyavahaar aadi vishyon par saras, kintu vyaakaranabaddh kannad mein hajaaron pad rachakar kannad saahitya ka bhaandaar bhara. haridaason ki parampara 18veen shati tak chalti hai. haridaason ke geeton ka kannadavaasi janta par gahra aur vyaapak prabhaav pada hai. in haridaason mein purandaradaas, kanakadaas, jagannaathadaas aadi pramukh hain.

17veen shataabdi mein Mysore (sanprati Karnataka) ke raaja chikdevaraaya ke aashray mein rahate hue katipya vaishnav kaviyon ne uttam kaavyon ka nirmaan kiya. in kaviyon mein tirumalaarya, chikupaadhyaaya, singaraarya, honnamma, helavan katte giriymma, mahaalingarang kavi ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. isi samay pehli baar shreevaishnav sanpradaaya ka prabhaav kannad saahitya par pratyaksh roop mein dikhaai pada. chikdevaraaya "binnap" tatha "geetagopaal" naamak apni rachanaaon mein tirumalaarya ne shreevaishnav sanpradaaya ke saath-saath aikaantik bhakti ka niroopan kiya hai. "hadivdeyadharm" honnaamma ka ek sundar kaavya hai jismein sateedharm (gruhini dharm) ka praanjal bhaasha mein varnan kiya gaya hai. mahaalingarang kavi ke likhe "anubhavaamrutt" mein shankar ke advait siddhaant ka saar saras kannad mein prastut kiya gaya hai. chikdevaraaya swayam achhe kavi the.

is yug mein veerashaiv mataavalanbi bhakton evam kaviyon ne bhi naana prakaar ke granth rachakar kannad ki seva ki. inmein kuchh shatak shaili mein likhe gaye hain. vachan shaili ke atirikt kuchh gadya granth bhi likhe gaye aur saangatya, tripdi, vrutt, chanpoo, geet aadi chhandon ka vishesh prayog kiya gaya. kintu is lambi avadhi mein jitne vachanakaar hue ve ine gine hi hain.

charitkaavya prastut karanevaale veerashaiv kaviyon mein chaamaras, viroopaaksh pandit aur shadaksharadev agraganya the. chaamaras ke likhe kaavyon mein "prabhulingaleele" shreshth charitkaavya hai. "prabhulingaleele" mein allam prabhu ke jeevanavrutt ka vistaar kiya gaya hai. veerashaiv kaviyon mein shreshth prabandh kaavya rachanevaalon mein harihr ke baad chaamaras ka naam aadar ke saath liya jaata hai. viroopaaksh pandit ka likha hua chennabasav puraan bhi uttam prabandh kaavya hai, jismein prasiddh veerashaiv bhakt chennabasav ki kahaani kahi gayi hai. harihr ke "basavaraajaragale" tatha chaamaras ke "prabhulingaleele" jaise charitkaavyon mein matadharm tatha kaavyadharm ka jaisa sundar samanvaya hua hai, vaisa "chennabasavapuraan" mein naheen ho paaya hai.

panp yug mein jain kaviyon ne apne shreshth prabandh kaavyon ke dvaara kannad mein chanpooshaili ko atyant lokapriya banaaya. lekin aage chalakar is shaili ka upayog kam hota gaya. kumaaravyaas yug mein fir se yeh shaili apnaai gayi. ise apanaanevaale kavi jain naheen apitu veerashaiv the. 17veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein shadaksharadev naamak ek pratibhaasanpann veerashaiv kavi ne chanpooshaili mein teen prabandh kaavya rache jinke naam "raajashekharavilaas", "shabarashankaravilaas", tatha "vrushabheindravijya" hain. "raajashekharavilaas" tatha "shabarashankaravilaas", mein shivleela se sambandh rakhanevaali kahaaniyon ka varnan kiya gaya hai. "vrushabheindravijya" ki kathaavastu basav ka jeevanavrutt hai.

is yug mein ek mahaan veerashaiv sant ka avataar hua. unka asli naam kya tha, iska kuchh pata naheen laga hai. inka saahityik upanaam "sarvajnya" tha. inhonne "tripdi" naamak chhand mein apni amrut vaani sunaai hai. pratyek chhand "sarvajnya" shabd ke saath samaapt hota hai aur hindi ke dohe ki tarah svatantr arth rakhata hai.

