kanishk

samraat kanishk mahaan

kushaan vansh ka pramukh samraat kanishk bhaarateeya itihaas mein apni vijay, dhaarmik pravrutti, saahitya tatha kala ka premi hone ke naate vishesh sthaan rakhata hai. kanishk ka itihaas jaanane ke liye aitihaasik saamagri ki kami naheen hai. unke bahut se sikke upalabdh hain, aur aise anek utkeern lekh bhi mile hain, jinka kanishk ke saath bahut gahra sambandh hai. iske atirikt gurjar jaati mein kanishk ko bahut mahattvapoorn sthaan praapt hai. gurjar jaati mein kanishk ka sthaan mihirbhoj se kam nahi hai. jis prakaar mihir bhoj ke sanrakshan mein hindu dharm ki bahut unnati hui, vaise hi kanishk ke samay mein bhi hui. bhaarateeya itihaas mein apni vijay, dhaarmik , saahitya tatha kala ka premi hone ke naate vishesh sthaan rakhata hai. gurjar jaati ke 'kashaana' gautr ne Bhaarat mein kushaan vansh ki sthaapana ki aur Bhaarat ko kanishk jaisa mahaan shaasak diya. yooain to Bhaarat mein soorya pooja ka prachalan sindhu ghaati ki sabhyata aur vaidik kaal se hi hai, parantu isa ki pratham shataabdi mein, madhya Asia se Bhaarat aae, kushaan kabeelon ne ise yahaaain vishesh roop se lokapriya banaaya. Bhaarat mein 'shak samvat' (78 i0) ka praarambh karne vaale kushaan samraat kanisht ki ganana Bhaarat hi naheen Asia ke mahaanatam shaasakon mein ki jaati hai. iska saamraajya madhya Asia ke aadhunik Uzbekistan tajaakistaan, cheen ke aadhunik sikyaang evam kaansoo praant se lekar Afghanistan, Pakistan aur samast uttar Bhaarat mein Bihar evam udeesa tak faila tha.

kanishk ne devaputr shaahane shaahi ki upaadhi dhaaran ki thi. Bhaarat aane se pehle kushaan 'baiktriya' mein shaasan karte the, jo ki uttari Afghanistan evam dakshini ujabegakistaan evam dakshini tajaakistaan mein sthit tha aur yoonaani evam Irani sanskruti ka ek kendra tha. kushaan hind-Irani samooh ki bhaasha bolte the aur ve mukhya roop se mihir (soorya) ke upaasak the. soorya ka ek paryaayavaachi 'mihir' hai, jiska arth hai, vah jo dharati ko jal se seenchata hai, samudron se aardrata kheenchakar baadal banaata hai.

  • kanishk ke sikke

kushaan samraat kanishk ne apne sikkon par,yoonaani bhaasha aur lipi mein meeron (mihir) ko uttankit karaaya tha, jo is baat ka prateek hai ki Iran ke saur sampradaaya Bhaarat mein pravesh kar gaya tha.Iran mein mithr ya mihir pooja atyant lokapriya thi. Bhaarat mein sikkon par soorya ka ankan kisi shaasak dvaara pehli baar hua tha. samraat kanishk ke sikke mein sooryadev baayeen aur khade hain. baane haath mein dand hai jo rashna sein bandha hai. kamar ke chaaron or talavaar lataki hai. soorya Irani raajasi veshabhoosha mein hai. peshaavar ke paas shaah ji ki dheri naamak sthaan par kanishk dvaara nimit ek bauddh stoop ke avasheshon se ek baksa praapt hua jise 'kanishkaas kaasket' kehte hain, is par samraat kanishk ke saath soorya evam chandr ke chitr ka ankan hua hai. is 'kaasket' par kanishk ke samvat ka pratham varsh ankit hai. Mathura ke sagrahaanlaya mein laal patthar ki anek soorya pratimaane rakhi hai, jo kushaan kaal (pehli se teesari shataabbi isaveen) ki hai. inmein Bhagwan soorya ko chaar ghodon ke rath mein baithe dikhaaya gaya hai. ve kursi par baithane ki mudra mein pair latakaaye huye hai. unke donon haathon mein kamal ki ek-ek kali hai aur unke donon kandhon par soorya-pakshi garood jaise do chheete-2 pankh lage hue hain. unka shareer 'audichyavesh' arthaat Irani dhang ki pagadi, kaamadaani ke chogein (lamba kot) aur salavaar se dhaka hai aur ve oonche Irani joote pahane hain. unki veshabhoosha bahut kuchh, Mathura se hi praapt, samraat kanishk ki sirviheen pratima jaisi hai. Bhaarat mein ye soorya ki sabse praacheen moortiyaan hai. kushaanon se pehli soorya ki koi pratima naheen mili hai, Bhaarat mein unhonne hi soorya pratima ki upaasana ka chalan aarambh kiya aur unhonne hi soorya ki veshabhoosha bhi vaisi di thi jaisi vo swayam dhaaran karte the. Bhaarat mein pehle soorya mandir ki sthaapana multaan mein hui thi jise kushaanon ne basaaya tha. puraatatvetta en0 kanighm ka maanana hai ki multaan ka sabse pehla naam kaasaappur tha aur usaka yeh naam kushaanon se sambandhit hone ke kaaran pada. bhavishya, saamv evam varaah puraan mein varnan aata hai ki Bhagwan Krishna ke putr saamb ne multaan mein pehle soorya mandir ki sthaapana ki thi. kintu bhaarateeya braahmanon ne vahaaain purohit ka kaarya karne se mana kar diya, tab naarad muni ki salaah par saamb ne sankaladeep (sindh) se mag braahmanon ko bulavaaya, jinhonne vahaaain purohit ka kaarya kiya. bhavishya puraan ke anusaar mag braahman jarasast ke vanshaj hai, jiske pita swayam soorya the aur maata nakshubha 'mihir' gautr ki thi. mag braahmanon ke aadi poorvaj jarasast ka naam, chhathi shataabdi i0 poo0 mein, Iran mein paarasi dharm ki sthaapana karne vaale jurathust se saamya rakhata hai. prasiddh itihaasakaar dee0 aara0 bhandaarakar (1911 i0) ke anusaar mag braahmanon ne samraat kanishk ke samay mein hi, soorya evam agni ke upaasak purohiton ke roop mein, Bhaarat mein pravesh kiya. uske baad hi unhonne kaasaappur (multaan) mein pehli soorya pratima ki sthaapana ki. itihaasakaar vi. A. smith ke anusaar kanishk dheele-dhaale roop ke jrthusth dharm ko maanata tha, vah mihir (soorya) aur atar (agni) ke atarikt anya bhaarateeya evam yoonaani devataao upaasak tha. apne jeevan kaal ke antim dinon mein bauddh dharm mein kathit dharmaantaran ke baad bhi vah apne puraane devataao ka sammaan karta raha|

