kan bhautiki

kan bhautiki, bhautiki ki ek shaakha hai jismein moolabhoot up paramaanavik kano ke paarasparik sanbandho tatha unke astitv ka adhyayan kiya jaata hai, jinse padaarth tatha vikirn nirmit hain. hamaari ab tak ki samajh ke anusaar kan kvaantam kshetron (quantum fields) ke uttejan (excitations) hain. doosare kanon ke saath inki ant:kriya ki apni gatiki hai.

kan bhautiki ke kshetr mein adhikaansh ruchi moolabhoot kshetron (fundamental fields) mein hai. maulik kshetron aur unki gatisheelataao ke saar ko Standard Model siddhaant ke roop mein prastut kiya gaya hai. isiliye kan bhautiki mein adhiktar standard model (Standard Model) ke mool kanon tatha unke sambhaavit vistaar ke baare mein adhyan kiya jaata hai.

anukram

upaparamaanavik kan

kan bhautiki ka maanak pratimaan (Standard Model)

aadhunik kan bhautiki khoj upaparamaanvik kanao par kendrit hai jisme nabhik ko banaane vaale kan jaise electrons, protons or neutrons (protons or neutrons yaugik kan hai jo ki quarks se milkar bante hai) radioactive or scattering prakriya se banane vaale kan jaise ki photons, neutrinos, or muons or saath hi exotic particles shaamil hai. agar sahi roop mai kahe to particle parishudhd bhotiki mai ek ashuddh naam hai kyo ki kan bhautiki ki gatiki quantum mechanics dvaara poornata paribhaasit hoti hai. jaise ki kuchh praayogik paristhi mai yeh tarag-kan dvaiti prakarti dikhte hai, tatha kuchh jagah ye tarang jaisa vyavahaar prastut karte hai. or takaneeki bhaasha mai kaahe to yeh Hilbert space mai quantum state dvaara varnit hote hai, jo ki quantum field theory mai bataaya gaya hai. kan bhotik vaijnyaaaniko ke anusaar kan bhotiki ke praathamik kan electrons or photons hai, tatha ye sabhi janate hai ki ye kan tarag jaisi prakati bhi prastut karte hai.

abhi tak gyaat sabhi kan tatha unki parsparik kriyaaye kvaantam siddhaant ke maanak model davaara paribhaashit ki ja sakti hai. maanak model mai 17 tarah ke prarambhik kan paribhaashit kiye gaye hai, 12 farmiyaan (pratikn sahit 24), 4 sadish bosaan (pratikn sahit 5) tatha ek adish bosaan kan. ye praathamik kan un saikado tarah ke samagr kanon ko sanyojit kar sakte hain jinki khoj 1960 se ab tak hui hai. maanak model ab tak ke lagbhag sabhi prayogik pareekshan mai safal raha hai. haalaki vahut se kan bhotikvaadi yeh maanate hai ki yeh prakruti ka ek adhoora varnan maatr hai, tatha or adhik saarabhoot siddhaanto ki khoj abhi baki hai. haal hi mai nyutreeno ke dravyamaan ki khoj ne maanak model mai pratham praayogik vichlan prastut kiya hai.

kan bhotiki vijnyaaanan ke bahut se sidhnto se prabhavit hota hai, kuchh kan bhotikvadi nyooneekaran ke sidhnt ko manate hai tatha kuchh sanpoornata ke sidhaant ka samathan karte hai.

itihaas

yeh vichaar ki sabhi padaarth praarambhik kano se milkar bane hai 6 vi sadi puraana hai, anu mat ka sidhaant tatha praarambhik kano ka adhyan praacheen greek vaigyaanik jese ki lyupiks, demokrits praacheen bhaarateeya vaigyaanik kanaardh, dignaag tatha dharmakeerti karte aaye hai. yeh praacheen vichaar anubhavajanya avalokanon tatha prayogon par aadhaarit na ho kar daarshanik tark aur saar ke aadhaar par banaaye gaye the

19 vi sadi May daaltan ne apne prayogon ke dvaara sase siddh kar diya ki sabhi padaarth ek hi tarah ke kanon se milkar bane hai daaltan aur unke samakaaleenon ka maanana ​a​atha ki yeh prakruti ke maulik kan the. is liye unhonne in kanon ka naam ATOMS rakh diya jo ki ek greek shabd ATOMOS se prerit hai jiska matlab hota hai avibhaajya. haalaanki 19 vi sadi ke ant tak vaijnyaaaniko ko yeh pata chal chuka tha ki ATOMS prakati ke mool kan naheen hai apitu vo aur bhi chhote kanon ka sangathan maatr hai. shuruvaati 20 vi sadi ke prayog naabhikeeya vikhandan aur naabhikeeya sanlayan ke safalta ke saath samaapt hue in prayogon ke kaaran ek parmaanu ko dusare parmaanu mai badalne ke ek ese udyog ko janm diya jiske dvaara seese ko sone mai badla ja sake halaaki yeh sambhav naheen hai. in prayogon ke kaaran naabhakeeya hathiyaaron ke vikaas ko bhi jor mila 1950 se 1960 ke beech bhinn bhinn prayogon mai kai saare kanon ki khoj ki gayi, jise kan chidiyaaghar ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai yeh kan chidiyaaghar shabd 1970 mai standard model banane ke baad khtm ho saka is standard model mai kuchh moolabhoot kanon ke dvaara lagbhag saare kanon ko paribhaashit kar diya gaya .

standard model

praathamik kanon ke vargeekaran ki vartamaan sthiti standard model hai. yeh maadal madhyasthata gej bosaunon ka upayog kar majaboot, kamjor aur vidyut chumbakeeya maulik baatcheet ka varnan karta hai. gej bosaun ki prajaateeya hai gluons, W−, W+ Z bosons and photons. model me 24 tarah ke maulik kan (12 kanon aur unke sambaddh virodhi kanon), jo sabhi tarah ke padaartho ke mukhya ghatak hain. haal hi me bahut samay tatha bahut hi mahage prayogon ke baad isvareeya kan higs bosaun ke khoj ki ghoshana ki gayi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

kan bhautiki se sanbandhit shabdaavali hindi varnamaala ke kramaanusaar neeche di gayi hai-

a

anu molecule

alfa kan alpha particle

oo

oorja energy

k

kvaark quark

kalar chaarj color charge

g

gluon gluon

gej bosaun gauge boson

na

nyootraun neutron

negaatraun negatron

naabhik nucleus

nyooklion nucleon

p

protaun proton

pojeetraun positron

pratikn anti particle

pauli eksaklyusan sidhdaant pauli exclusion principle

parmaanu atom

f

farmion fermion

fotaun photon

b

beryaun baryon

bosaun boson

beeta kshaya beta decay

brahmaand kiran cosmic ray

m

moolabhoot kan elementary particle

maanak model standard model

mesaun mason

maulik bal fundamental force

l

leptaun lepton

va

vidyut aavesh electric charge

vikirn radiation

vidyutachumbakeeya vikirn electromagnetic radiation

s

prachakran spin

sanyojit kan composite particle

s

ilektraun

h

higs bosaun higss boson

hedraun hadron

baahari kadiyaaain