is avadhi mein jain dharm ka prabhaav lupt ho chala tha. fir bhi kuchh jain mataavalanbi kaviyon ne apni shakti bhar kannad ki seva ki. jain kaviyon ne prachalit deshi kaavyashailiyon mein kaavyarachana ki. aise kaviyon mein bhaaskar, terakanaanbi, bommaras, shishumaayan, truteeyayamangaras, saalv kavi tatha ratnaakaravarni ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. inmein ratnaakaravarni sarvashreshth hain, jinki krutiyon mein "bharateshavaibhav" mukhya hai. pratham teerthakar aadidev ke putr bharat aur baahubali ke ujval charitron ka varnan hi "bharateshavaibhav" ki kathaavastu hai. pant, harihr, kumaaravyaas jaise kannad ke mahaakaviyon ki shreni mein ratnaakaravarni ka naam bhi liya jaata hai.

is yug ki antim arthaat 19veen shataabdi mein kuchh achhe kavi hue. devachandr naamak jain kavi ne "raamakathaavataar" likhkar jain raamaayan parampara ko aage badhaaya. Mysore (sanprati Karnataka) ke raaja mummudi krushnaraaj odiyr ke darabaari kaviyon mein keinpunaaraayan tatha basavapp shaastri ne sanskrut evam angreji ke kuchh naatakon ka anuvaad prastut karke kannad mein naatak saahitya ke nirmaan ke liye anukool vaataavaran taiyaar kiya. kaalidaas ke shaakuntal aadi naatakon ka basavapp shaastri ne itni safalta se anuvaad kiya ki ve "Abhinav kaalidaas" ke naam se prasiddh hue. keinpunaaraayan ne mudraamanjoosh" naamak, ek aitihaasik upanyaas likha. nandavansh ki kahaani iski kathaavastu hai jispar mudraaraakshas ka prabhaav lakshit hota hai. yahi kannad ka sarvapratham upanyaas hai.

19veen shataabdi ke ant mein muddan naamak ek safal kavi hue jinhonne teen saras kaavya likhe : "adbhut raamaayan", "raamapattaabhishek" aur "raamaashvamedh". "adbhoot raamaayan" aur "raamaashvamedh" donon gadya granth hain. inke gadya ki yeh visheshata hai ki praacheen kannad ki praudhta evam madhurata ke saath-saath aadhunik kannad ki saralata ka parichay milta hai.

aadhunik yug

Maharaja and writer, jayachamaraaja vodeyaar bahaadur (1940–1947), Elizabeth dviteeya ke saath

bhaarateeya jeevan ke itihaas mein 19veen shati ka uttaraardh atyant mahatvapoorn hai. chooainki is samay samaan paristhitiyon tatha prabhaavon se saara bhaarateeya jeevan mathit tatha aandolit hua tha, at: yeh kaha ja sakta hai ki aadhunik kannad saahitya ki gatividhi ki kahaani anya praadeshik bhaashaaon ke saahitya ki kahaani se kuchh bhinn naheen hain.

aadhunik kannad saahitya ko pradhaanataya chaar bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai jo is prakaar hain:

(k) 1900 tak pratham utthaan,
(kh) 1901 se 1920 tak dviteeya utthaan,
(g) 1921 se 1940 tak truteeya utthaan, tatha
(gh) 1940 se ab tak chaturth utthaan.

aadhunik kannad ka pratham utthaan

aadhunik kannad ka pratham utthaan gadya ke saath praarambh hota hai jiske nirmaan mein isaai mishnariyon (protesteint) ki seva ullekhaneeya hai. kaha jaata hai, 1809 mein revareind William keri ne baaibil ka anuvaad prastut kiya. lagbhag 1831 mein balalaari tatha mangalor mein mishnariyon dvaara mudranaalaya sthaapit kiye gaye jinke kaaran kannad granthon ki chhapaai mein sahaayata mili. praaya: san 1823 mein prakaashit kannad baaibil hi aadhunik kannad ka sarvapratham gadya granth hai. taduparaant isaai paadariyon ne apne dharm ke prachaar ke hetu kannad mein patrapatrikaaeain prakaashit karaai jinmein "sabhaapatr", "satyadeepike", tatha "Karnataka" mukhya hain. 19veen shati ki antim teen dashaabdiyon mein kannad bhaasha tatha saahitya ke abhivrdhan ke liye mahatvapoorn kaarya hua. idhar dakshin Karnataka mein Karnataka ke raajaaon ke protsaahan ke falasvaroop Karnataka mein praachya pustakaalaya tatha udhar dhaaravaad mein Karnataka vidyaavardhak sangh ki sthaapana hui. in donon sansthaaon ki or se praacheen shilaalekhon tatha paandulipiyon ke sangrah, sanpaadan tatha prakaashan ka kaarya praarambh hua. bi.L.Rice tatha aarai. narasinhaachaar ne anathak prayatn karke "di epigraafiya karnaatika" ka baarah bhaagon mein prakaashan karaaya. Rice ne bhattaakalank ke "shabdaanushaasan" naamak praacheen vyaakaran granth ka sanpaadan kiya aur usaki prastaavana mein kannad saahitya ke itihaas ki roop rekha angreji mein pehli baar prastut ki. mangalor ke baasel mission ke tatvaavadhaan mein revareind ef. kittal naamak ek jarman paadari ne 18 varsh nirantar parishram karke kannad panditon ke sahayog se "kannad angreji bruhatkosh" prakaashit karaaya, saath hi kannad ke praacheen granthon ka sangrah evam sanpaadan kaarya praarambh kiya. isi avadhi mein Madras vishvavidyaalaya ki or se fort seint kaalej mein kannad sikhaane ke uddeshya se paathaya pustakein prakaashit ki gayi. is prakaar yadyapi kannad bhaasha tatha saahitya ke punaruddhaar ke liye stutya udyog hua, to bhi school kaalejon mein shiksha ka maadhyam angreji hone ke kaaran kannad ke prati janta mein jaisa aadar hona chaahiye tha vaisa naheen utpann hua.

dviteeya utthaan

1900 se 1921 E. tak ka kaal adhik nishchit aur vividh upalabdhiyon ka kaal hai. pehli baar or. narahinsaachaar ne san 1907 mein kannad saahitya ka ek bruhat itihaas "Karnataka kavichrite" teen bhaagon mein prakaashit kiya jismein ek sahasr varsho ke kannad ke samast kaviyon tatha unki krutiyon ka praamaanik itivrutt prastut ho gaya. yadyapi yeh naheen kaha ja sakta ki is itihaas mein kavi aur kaavya ka moolyaankan aadhunik aalochna paddhati ke aadhaar par kiya gaya hai, fir bhi yeh nishchit hai ki kannad saahitya ke adhyayan, adhyaapan tatha shodh kaarya ke liye "Karnataka kavichrite" dvaara ek nishchit aadhaarashila prastut ho gayi. san 1915 mein E.pi. Rice ne angreji mein history ov kanareej literature likhkar paashchaatya drushtikon se kannad saahatya ke adhyayan ka maarg prashast kiya. is prakaar pratham utthaan mein Rice ke "di epigraafiya karnaatika" ke prakaashan ke falasvaroop aadhunik drushtikon se saahitya ka aitihaasik adhyayan praarambh hua aur narahinsaachaar ke "Karnataka kavichrite" ke nirmaan se kannad ke saahityakaaron ki jeevaniyon tatha unki krutiyon ke aalochanaatmak adhyayan ki nishchit prushthabhoomi taiyaar hui. isi samay ek or baingalor mein kannad saahitya parishd ka janm hua aur doosari or Mysore vishvavidyaalaya ki sthaapana hui. in donon sasthaaon ke aashray mein kannad bhaasha evam saahitya ke sanvardhan ke liye naya parivesh prastut hua.

truteeya utthaan

chitr:Stalwarts.jpg
baayein se daayein baithe hue : maasti veinkatesh ayangaar, di vi gundappaaD, kuvempu, M vi seethaaramaiya, ke shivraam kaarant, A N Krishna Rao (anaakru) evam ji pi raajaraatnam

san 1921 se 1940 tak ki avadhi mein kannad ka aadhunik kaal apne svarnayug mein pravesh karta hai. is truteeya utthaan ke praarambh mein pro॰ bi. M. shreekanthayya, jo Karnataka mein "shri" abhidhaan se lokapriya hain, kannad bhaasha aur saahitya mein navodaya ke agradoot hue. paashchaatya saahitya ke prabhaav se kannad mein bhi aadhunik saahitya ki vibhinn vidhaaeain prasfutit ho nibandh aadi sabhi vidhaaeain apne sachche roop mein viksit hone lageen jiske parinaamasvaroop kannad ka saahitya sashakt hokar jeevan ko sahi arth mein pratibinbit karne laga.

kannad saahitya ka parichay

kavita

kannad mein aadhunik kavita ka praarambh ek prakaar se angreji kavita ke anuvaad tatha anukaran ke saath-saath hua. vishesh roop se bi.M. shreekanthayya ka angreji kavitaaon ka kannad anuvaad "ingaleeshu geetegalu" navayuvakon ke liye bhaasha, vastuvidhaan, shaili, chhand evam alankaarayojana ki drushti se pathapradarshak ban gaya. isi samay Karnataka ke vividh bhaagon mein kaviyon ki khaasi mandaliyaaain sthaapit hui, dharati ka prem tatha raashtreeyata ka poora bhaavalok vyakt hua. pragaatha, visaapika, geetikaavya, saunet geet aur bhajan, varnanaatmak kavita, khandakaavya, veerakaavya, romance, daarshanik kavita, gadyageet aur svaagatabhaashan–ye aur anya kaavyavibhaag utkrusht aanand aur uchch prerana se viksit hue. is dal ke kaviyon mein anubhooti ki gaharaai, vyaapakata tatha krutiyon ke parimaan ki drushti se kuveinpu (ke.vi. puttappa) tatha anbikaatanayadatt (the.ra.Bendre) sarvashreshth kahe ja sakte hain. lagbhag bees kavitaasangrah tatha raamaayanadarshan naamak atukaant mahaakaavya kuveinpu ki amar keerti ke aadhaarastanbh hain. pradhaanataya Bendre ne geet hi rache hain. "gari", "sakheegeet", "naadaleele", "arul marul" unke geetasangrahon mein mukhya hain.

san 1930 mein jis pragatisheel aandolan ka sootrapaat hua usane is samay ke saahitya par gahra prabhaav daala. kavita ke kshetr mein bhi nai shakti ka sanchaar hua. nae chhand aur nae rachanaavidhaan ki pratishtha hui.

laghukatha

aadhunik kannad saahitya mein chhoti kahaani sabse adhik lokapriya hai. maasti veinkatesh ayangaar (shreenivaas) aadhunik kannad kahaani saahitya ke pita maane jaate hain. unki kahaaniyon mein daarshanikta, deshbhakti, aitihaasikta, graameen jeevan ke chitr, manovaigyaanik vishleshan, paarivaarik chitran aadi tatvon ka bada hi sundar samaavesh hua hai. kahaani ke vastuvidhaan tatha shilpavidhaan ki drushti se is samay kannad ki kahaani mein vikaasakram ka spasht parichay milta hai.

upanyaas

kannad mein baingala aur maraathi upanyaason ke anuvaad ke saath upanyaas saahitya ke nirmaan mein nai prerana ka sanchaar hua. bi.veinkatachaar ne bankimchandr ke upanyaason ka safal anuvaad prastut kiya. galaganaath ne anuvaad ke atirikt "maadhav karun vilaas" tatha "kumudini" naamak do maulik aitihaasik upanyaas bhi likhe. fir bhi, gulvaadi veinkataraav ka likha "indiraadevi" (1899) tatha M.S. puttanna ka likha "maadidunnon mahaaraaya" kannad ke sarvapratham maulik upanyaas maane jaate hain. is avadhi mein kannad mein vishisht upanyaas likhe gaye jinke kai udaaharan aaj bhi milte hain, jaise batageri ke "sudarshan" mein saamaajik shishtaachaar ke upanyaas, A.N. krushnaraav ke "sandhyaaraag" mein charitrapradhaan upanyaas, kastoori ke "chakradrushti" mein vyangyapradhaan upanyaas, devud ke "antarang" mein manovaigyaanik upanyaas, shivraam kaarant ke "marali mannige" mein kaalapradhaan upanyaas, mugali ke "kaaranapurush" mein samasyaapradhaan upanyaas. maasti ka "chennabasav" naamak, ke.vi.ayyar ka "shaantala" tatha A.N. krushnaraav ka "natasaarvabhaum", t.ra.su. ka "hasangeete", ke. vi. puttappa ka "kaanoor subbamm heggadati", kaarant ke "bettad jeev" aur "chomanadudi" gokaak" ka "samaras ve jeevan" aadi upanyaas apne vishisht gunon ke kaaran kannad bhaashaabhaashiyon ke jeevan, sanskruti tatha itihaas ke sachche pratinidhi kahe ja sakte hain. mirji annaaraav, basavaraaj, katteemaani, kulakund, shivraav, inaamadaar aur puraanik bhi aadhunik kannad ke samarth upanyaasakaar hain. kaarant ka "marali mannige", ke.vi. ayyar ka "shaantala", t.ra.su. ka "hansageete" ka hindi roopaantar prakaashit ho chuka hai. kuveinpu ka "kaanoor subbamm heggaditi" apne dhang ka anootha upanyaas hai.

naatak

jis prakaar hindi ke naatak saahitya aur rangamanch ka mool roop raamaleela, krushnaleela, raasadhaari mandaliyon ke roop mein paaya jaata hai usi prakaar kannad ke naatak tatha rangamanch ka moolaroop "yakshagaan", "bayalaat", "taalamaddale" ke roop mein praapt hota hai. yakshagaan ke liye likhe gaye naatak praaya: padya mein paae jaate hain. kannad ke praacheen saahitya ke antargat san 1680 mein likha hua singaraarya ka "mitravinda govind" kannad ka sarvapratham naatak maana jaata hai. yeh harsh ki "ratnaavali naatika" ke aadhaar par likha hua roopak hai. aadhunik kannad mein pehle pahal sanskrut tatha angreji naatakon ka anuvaad prastut kiya gaya. in anuvaadakon mein basavapp shaastri, nanjanagood, shreekanth shaastri evam gahani krushnaachaarya, raamashesh shaastri, anantanaaraayan shaastri, kavitilk appa shaastri, narahari shaastri ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. is samay anoodit naatakon mein uttararaamacharit, ratnaavali, veneesanhaar, vikramorvasheeya, mudraaraakshas, naagaanand mruchhakatik, harishchandr, shaakuntal aadi mukhya hain. anuvaad karne ki kala mein basavappa shaastri ne itni safalta pai ki unhein Karnataka ke tatkaaleen mahaaraajane "Abhinav kaalidaas" ki upaadhi se puraskrut kiya. aage chalakar angreji ke prasiddh naatakon ka anuvaad hone laga. isi samay kuchh naatak kanpaniyaaain bhi sthaapit hui jinke liye vishesh roop se pauraanik tatha kutoohalavardhak saamaajik naatak likhe gaye. aise naatakon mein krushnaleela, rukmineesvayanvar, lankaadahan, krushnapaarijaat, sadaar mein, kabeeradaas, jalandhar mukhya hain. Karnataka ke prasiddh nat A.bi. varadaachaar tatha gubbiveeranna dvaara companiyon ke aashray mein rangamanch ki hi naheen, naataya saahitya ki bhi vishesh vruddhi hui.

angreji saahitya ke adhyayan ke falasvaroop kannad ke naatak saahitya par paashchaatya naatyakala ka prabhaav pada. aadhunik kannad ke pramukh saahityakaaron ne bhi naatak rachakar usaki shreevruddhi mein yog diya. naatak ki vastuon mein vividhta dikhaai dene lagi. sheridn, oscar wild aur ibsan jaise paashchaatya lekhakon ka anukaran karke kannad mein bade hi sundar, vyangaatmak, haasya-ras-pradhaan naatak rache gaye. aise naatakon mein ti.pi. kailaasam ke "homarool" tatha "tollugatti", shreerang ka "harijnvaar", kaarant ka "garbhagudi", kuveinpu ka "raktakshi" aadi naam ullekhaneeya hain. du:khaant naatakon mein, bi.M. "shri" ke "ashvatthaaman" aur "gadaayuddh" tatha kuveinpu ke "beralgekoral" mukhya kahe ja sakte hain. romantic evam sukhaant naatakon mein gokaak ke "yugaantar" jaise naatak pathaneeya hain. aadhunik kannad mein ekaanki, geetinaatak, atutaank padyanaatak, sangeetaroopak (opera), radio naatak aadi naatak ke vividh roopon ka bhi prachalan hua hai.

nibndh

nibandh aadhunik kannad saahitya ki ek mahatvapoorn vidha hai. aadhunik yug ke dviteeya utthaan mein aaloor veinkataraav ke "Karnataka gatavaibhav" tatha pandit taaraanaath ke "dharmasanbhav" jaise vichaaraatmak granthon dvaara aadhunik kannad ki gambhir gadyashaili ka maarg prashast hua. di.vi. gudappa ke "saahityashakti", s.s. maalavaad ke "Karnataka-sanskruti-darshan", siddhavanahalli krushnasharma ke Gandhi saahitya mein vichaarapradhaan gadyashaili nikhrane lagi. vyangyaatmak nibandhon ke liye ji.pi. raajaratnam, na. kastoori, kaarant, ballaari beechi ki rachanaaeain ullekhaneeya hain. pi.ti. narasinhaachaar ke bhaavanaachitr, pro॰aae.lun. moortiraav ke hagaeganasugalu evam vaaman bhatt ke kodandan upanyaas galu jaise nibandhon mein laghu vaartaalaap ke sundar namoone milte hain. Bendre ke rekhaachitr, ti.N. shreekanthayya aur A.N. krushnaraav ke aalochanaatmak nibandh, putatappa ke varnanaatmak nibandh, gokaak ke patraatmak tatha bhaugolik saanskrutik nibandh, mote taur par yeh darshaate hain ki is kshetr mein kitni aur kaisi upalabdhiyaaain hui hain. di.vi.gudappa ke "gokhale", puttappa ke "vivekaanand", madhuchetr ke "prilyood" maasti ke "raveendranaath thaagur" raajaratnam ke "das varsh", divaakar ke "seremane", gokaak ke "samudradaacheyind" aadi granthon mein kramash: klaasikl jeevanacharit, romantic saahityik tatha saundaryaatmak jeevanavrutt, saahityik daayari, aadi nibandh ke vividh roopon ke sundar namoone hain. vi. seetaaraamayya ke "panpa yaatre", kaarant ke "aabuvind" aur "baraamakke", maanvi narasinharaav ke nibandh ityaadi pravaas sambandhi saahitya ke aadarsh prastut karte hain.

kosh

bachchon ka vishvakosh baalaprapanch likhkar sambhavat: bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ke saahityon ke sammukh ek nootan aadarsh upasthit karne ka shreya kannad ke mahaan lekhak shivraam kaarant ko milna chaahiye. unhonne "ijagatt" ke naam se apne vishvakosh ke pratham bhaag ka prakaashan karaaya hai aur anya bhaagon ke sanpaadan kaarya mein ab ve nirantar lage hue hain.

samaalochana

revareind ef. kittal, bi.L. Rice tatha or. narasinhaachaar jaise vidvaanon ne kannad ke praacheen granthon ka shodh, sanpaadan tatha prakaashan kaarya hi naheen kiya apitu aadhunik kaavyavimrsh ki bhi panrapara chalaai. angreji tatha praacheen sanskrut kaavyashaastr ka gambhir adhyayan karke kannad mein aalochna saahitya ke liye nishchit maarg darshan karanevaalon mein di.vi. gundappa, maasti veinkatesh ayangaar, A.aar. krushnashaastri tatha M. govind pai mukhya kahe ja sakte hain. di.vi. gundappa ka jeevan saundarya matu saahitya" aur "saahityashakti", maasti ka teen bhaagon mein prakaashit "vimrshe", A.or. Krishna shaastri ka "bhaashanagalu mattu lekhanagalu", aadhunik kannad ke aalochna saahitya mein apna vishisht sthaan rakhate hain. dau॰aA. veinkatasubbayya tatha M. govind pai ne apne shodhapoorn nibandhon mein kannad ke praacheen kaviyon ke kaalanirnaya, vastuniroopan, bhaashaasvaroop aadi par gambhir adhyayan prastut kiya hai. kannad saahitya parishd ki chhamaahi patrika "parishtpatrike" tatha Mysore vishvavidyaalaya ki traimaasik patrika "prabuddh Karnataka" mein kannad ke kavi aur kaavya par aalochanaatmak lekh gat pachchees tees varsho se baraabar prakaashit hote aa rahe hain. Mysore vishvavidyaalaya tatha kannad saahitya parishd ke tatvaavadhaan mein panp, kumaaravyaas, naagachandr, rann aadi praacheen kaviyon par uttam vimrshaatmak granth prakaashit hue hain. saath hi anyaanya saahitya sanghon ki or se chhote bade aalochanaatmak nibandhon ke sangrah nikaale gaye hain. pi. ji. halakatti, aar.aar. divaakar, M. aar. shreenivaasamoorti jaise vidvaanon ne kramash: "vachanashaastrasaar", "vachanashaastrarahasya", "vachanadharmasaar", tatha "bhakti bhandaari basavann" naamak granthon mein veerashaiv bhakt kaviyon tatha unki krutiyon ka gambhir adhyayan prastut kiya hai. muliya timmappaya ka "naadojapanp", shi.shi. basavanaal ka "prabhulingaleele", kundanagaar ka "harihr Dave", mahaadeviykak, aar.si. hiremath ka "mahaakaviraaghavaank", ke.vi. raaghavaachaar ka "yashodharacharit", A.aar. krushnashaastri ka "sanskrut naatakagalu", "ti.N. shreekanthayya ka "bhaarateeya kaavyameemaanse aur "kaavyasameekshe", kuveinpu ke "saahityavihaar" tatha "taponandan", "vibhootipooje", Bendre ka "saahityasanshodhane", govind pai ka "kannad saahityad praacheenate", betageri ka "Karnataka darshan", aar.S. panchamukhi ka "haridaas saahitya", dau॰ karki ka "chhandovikaas", di.L. narasinhaachaar dvaara sanpaadit "shabdamanidrpan", aar. S.mugali ka "kannad saahityacharitr" aadi granth aise mahatvapoorn hain jinke adhyayan se kannad bhaasha evam saahitya ki vyaapakata tatha gaharaai par spasht prakaash padta hai. san 1947 mein Mysore vishvavidyaalaya ki or se ek "bruhat angreji-kannad-kosh" prakaashit hua. shivraam kaarant ka "kannad arthakosh" tatha di.ke Bhardwaj ka "kannad-angreji-kosh" ullekhaneeya hain. Karnataka raajya sarkaar tatha Bhaarat sarkaar ke anudaan se kannad-saahitya-parishd ki or se ek bruhat kannad kosh ka sanpaadan kaarya chal raha hai.

shishusaahitya

aadhunik kannad mein shishu saahitya ke nirmaan ke liye bhi prashansaneeya kaarya hua hai. is disha mein pehle pahal panjemangesharaav ne "baal-saahitya-mandal" naamak sanstha ki sthaapana karke baalasaahitya ki vruddhi mein yog diya. kuveinpu, ji.pi. raajaratn, dinkar Desai, hoisal, devudu narasinh shaastri, aadi anek aadhunik kannad ke lekhakon ne bachchon ke liye sundar geet rachakar shishusaahitya ko lokapriya banaaya hai. Karnataka mein bachchon ki shiksha ke liye shishuvihaar jagah-jagah sthaapit hue hain. "akhil Karnataka makkalakoot", "chikkavarakanaj" jaisi bachchon ki sansthaaon ke kaaran shishusaahitya ke srujan mein vishesh protsaahan mila hai. makkal pustak, nammapustak kand, chandamaama, jaisi bachchon ki maasik patrikaaon ke naam ullekhaneeya hain.

lokasaahitya

kannad ke lokageeton tatha lokakalaaon ke adhyayan ka kaarya bhi praarambh hua hai. Karnataka mein gat 300 varsho se atyant lokapriya lokakala "yakshagaan" par shivraam kaarant ka likha hua "yakshagaan" vayalaat ek mahatvapoorn granth hai jispar Bhaarat sarkaar ne 5,000 rupae ka puraskaar pradaan kiya hai. maasti veinkatesh ayangaar ne apne "paapular kalchar in Karnataka" mein kannad ke lokasaahitya ka sundar parichay diya hai. graamageeton ke bhi kai sangrah prakaashit hue hain jinmein Bendre ka "garatiyrahaadu", L. gundappa ka "halliypadagalu", bi.N. rangasvaami tatha goroor raamasvaamayangaar ka "halliyhaadugalu", matigtt krushnamoorti ka "halliypadagalu", tatha ka.ra.kru. ka "janapadageetegalu" ullekhaneeya hain.

vigat 60-70 varsho se kannad mein adhyaatm, darshan, jyotish, vigyaan, bhoogol, itihaas, arthashaastr, shiksha, praanishaastr, ganit, aarogya, vaidyak, shasyashaastr, krushi, chitrakala, sangeetakala aadi vibhinn vishyon par granthanirmaan ka kaarya hua hai. idhar kuchh varsho se haai schoolon tatha kaalejon ki padhaai ke liye kannad ko maadhyam ke roop mein sveekaar kiya ja raha hai jiske parinaamasvaroop vibhinn vishyon par kannad mein paathaya pustakein bhi taiyaar ki ja rahi hain.

patra-patrikaaeain

aadhunik kannad saahitya ki shreevruddhi mein kannad ki patrapatrikaaon ka sahayog kuchh kam mahatva ka naheen hai. mangalor ke baasel mission ke paadariyon ko kannad mein sarvapratham patrika prakaashit karne ka shreya diya jaata hai. in paadariyon ne isaai dharm ke prachaar ke liye san 1856 mein "kannadavaartik" naamak patrika ka prakaashan aarambh kiya. angreji bhaasha tatha saahitya ke prachaar ke saath-saath Karnataka ke vibhinn pradeshon se anek patrapatrikaaon ka sanpaadan praarambh hua. Mysore ke M. veinkatakrushnayya ke parishram ke falasvaroop kannad ki praarambhik patrikaaon mein hitbodhini, sudarshan, aaryamatasanjeevani, Karnataka kaavyakalaanidhi, suvaasini, vaagbhooshan, vivekodaya, sadguru sadbodhachandrike, dhanurdhaari, madhuravaani, shreekrushnasookti tatha saadhavani ke naam ullekhaneeya hain. san 1921 ke sarvekshan ke anusaar Karnataka ke vibhinn pradeshon se kul 66 patrapatrikaaeain prakaashit ho rahi theen. aajkal ki dainik patrikaaon mein sanyukt Karnataka, prajaavaani, janavaani, Tamil Nadu tatha navabhaarat mukhya hain. prajaamat, karmaveer, janapragati aadi saaptaahik patra lokapriya hain. kahaani sambandhi patrikaaon mein kategaar, kathaanjali, kathaakunj, koravanji tatha maasik patrikaaon mein jeevan, kastoori, jaya Karnataka aadi ullekhaneeya hain.