dakshini Rajasthan mein sthit praacheen bhinmaal nagar mein soorya devata ke prasiddh jagasvaami mandir ka nirmaan kaashmeer ke raaja kanak (samraat kanishk) ne karaaya tha. maaravaad evam uttari Gujarat kanishk ke saamraajya ka hissa rahe the. bhinmaal ke jagasvaami mandir ke atirikt kanishk ne vahaaain 'karada' naamak jheel ka nirmaan bhi karaaya tha. bhinmaal se saat kos poorv ne kanakaavati naamak nagar basaane ka shreya bhi kanishk ko diya jaata hai. kehte hai ki bhinmaal ke vartamaan nivaasi devada/devara log evam shreemaali braahaman kanak ke saath hi kaashmeer se aae the. devada/devara, logon ka yeh naam isliye pada kyonki unhonne jagasvaami soorya mandir banaaya tha. raaja kanak se sambandhit hone ke kaaran unhein samraat kanishk ki devaputr upaadhi se jodna galat naheen hoga. saatavi shataabdi mein yahi bhinmaal nagar gurjar desh (aadhunik Rajasthan mein vistrut) ki rajdhani bana. yahaaain yeh tathya bhi ullekhaneeya hai ki ek kanighanm ne aarkelojikl sarve report 1864 mein kushaanon ki pehchaan aadhunik gurjaron se ki hai aur usane maana hai ki gurjaron ke kasaana gautr ke log kushaanon ke vartamaan pratinidhi hai. usaki baat ka mahatva is baat se aur badh jaata hai ki gurjaron ka kasaana gotr kshetr vistaar evam sankhyaabal ki drushti se sabse bada hai. kasaana gautr Afghanistan se Maharashtra tak faila hai aur Bhaarat mein keval gurjar jaati mein milta hai.

kanishk ne Bhaarat mein kaartikeya ki pooja ko aarambh kiya aur use vishesh badhaava diya. usane kaartikeya aur uske anya naamon-vishaakh, mahaasena, aur skand ka ankan bhi apne sikkon par karavaaya. kanishk ke bete samraat huvishk ka chitran uske sikko par mahaasen 'kaartikeya' ke roop mein kiya gaya hain. aadhunik panchaag mein soorya shashthi evam kaartikeya jayanti ek hi din padti hai, koi cheej hai prakruti mein jisne inhein ek saath joda hai-vah hai samraat kanishk ki aastha. soorya shashthi ke din soorya upaasak samraat kanishk ko bhi yaad kiya jaana chaahiye aur unhein bhi shraddhaanjali di jaani chaahiye.


  • sandarbh
  • 1. bhagavat sharan upaadhyaaya, bhaarateeya sanskruti ke strot, nai Delhi, 1991,
  • 2. rekha chaturvedi Bhaarat mein soorya pooja-sarayoo paar ke vishesh sandarbh mein (lekh) janaitihaas shodh patrika, khand-1 Meerut, 2006
  • 3. A. kaningham aarakelojikl sarve report, 1864
  • 4. ke. si.ojha, di history of faaren rool in ainshiaint indiya, Allahabad, 1968
  • 5. di. aar. bhandaarakar, faaren eleement in indiyn paapuleshan (lekh), indiyn aintikvairi khand X L 1911
  • 6. J.M. kaimpabail, bhinmaal (lekh), bombe gajetiyr khand 1 bhaag 1, bombe, 1896
  • 7. vinseint A. smith, di Oxford histari of India, chotha sanskaran, Delhi, 1990

parichay

gurjar samraat kanishk ko kushaan vansh ka teesara shaasak maana jaata tha kintu raabaatak shilaalekh ke baad yeh chautha shaasak saabit hota hai. kushaan vansh ne san 0 se 375 E kiya. . sandeh naheen ki kanishk kushaan vansh ka mahaanatam shaasak tha. uske hi kaaran kushaan vansh ka Bhaarat ke saanskrutik evam raajaneetik itihaas mein mahattvapoorn sthaan hai. usaka raajyaarohan kaal sandigdh hai. 100 E. se 140 E.tak ise kaheen par bhi rakha ja sakta hai, kintu sambhaavana yeh bhi maani gayi thi ki tathaakathit shak samvat, jo 78 E. mein aarambh hua maana jaata hai, kanishk ke raajyaarohan ki tithi ho sakti hai. kanishk ke raajyaarohan ke samay kushaan saamraajya mein afgaanistaan, sindh ka bhaag, baiktriya evam paarthiya ke pradesh sammilit the. kanishk ne Bhaarat mein apna raajya magadh tak vistrut kar diya. vahaaain se vah prasiddh vidvaan ashvaghosh ko apni rajdhani purushapur le gaya. tibbataaur cheen ke kuchh lekhakon ne likha hai ki usaka saaket aur paataliputr ke raajaaon se yuddh hua tha. Kashmir ko apne raajya mein milaakar usane vahaaain ek nagar basaaya jise 'kanishkapur' kehte hain. ujjen ke kshatrap ko haraaya aur maalava ka praant praapt kiya tha. kanishk ka sabse prasiddh yuddh cheen ke shaasak ke saath hua tha, jahaaain ek baar paraajit hokar vah dubaara vijayi hua. kanishk ne madhya Asia mein kaashagar, yaarakand, khotaan, aadi pradeshon par bhi apna aadhiptya sthaapit kiya. gurjar jaati ke 'khataana' aur 'kashaana' gautr ne Bhaarat mein kushaan vansh ki sthaapana ki. is prakaar pehli baar ek vishaal saamraajya ki sthaapana hui, jismein ganga, sindhu aur aaksas ki ghaatiyaaain sammilit theen. Bhaarat ke itihaas mein keval "gurjar samraat kanishk" ka hi saamraajya hindookush ki pahaadiyo se Bengal ki khaadiyo tak faila tha.

kaal nirnaya

nishchit roop se kanishk ki tithi nirdhaarit karne ka prayaas abhi bhi ho raha hai. fleet, keneindi ityaadi vidvaan ise 58 E. sanvat ka nirmaata maanate hain. raipsan, taamas tatha kuchh anya vidvaan iske Abhishek ki tithi 78 E mein rakhate hain; aur unke anusaar isi samraat ne shak sanvat chalaaya tha. maarshal, kono tatha smith ne kanishk ka raajyakaal E. ki doosari shataabdi mein rakha hai aur iske Abhishek ki tithi lagbhag 125 E. nirdhaarit ki hai. vegaraam ne khudaai karaane par girshamaan ko teen tithiyon ka lekh mila aur unhonne kanishk ke shaasanakaal ka pratham varsh 142-3 E mein maana hai. kanishk ne 24 varsh tak raajya kiya. Afghanistan mein kanishk ka ek lekh yoonaani bhaasha mein 31 sanvat ka mila. aara mein kanishk ka 41 san. ka ek lekh pehle mila tha. in donon ko kanishk dviteeya hi maanana chaahiye, par yeh vishay vivaadaaspad hai. yadi shak sanvat ka pravartak kanishk pratham hi hai to ni: sandeh use sanvat ko prachalit karne ka shreya praapt hai, jo praaya: 2,000 varsho se Bhaarat mein raashtreeya sanvat ke roop mein hinduon ki kundali aadi mein prayukt hota raha hai aur jise praaya: isi roop mein svatantr bhaarateeya sarkaar ne sveekaar kiya hai.

sandarbh granth

  • stenakono : kaarapas inskripshanan indikeram‌, bhaag 2;
  • raipsan : Cambridge history ov India, bhaag 1;
  • majoomadaar aind pusaalakar : di ej ov inpeeriyl unity;
  • neelakanth shaastri : A kaanpriheinsiv history ov India;
  • gishmaan : vegaraam;
  • smith : arli history ov India;
  • bai. puri : kushaanakaaleen Bhaarat (aprakaashit)