kan tvarak

indas-2 : Bhaarat (indaur) ka 2.5GeV sinkrotraan vikirn srot (SRS)

kan-tvarak AC machine hai jiske dvaara aaveshit kanon ki gatij oorja badhaai jaati hain. yeh ek aisi yukti hain jo kisi aaveshit kan (jaise elektraan, protaan, alfa kan aadi) ka veg badhaane (ya tvarit karne) ke kaam mein aati hain. veg badhaane (aur is prakaar oorja badhaane) ke liye vaidyut kshetr ka prayog kiya jaata hai jabki aaveshit kanon ko modane evam focus karne ke liye chumbakeeya kshetr ka prayog kiya jaata hai. tvarit kiye jaane vaale aaveshit kanon ke samooh ya kiran-punj (beam) dhaatu ya siraimik ke ek pipe se hokar gujarati hai jisme nirvaat banaakar rakhana padta hai taaki aaveshit kan kisi anya anu se takaraakar nasht na hone paayein.

TV aadi mein prayukt kaithod kiran tube (CRT) bhi ek ati saadhaaran kan-tvarak hi hai. jabki laarj haidraan kolaaidar vishv ka sabse vishaal aur shaktishaali kan tvarak hai.

kan tvarakon ka itna mahatva hai ki unhein 'anusandhaan ka yantr' (injins of diskavari) kaha jaata hai.

anukram

prakaar

kan tvarak mukya roop se do prakaar ke hote hain:

  • rekheeya tvarak (linaik / Linac) aur
  • chakreeya tvarak ya vrutteeya tvarak (Cyclic accelerators)

maaikrotraan, saaiklotraan, beetaatraan, sinkrotraan aadi chakreeya tvarak hain.

tvarakon ke upayog

uchch urja waali aaveshit kiran punj kai kaaryon ke liye upayogi hai. iska sabse mahatvapoorn upayog parmaanu ke andar jhaankane aur is baat ka pata lagaane ke liye kiya jaata hai parmaanu ka sabse maulik kan kya hai.

  • pratyek TV ke kaithod-kiran tube mein 10 kajaar elektraun-volt se lekar 25 hajaar elektraan-volt ka chhota sa deesi tvarak hota hai.
  • uchch-oorja bhautiki ke prayog karne ke liye
  • sookshm masheening (micro-masheening) ke liye
  • ekeekrut paripth (aai si) ke nirmaan mein
  • Cancer ke ilaaj ke liye
  • khaadya padaarthon ko rediyet karke sanrakshit karne hetu
  • udyogon mein (jaise, kebal ki cross-linking karne ke liye)
  • black hol ke nirmaan ke liye

kanon ko tvarit karne ka siddhaant

aaveshit kanon ko tvarit karne ke liye (arthaat unki urja badhaane ke liye) unhein ek vaidyut kshetr se hokar gujaara jaata hai jiski disha aavesh ke gati ki disha mein hoti hai.

jab kisi q aavesh ko V volt vibhvaantar vaale do binduon ke beech se gujaara jaata hai to usaki urja mein qV jool ki vruddhi ho jaati hai. udaaharan ke liye kisi elektraan ko 1 volt vibhvaantar se hokar gujaara jaaya to usaki urja mein 1 eV (1 electron-volt) ki vruddhi ho jaati hai. jnyaaatavya hai ki elektraun ka aavesh e=1.6E-19 koolaumb hota hai.

tvaran ki vidhiyaaain

  • aaveshon ko bahut adhik urja pradaan karne ke liye saadhaaranat: kai charanon mein tvarit kiya jaata hai.
  • pratham charan mein praay: aaveshit kan ko ek vidyutasthaitik kshetr (elektrostaitik fild) se hokar gujaarana padta hai.
  • rekheeya tvarak mein radio aavrutti ke vidyutchumbakeeya kshetr ke dvaara tvaran pradaan kiya jaata hai.
  • chakreeya tvarakon mein tvaran ke liye radio aavrutti ki kaiviti (aar ef kaiviti) ka prayog kiya jaata hai.
  • adhik urja ke aaveshit kanon ke maarg mein uchch nirvaat ki vyavastha hoti hai taaki ye kan kisi dravya se takkar karke apni urja nasht na kar dein. iske liye in kanon ka maarg beam pipe se hokar jaata hai. beam pipe mein nirvaat paida karne ke liye tarah-tarah ke pamp prayog kiye jaate hain.