kannd saahitya aur samaaj

aadhunik kannad ke pratham tatha dviteeya utthaan mein raashtreeyata ka svar mukharit hua. uske baad samaajasudhaar tatha dalit jaatiyon ke uddhaar ki bhaavana jor pakadne lagti hai. pauraanik vishyon tatha paatron ka maanaveekaran ek mahatvapoorn vishay hai. prakruti ke prati romantic drushtikon poori tarah se vyakt hua hai. naveen lekhak ke kai mahatvapoorn siddhaanton mein ek aatmaabhivyanjana hai. manushya ke vyaktitv ki mahaanata tatha usaki pavitrata par sarvatr aagrah dikhaai deta hai. lekhakon ke liye yeh naya saakshaatkaar tha ki saahitya vyaktitv ki abhivyanjana hokar swayam poornata ko praapt hota hai. geet aur nibandh, upanyaas aur naatak ityaadi bhi isi vyaktivaad se anupraanit hue hain. yathaarthavaadi lekhakon ne saamaajik, raajaneetik aur dhaarmik sansthaaon ke jhoothe vishvaason tatha khokhalepan ka pardaafaash kiya hai. pragatisheel saahityakaaron ne pradhaanataya samaaj ki duvryavastha ki samasya ko maakrsavaadi vichaaradhaara ke aadhaar par hal karne ka prayatn kiya hai. roodhivaadi lekhak apne supratishthit vishvaas ke moolya mein aastha rakhate hain. lekhakon ka ek varg vah hai jisne kaavyaatmak dhaarmik anubhootiyon ki sundar vyanjana ki hai. aise bhi katipya lekhak hain jinka charam uddeshya saundaryajagat mein saahasapoorn abhiyaan hai. lekhakon ki ek aastik dhaara bhi hai jismein neeti tatha vichaarapoorn daarshanikta ki dhvani mukharit hai. is dhaara ke lekhakon par raamakrushn paramahans, vivekaanand evam Arvind ke jeevanadarshan ka gahra prabhaav lakshit hota hai. is dal ki krutiyon mein buddhivaad aur rahasyavaad, saundaryavaad aur samaajavaad, karm aur gyaan jaise paraspar virodhi tatvon, ka samaahaar hua hai. is prakaar vividh vichaaradhaara ke lekhakon ne saahitya ki vibhinn vidhaaon ke maadhyam se kannad bhaarati ko sajaaya hai. in vibhinn vichaaradhaaon se jis saahityasangam ki srushti hui hai uske samashtiroop mein se ek maanavataavaadi ujval jeevanadarshan prakaashit hua hai jiska kaalaantar mein vyaapak prabhaav avashya lakshit hoga.

sandarbh

  1. Ramanujan, A. K. (1973), Speaking of Śaiva Harmondsworth: Penguin, p. 11, ISBN 0-14-044270-7
  2. R.S. Mugali (2006), The Heritage of Karnataka, pp. 173–175 ISBN 1-4067-0232-3
  3. Kannada literature. (2008). Encyclopæadia Britannica: "The earliest records in Kannada are full length inscriptions dating from the 5th century AD onward. The earliest literary work is the Kavirajamarga (c. AD 850), a treatise on poetics based on a Sanskrit model."
  4. David Crystal's Dictionary of Language, (Crystal 2001, p. 177), "... with inscriptions dating from the late 6th century AD, ...
  5. Other scholars have dated the earliest Kannada inscription to 450 A.D.(Master 1944, pp. 297–307), 500 A.D. (Mugali 1975, p. 2), and "about 500" (Pollock 1996, pp. 331–332). Epigraphist G. S. Gai has dated it to the "end of the fifth century A. D. or the beginning of the 6th century A.D." (Gai 1992, pp. 300–301); epigraphist, D. C. Sircar to "about the end of the 6th century," ( Sircar 1965, prushth 48)
  6. Zvelebil (2008), p.2
  7. Steever, S.B. (1998), p. 129; Krishnamurti (2003), p. 23; Pollock (2007), p. 81; Sahitya Akademi, Encyclopaedia of Indian Literature, vol. 2 (1988), p. 1717
  8. Kittel in Rice E.P. (1921), p. 14
  9. Sastri 1955, pp. 355–365
  10. Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 17, 61
  11. Narasimhacharya (1934), pp. 61–65
  12. Rice E. P, (1921), p. 16

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain