kannad bhaasha

kannad
ಕaaನaa್aaನaaಡ kannaḍaaa
kannad evam angreji mein ek dvibhaashi sanketapatt
Kannadaalphabet.jpg
boli jaati hai karnaatak, Bhaarat, sanyukt raajya, Australia, Singapore, sanyukt raajashaahi, sanyukt arab ameeraat ke samudaaya
kshetr karnaatak, Kerala, Maharashtra, Andhra pradesh, goaa, tamil naadu .
kul bolne vaale 6 karod nivaasi (2001, maatr Bhaarat mein),[1] 90 lakh ki dviteeya bhaasha[2]
shreni 27[3]
bhaasha parivaar Dravid
aadhikaarik star
aadhikaarik bhaasha ghoshit Flag of India.svg Bhaarat (karnaatak)
niyaamak karnaatak sarkaar ki vibhinn sansthaaen[4]
bhaasha koot
ISO 639-1 kn
ISO 639-2 kan
ISO 639-3 kan
Kannadaspeakers.png
Bhaarat mein nivaasi kannad bhaashi
Indic script
is panne mein hindi ke alaava anya bhaarateeya lipiyaan bhi hai. paryaapt software samarthan ke abhaav mein aapko aniyamit sthiti mein svar va maatraaen tatha sanyojak dikh sakte hain. adhik...

kannad (kannad : ಕaaನaa್aaನaaಡa|ಕaaನaa್aaನaaಡ)[5] Bhaarat ke Karnataka raajya mein bole jaanevaali bhaasha hai aur Karnataka ki raajabhaasha hai. yeh Bhaarat ke sabse adhik prayog ki jaane waali bhaashaaon mein se ek hai. 4.50 karod log kannad bhaasha prayog karte hain.[1] ye bhaasha enkaarta ke anusaar vishv ki sarvaadhik boli jaane waali 30 bhaashaaon ki soochi mein 27vein sthaan par aati hai.[3] ye Dravid bhaasha-parivaar mein aati hai par ismein sanskrut se bhi bahut shabd hain. kannad bhaasha istemaal karanevaale isko vishvaas se 'sirignnad' bolte hain. kannad bhaasha kuchh 2500 saal se upayog mein hai. kannad lipi kuchh 1900 saal se upayog mein hai. kannad anya Dravid bhaashaaon ki tarah hai. telugu, tamil aur malayalam is bhaasha se miltejulate hai. sanskrut bhaasha se bahut prabhaavit hui yeh bhaasha mein sanskrut mein se bahut saare shabd vahi arth se upayog kiya jaata hai. kannad Bhaarat ki 22 aadhikaarik bhaashaaon mein se ek hai.[6]

anukram

kannad tatha Karnataka shabdon ki vyutpatti

kannad tatha Karnataka shabdon ki vyutpatti ke sambandh mein yadi kisi vidvaan ka yeh mat hai ki "kanriduanaadu" arthaat "kaali mitti ka desh" se kannad shabd bana hai to doosare vidvaan ke anusaar "kapitu naadu" arthaat "sugandhit desh" se "kannaadu" aur "kannaadu" se "kannad" ki vyutpatti hui hai. kannad saahitya ke itihaasakaar aar.narasinhaachaar ne is mat ko sveekaar kiya hai. kuchh vaiyaakaranon ka kathan hai ki kannad sanskrut shabd "karnaat" ka tadbhoov roop hai. yeh bhi kaha jaata hai ki "karnayo atati iti Karnataka" arthaat jo kaanon mein gooainjata hai vah Karnataka hai.

praacheen granthon mein kannad, karnaat, Karnataka shabd samaanaarth mein prayukt hue hain. mahaabhaarat mein karnaat shabd ka prayog anek baar hua hai (karnaatakashch kutaashch padmajaala: sateenara:, sabhaaparv, 78, 94; karnaataka mahishika viklpa mooshakaastatha, bheeshmaparv 58-59). doosari shataabdi mein likhe hue tamil "shilppadikaaram" naamak kaavya mein kannad bhaasha bolanevaalon ka naam "karunaadar" bataaya gaya hai. varaahamihir ke bruhatsanhita, somadev ke kathaasaritsaagar gunaadhaya ki paishaachi "bruhatkatha" aadi granthon mein bhi karnaat shabd ka baraabar ullekh milta hai.

angreji mein Karnataka shabd vikrut hokar karnaatik (Karnatic) athva Canara (Canara), fir Canara se kenaareej (Canarese) ban gaya hai. uttari Bhaarat ki hindi tatha anya bhaashaaon mein kannad shabd ke liye kanaadi, kannadi, kenaara, kanaari ka prayog milta hai.

aajkal Karnataka tatha kannad shabdon ka nishchit arth mein prayog hota hai – Karnataka pradesh ka naam hai aur "kannad" bhaasha ka.

kannad bhaasha tatha lipi

praacheen kannad shilaalekh, 578 E. baadaami-chaalukya vansh kaaleen, jo baadaami ke gufa chitr san0 3 mein mile hain.

Dravid bhaasha parivaar ki bhaashaaeain panchadraavid bhaashaaeain kahalaati hain. kisi samay in panchadraavid bhaashaaon mein kannad, tamil, telugu, gujaraati tatha maraathi bhaashaaeain sammilit theen. kintu aajkal panchadraavid bhaashaaon ke antargat kannad, tamil, telugu, malayalam tatha tulu maani jaati hain. vastut: tulu kannad ki hi ek pusht boli hai jo dakshin kannad jile mein boli jaati hai. tulu ke atirikt kannad ki anya boliyaaain hain–kodagu, tod, kot tatha badag. kodagu kurg mein boli jaati hai aur baaki teenon ka neelagiri jile mein prachalan hai. neelagiri jila Tamil Nadu raajya ke antargat hai.

raamaayan-mahaabhaarat-kaal mein bhi kannad boli jaati thi, to bhi isa ke poorv kannad ka koi likhit roop naheen milta. praarambhik kannad ka likhit roop shilaalekhon mein milta hai. in shilaalekhon mein halmidi naamak sthaan se praapt shilaalekh sabse praacheen hai, jiska rachanaakaal 450 E. hai. saataveen shataabdi mein likhe gaye shilaalekhon mein baadaami aur shravan belagol ke shilaalekh mahatvapoorn hain. praaya: aathaveen shataabdi ke poorv ke shilaalekhon mein gadya ka hi prayog hua hai aur uske baad ke shilaalekhon mein kaavyalakshanon se yukt padya ke uttam namoone praapt hote hain. in shilaalekhon ki bhaasha jahaaain sugathit tatha praudh hai vahaaain usapar sanskrut ka gahra prabhaav dikhaai deta hai. is prakaar yadyapi aathavi shataabdi tak ke shilaalekhon ke aadhaar par kannad mein gadya-padya-rachana ka pramaan milta hai to bhi kannad ke upalabdh sarvapratham granth ka naam "kaviraajamaarg" ke uparaant kannad mein granthanirmaan ka kaarya uttarottar badha aur bhaasha nirantar viksit hoti gayi. kannad bhaasha ke vikaasakram ki chaar avasthaaeain maani gayi hain jo is prakaar hai :

  1. atipraacheen kannad (aathaveen shataabdi ke ant tak ki avastha),
  2. hal kannad–praacheen kannad (9veen shataabdi ke aarambh se 12veen shataabdi ke madhya-kaal tak ki avastha),
  3. nadu gannad madhyayugeen kannad (12veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh se 19veen shataabdi ke poorvaardh tak ki avastha) aur
  4. hos gannad–aadhunik kannad (19veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh se ab tak ki avastha).

chaaron draavid bhaashaaon ki apni pruthak-pruthak lipiyaaain hain. dau॰aaem.H. Krishna ke anusaar in chaaron lipiyon ka vikaas praacheen anshakaaleen braahmi lipi ki dakshini shaakha se hua hai. banaavat ki drushti se kannad aur telugu mein tatha tamil aur malayalam mein saamya hai. 13veen shataabdi ke poorv likhe gaye telugu shilaalekhon ke aadhaar par yeh bataaya jaata hai ki praacheen kaal mein telugu aur kannad ki lipiyaaain ek hi thi. vartamaan kannad ki lipi banaavat ki drushti se devanaagari lipi se bhinn dikhaai deti hain, kintu donon ke dhvanismooh mein adhik antar naheen hai. antar itna hi hai ki kannad mein svaron ke atanrgat "A" aur "O" ke hrasv roop tatha vyanjanon ke antargat vatsya "l" ke saath-saath moordhanya "l" varn bhi paae jaate hain. praacheen kannad mein "r" aur "l" pratyek ke ek-ek moordhanya roop ka prachalan tha, kintu aadhunik kannad mein in donon varno ka prayog lupt ho gaya hai. baaki dhvanismooh sanskrut ke samaan hai. kannad ki varnamaala mein kul 47 varn hain. aajkal inki sankhya baavan tak badha di gayi hai.

kannad
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+0C8x
U+0C9x
U+0CAx
U+0CBx ಿ
U+0CCx
U+0CDx
U+0CEx
U+0CFx

yeh bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa 2001 janaganana: Talen per staat
  2. vishv ki sarvochch 30 bhaashaaen. vistaavaaid.
  3. a aa 1 karod se adhik logon dvaara boli jaane waali bhaashaaen. enkaarta. Archived 2009-10-31.
  4. Karnataka aadhikaarik bhaasha adhiniyam, 1963 – Karnataka raajapatr (vishesh) bhaag chaturth khand 2e. Karnataka sarkaar. 1963. pp. 33.
  5. [1].[jaimini Bhaarat: prasiddh kannad kaavya, anuvaad evam teeka sahit (1852)].[2010-11-13].
  6. "Karnataka aadhikaarik bhaasha adhiniyam" (PDF). sansadeeya maamalon evam vidhi ka aadhikaarik jaalasthal. Karnataka sarkaar. http://dpal.kar.nic.in/26%20of%201963%20(E).pdf. abhigman tithi: 29 July 2007.

baahari kadiyaaain