saral tvarak bhautiki

  • jab koi aaveshit kan kisi vidyut kshetr mein (sthir ya gatimaan) ho to us par vidyut kshetr ke samaanaantar vaidyut bal lagta hai. yadi kan is kshetr mein gati karne ke liye svatantr ho to usaki gatij urja badh jaati hai. yahi siddhaant aaveshit kanon ki urja badhaane mein tarah-tarah se prayukt kiya jaata hai.
  • jab koi aaveshit kan kisi chumbakeeya kshetr mein gatimaan ho to us par chumbakeeya bal lagta hai. yeh bal chumbakeeya kshetr evam aavesh ke veg dono ke lambavat lagta hai tatha is bal ka maan aavesh ke maan, chumbakeeya kshetr ke maan evam veg ke maan ke gunanafal ke samaanupaati hota hai. is siddhaant ka upayog aaveshit kanon ko modane tatha unhe focus karne mein hota hai.
  • jab koi aaveshit kan prakaash ke veg ke lagbhag baraabar veg se gati kar raha hota hai aur usaka sanveg parivrtit kiya jaaya (jaise use modkar ya kisi anya vidhi se) to vah vikirn chhodta hai. ise sinkrotraan vikirn kehte hain. yeh vikirn kai kaaryon ke liye bahut upayogi hota hai.

tvarakon ke pramukh ghatak

kan tvarak ek bahut jatil tantr hai jo kai tantron se milkar bana hota hai. iske mukhya ghatak is prakaar hain:

  • aavesh ka srot - praay: elektraun, protaun evam alfa kan hi tvarit kiye jaate hain kyonki ye sthir (stebal) kan hain. doosare kan kshanabhangur (kam ardhaaayu ke) hote hain jinhe unke atyant laghu jeevanakaal (kuchh mileesekend) mein tvarit karna lagbhag asambhav hai.
  • kanon ki urja badhaane ka upakaran : radio aavruti kaiviti (aaraef kaiviti) aadi
  • chumbak : aaveshit kanon ko modne evam focus karne ke liye
  • dvidhruv chumbak (daaipol maignet) - kanonko modane ke liye
  • chaturdhruvi chumbak (kvaadroopol maignet) - kanon ke punj ko focus karne hetu
  • anya - shatadhruvi, ashtadhruvi, kikr chumbak, viglar aadi
  • chumbakon mein aavashyak vidyut dhaara pradaan karne ke shakti aapoorti taaki chumbak aavashyak chumbakeeya kshetr utpann kar sakein.
  • beam pipe : jismein se aaveshit kan gaman karte hain. beam pipe mein nirvaat paida karne ke liye tarah-tarah ke nirvaat-pamp prayog kiye jaate hain.
  • jaaainch evam nidaan se sambandhit upakaran (daayagnostik divaaises) - jaise beam-dhaara ka maapan, beam profaail (aakaar) ka maapan, beam pipe ke andar beam ki sthiti ka maapan aadi
  • niyntran tantr tatha niyntran kaksh - vibhinn avayavon (jaise shakti aapoorti) ko uchit maan par set karna, beam evam anya tantron ke mahatvapoorn raashiyon ke baare mein jaankaari ekatr karke kantrol room mein pradarshit karna va computer par usaka bhandaaran karna.
  • vikirn suraksha ke liye kaankreet, sheesha (led) aadi ke dvaara shilding ; vikirn ke maapan ke liye upakaran aadi.

kan tvarakon ka itihaas

samay ke saath aaveshit kanon kabadhti urja
  • 1930 — pehla kan tvarak
  • 1931 — 'vaan di graaf' (Van de Graaff) naamak tvarak ka praadurbhaav
  • 1931 — raikhik tvarak (Linac), beetaatraan (Betatron), evam saaiklotraun (Cyclotron)
  • 1931 — An American Linac
  • 1931 — A Close Second: The First Cyclotron
  • 1932-1940 — The Decade of the Cyclotron
  • 1940 — The Betatron
  • 1945 — New Ideas: Synchronous Acceleration Leads to the Microtron
  • 1947 — More Synchronicity: The Electron Synchrotron
  • 1947 — The Synchrocyclotron
  • 1952 — Even Higher Energies: The Proton Synchrotron
  • 1952 — A Strong Leap Ahead: Focusing the Beam
  • 1953 — Synchrotrons Become Stronger
  • 1946-1954 — The Linac Grows Up: An Electron and Proton Linac
  • 1966 — Stanford Gets Serious About the Linac: SLAC
  • 1960 — The Storage Ring Collider
  • 1969 — CERN Enters the Collider Age T
  • 1970 — Germany Joins the Collider Age
  • 1981 — The First Proton-Antiproton Colliders: CERN and FNAL
  • 1981 — CERN Gets Into the Electron-Positron Business
  • 1983 — Illinois Builds a Big Collider: The Tevatron
  • 1993 — Everything is Bigger in Texas-The SSC
  • 2000 — Heavy Ion Colliders: RHIC and the LHC
  • 2010

vishv mein tvarak

vishv ke sabhi pramukh deshon mein kan tvarak banaaye gaye hain. is samay vishv ke vibhinn deshon mein vibhinn prakaar ke, vibhinn urja vaale evam vibhinn upayog ke liye nirmit kai hajaar kan tvarak hain. jeneva sthit sarn (CERN) laarj haidraan kolaaidar vishv ka sabse vishaal aur shaktishaali kan tvarak hai.

Bhaarat mein kan tvarak

tvarak ke baarein mein anyatr

  • Hellborg, Ragnar, ed. Electrostatic Accelerators: Fundamentals and Applications [N.Y., N.Y.: Springer, 2005]. [1]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain