kambodiya

Preăah Réaachéaa Anachâak Kâampŭachea
kambodiya ki raajashaahi
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: CambodiaMotto.svg
"desh, dharm, raaja"
raashtragaan: Nokoreach
royal kingadam
भूरे रंग में एशियान और हरे रंग में कम्बोडिया
bhoore rang mein eshiyaan aur hare rang mein kambodiya
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
naamapenh
11°a33′aN 104°a55′aE / 11.55°aN 104.917°aE / 11.55; 104.917
raajabhaasha(eain) khamer
nivaasi khamer ya kambodiyn
sarkaar samvaidhaanik raajashaahi,
sansadeeya pratinidhitv lokatantr
- raaja norodom shihaamoni
- pradhaanamantri hun sen
gathan
- khamer saamraajya 802
- fraansisi upanivesh 1863
- fraank se svatantrata 9 November 1953
- raajashaahi ki punarsthaapana May 1993
kshetrafal
- kul 181,035 varg kilometer (88 vaan)
69,898 varg meal
- jal (%) 2.5
janasankhya
- 2008 janaganana 14,241,640 (67 vaan)
- 2008 janaganana 13,388,910
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $28.239 billion (-)
- prati vyakti $2,066 (-)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.584[1]
madhyam · 136vaaain
mudra raail (៛)1 (KHR)
samay mandal (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+7)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+7)
doorabhaash koot 855
Internet teeeladi .kh
1. Local currency, although US dollars are widely used.

kanbodiya jise pehle kanpoochiya ke naam se jaana jaata tha dakshin poorv Asia ka ek pramukh desh hai jiski aabaadi 1,42,41,640 (ek karod bayaalees lakh, ikataalees hajaar chhe sau chaalees) hai. naamapenh is raajatantreeya desh ka sabse bada shahar evam iski rajdhani hai. kanbodiya ka aavirbhaav ek samay bahut shaktishaali rahe hindu evam bauddh khamer saamraajya se hua jisne gyaarahaveen se chaudahaveen sadi ke beech poore hind cheen (indochaayana) kshetr par shaasan kiya tha. kanbodiya ki seemaaeain pashchim evam pashchimottar mein Thailand, poorv evam uttarapoorv mein laaos tatha viytanaam evam dakshin mein Thailand ki khaadi se lagti hain. mekong nadi yahaaain bahne waali pramukh jaladhaara hai.

kanbodiya ki arthavyavastha mukhya roop se vastr udyog, paryatan evam nirmaan udyog par aadhaarit hai. 2007 mein yahaaain keval ankoravaat mandir aanevaale videshi paryatakon ki sankhya 40 lakh se bhi jyaada thi. san 2007 mein kanbodiya ke samudra tateeya kshetron mein tel evam gas ke vishaal bhandaar ki khoj hui, jiska vyaapaarik utpaadan san 2011 se hone ki ummeed hai jisse is desh ki arthavyavastha mein kaafi parivartan hone ki apeksha ki ja rahi hai.

anukram

kanbuj ka itihaas

angakoravaat ka mandir

kanbuj ya kanboj kanbodiya ka praacheen sanskrut naam hai. bhootapoorv indocheen praayadveep mein sarvapraacheen bhaarateeya upanivesh ki sthaapana foonaan pradesh mein pratham shati E. ke lagbhag hui thi. lagbhag 600 varshon tak foonaan ne is pradesh mein hindu sanskruti ka prachaar evam prasaar karne mein mahatvapoorn yog diya. tatpashchaat‌ is kshetr mein kanbuj ya kanboj ka mahaan‌ raajya sthaapit hua jiske adbhut aishvarya ki gauravapoorn parampara 14veen sadi E. tak chalti rahi. is praacheen vaibhav ke avashesh aaj bhi angkoravaat, angkorathom naamak sthaanon mein vartamaan hain.

kanboj ki praacheen dantakathaaon ke anusaar is upanivesh ki neenv 'aaryadesh' ke raaja kanbu svayaanbhuv ne daali thi. vah bhagavaan‌ Shiv ki prerana se kanboj desh mein aae aur yahaaain basi hui naag jaati ke raaja ki sahaayata se unhonne is jangali marusthal mein ek naya raajya basaaya jo naagaraaj ki adbhut jaadoogari se hare bhare, sundar pradesh mein parint ho gaya. kanbu ne naagaraaj ki kanya mera se vivaah kar liya aur kanbuj raajavansh ki neenv daali. yeh bhi sambhav hai ki bhaarateeya kanboj (Kashmir ka raajauri jila tatha sanvarti pradesh-dr. 'kanboj') se bhi indocheen mein sthit is upanivesh ka sambandh raha ho. teesari shati E. mein Bhaarat ki uttar-pashchimi seema par basanevo murundon ka ek raajadoot foonaan pahuaincha tha aur sambhavat: kanboj ke ghode apne saath vahaaain laaya tha. kanboj ke pratham aitihaasik raajavansh ka sansthaapak shrutavarman tha jisne kanboj desh ko foonaan ki adheenata se mukt kiya. iske putr shreshthavarman ne apne naam par shreshthapur naamak rajdhani basaai jiske khandahar laaos ke vaatafoo pahaadi (lingaparvat) ke paas sthit hain. tatpashchaat‌ bhavavarman ne, jiska sambandh foonaan aur kanboj donon hi raajavanshon se tha, ek naya vansh (khmer) chalaaya aur apne hi naam bhavapur naamak rajdhani basaai. bhavavarman tatha iske bhaai maheindravarman ke samay se kanboj ka vikaasayug praarambh hota hai. foonaan ka puraana raajya ab jeernasheern ho chuka tha aur sheegra hi is nae durgharsh saamraajya mein vileen ho gaya. maheindravarman ki mrutyu ke pashchaat‌ unka putr ishaanavarman gaddi par baitha. is prataapi raaja ne kanboj raajya ki seemaaon ka door-door tak vistaar kiya. usane Bhaarat aur chanpa ke saath raajanayik sambandh sthaapit kiye aur ishaanapur naam ki ek nai rajdhani ka nirmaan kiya. ishaanavarman ne chanpa ke raaja jagaddharm ko apni putri byaahi thi jiska putr prakaashadharm apne pita ki mrutyu ke pashchaat‌ chanpa ka raaja hua. isse prateet hota hai ki chanpa is samay kanboj ke raajaneetik prabhaav ke antargat tha. ishaanavarman ke baad bhavavarman‌ dviteeya aur jayavarman‌ pratham kanboj nareshon ke naam milte hain. jayavarman‌ ke pashchaat‌ 674 E. mein is raajavansh ka ant ho gaya. kuchh hi samay ke uparaant kanboj ki shakti ksheen hone lagi aur dheere-dheere 8veen sadi E. mein jaava ke shaileindr raajaaon ka kanboj desh par aadhiptaya sthaapit ho gaya. 8veen sadi E. ka kanboj itihaas adhik spasht naheen hai kintu 9veen sadi ka aarambh hote hi is praacheen saamraajya ki shakti maanon pun: jeevit ho uthi. iska shreya jayavarman‌ dviteeya (802-854 E.) ko diya jaata hai. usane angakor vansh ki neenv daali aur kanboj ko jaava ki adheenata se mukt kiya. usane sambhavat: Bhaarat se hirnyadaas naamak braahman ko bulavaakar apne raajya ki suraksha ke liye taantrik kriyaaeain karavaain. is vidvaan‌ braahman ne devaraaj naamak sanpradaaya ki sthaapana ki jo sheegra hi kanboj ka raajadharm ban gaya. jayavarman‌ ne apni rajdhani kramash: kuti, harihraalaya aur amareindrapur naamak nagaron mein banaai jisse spasht hai ki vartamaan kanbodiya ka praaya: samast kshetr uske adheen tha aur raajya ki shakti ka kendra dheere-dheere poorv se pashchim ki or badhta hua antat: angkor ke pradesh mein sthaapit ho gaya tha.

jayavarman‌ dviteeya ko apne samay mein kanbujaraajeindr aur usaki maharaani ko kanbujaraajalakshmi naam se abhihit kiya jaata tha. isi samay se kanbodiya ke praacheen naam kanbuj ya kanboj ka videshi lekhakon ne bhi prayog karna praarambh kar diya tha. jayavarman‌ dviteeya ke pashchaat‌ bhi kanboj ke saamraajya ki nirantar unnati aur vruddhi hoti gayi aur kuchh hi samay ke baad samast indocheen praayadveep mein kanboj saamraajya ka vistaar ho gaya. mahaaraaj indravarman‌ ne anek mandiron aur tadaagon ka nirmaan karavaaya. yashovarman‌ (889-908 E.) hindu shaastron aur sanskrut kaavyon ka jnyaaata tha aur usane anek vidvaanon ko raajashraya diya. uske samay ke anek sundar sanskrut abhilekh praapya hain. is kaal mein hindu dharm, saahitya aur kaal ki abhootapoorv pragati hui. yashovarman‌ ne kanbupuri ya yashodharapur naam ki nai rajdhani basaai. dharm aur sanskruti ka vishaal kendra angkor thom bhi isi nagari ki shobha badhaata tha. 'angkor sanskruti' ka svarnakaal isi samay se hi praanrabh hota hai. 944 E. mein kanboj ka raaja raajeindravarman‌ tha jiske samay ke kai bruhad abhilekh sundar sanskrut kaavyashaili mein likhe milte hain. 1001 E. tak ka samay kanboj ke itihaas mein mahatvapoorn hai kyonki is kaal mein kanboj ki seemaaeain cheen ke dakshini bhaag chhooti theen, laaos uske antargat tha aur usaka raajaneetik prabhaav syaam aur uttari malaaya tak faila hua tha.

sooryavarman‌ pratham (mrutyu 1049 E.) ne praaya: samast syaam par kanboj ka aadhiptya sthaapit kar diya aur dakshin brahmadesh par bhi aakraman kiya. vah saahitya, nyaaya aur vyaakaran ka pandit tha tatha swayam bauddh hote hue bhi shaiv aur vaishnav dharmon ka premi aur sanrakshak tha. usane raajyaaseen hone ke samay desh mein chale hue gruhayuddh ko samaapt kar raajya ki sthiti ko pun: sudrudh karne ka prayatn kiya. uttari chanpa ko jeetkar sooryavarman‌ ne use kanboj ka karad raajya bana liya kintu sheegra hi dakshin chanpa ke raaja jayahari varman‌ se haar maanani padi. is samay kanboj mein gruhayuddhon aur padosi deshon ke saath anban ke kaaran kaafi ashaanti rahi.

jayavarman‌ saptam (Abhishek 1181) ke raajyakaal mein pun: ek baar kanboj ki praacheen yash:pataaka faharaane lagi. usane ek vishaal sena banaai jismein syaam aur brahmadesh ke sainik bhi sammilit the. jayavarman‌ ne anaam par aakraman kar use jeetne ka bhi prayaas kiya kintu nirantar yuddhon ke kaaran shanai: shanai: kanboj ki sainik shakti ka hraas hone laga, yahaaain tak ki 1220 E. mein kanbojon ko chanpa se hatna pada. kintu fir bhi jayavarman‌ saptam ki ganana kanboj ke mahaan‌ raajyanirmaataaon mein ki jaati hai kyonk usame samay mein kanboj ke saamraajya ka vistaar apaneecharam seema par pahuaincha hua tha. jayavarman‌ saptam ne apni nai rajdhani vartamaan angkorathom mein banaai thi. iske khandahar aaj bhi sansaar ke prasiddh praacheen avasheshon mein gine jaate hain. nagar ke chaturdik‌ ek ooaincha parakota tha aur 110 gaj chaudi ek parikha thi. iski lanbaai saadhe aath meal ke lagbhag thi. nagar ke parakote ke paaainch sinhadvaar the jinse paaainch vishaal raajapath (100 foot chaude, 1 meal lambe) nagar ke andar jaate the. ye raajapath, beyon ke viraat hindu mandir ke paas milte the, jo nagar ke madhya mein sthit tha. mandir mein 66,625 vyakti niyukt the aur iske vyaya ke liye 3,400 graamon ki aay lagi hui thi. is samay ke ek abhilekh se gyaat hota hai ki kanboj mein 789 mandir tatha 102 chikitsaalaya the aur 121 vaahani (vishraam) gruh the.

jayavarman‌ saptam ke pashchaat‌ kanboj ke itihaas ke anek sthal adhik spasht naheen hain. 13veen sadi mein kanboj mein sudrudh raajaneetik shakti ka abhaav tha. kuchh itihaasalekhakon ke anusaar kanboj ne 13veen sadi ke antim charan mein cheen ke samraat kubale khaaain ka aadhiptya maanane se inkaar kar diya tha. 1296 E. mein cheen se ek dootamandal angkorathom aaya tha jiske ek sadasya shoo-taan-kuaan ne tatkaaleen kanboj ke vishay mein vistrut tatha manoranjak vruttaant likha hai jiska anuvaad fraanseesi bhaasha mein 1902 E. mein hua tha. 14veen sadi mein kanboj ke padosi raajyon mein nai raajaneetik shakti ka udaya ho raha tha tatha syaam aur chanpa ke thai log kanboj ki or badhne ka nirantar prayaas kar rahe the. parinaam yeh hua ki kanboj par do or se bhaari dabaav padne laga aur vah in donon deshon ki chakki ke paaton ke beech pisne laga. dheere-dheere kanboj ki praacheen mahatta samaapt ho gayi aur ab yeh desh indocheen ka ek saadhaaran pichhda hua pradesh bankar rah gaya. 19veen sadi mein fraanseesi ka prabhaav indocheen mein badh chala tha; vaise, ve 16veen sadi mein hi is praayadveep mein aa gaye the aur apni shakti badhaane ke avsar ki taak mein the. vah avsar ab aur 1854 E. mein kanboj ke nirbal raaja ankaduong ne apna desh fraanseesiyon ke haathon saunp diya. noradam (narottam) pratham (1858-1904) ne 11 August 1863 E. ko is samjhaute ko pakka kar diya aur agale 80 varshon tak kanboj ya kanbodiya French-indocheen ka ek bhaag bana raha. (kanbodiya, French cambodge ka roopaantar hai. French naam kanboj ya kanbujiya se bana hai.) 1904-41 mein syaam aur fraanseesiyon ke beech honevaale yuddh mein kanbodiya ka kuchh pradesh syaam ko de diya gaya kintu dviteeya vishvayuddh ke pashchaat‌ 1945 E. mein yeh bhaag use pun: praapt ho gaya. is samay kanbodiya mein svatantrata aandolan bhi chal raha tha jiske parinaamasvaroop France ne kanbodiya ko ek naya samvidhaan pradaan kiya (May 6, 1947). kintu isse vahaaain ke raashtrapremiyon ko santosh na hua aur unhonne 1949 E. (8 November) mein fraanseesiyon ko ek nae samanaite par hastaakshar karne par vivsh kar diya jisse unhonne kanbodiya ki svatantr raajaneetik satta ko sveekaar kar liya, kintu ab bhi desh ko French union ke antargat hi rakha gaya tha. iske viruddh kanbodiya ke prabhaavashaali raaja noradam sinhaanuk ne apna raashtreeya aandolan jaari rakha. inke prayatn se kanbodiya sheegra hi svatantr raashtra ban gaya aur ye apne desh ke pratham pradhaan mantri chune gaye.

dharm, bhaasha, saamaajik jeevan

kanboj vaastavik arth mein bhaarateeya upanivesh tha. vahaaain ke nivaasiyon ka dharm, unki sanskruti evam sabhyata, saahityik paranparaaeain, vaastukala aur bhaasha-sabhi par bhaarateeyata ki amit chhaap thi jiske darshan aaj bhi kanboj ke darshak ko anaayaas hi ho jaate hain. hindu dharm aur vaishnav sanpradaaya aur tatpashchaat‌ (1000 E. ke baad) bauddh dharm kanboj ke raajadharm the aur yahaaain ke anek sanskrut abhilekhon ko unki dhaarmik tatha pauraanik saanskrutik prushthabhoomi ke kaaran bhaarateeya abhilekhon se alag karna kathin hi jaan padega. udaaharan ke liye raajeindravarman‌ ke ek vishaal abhilekh ka keval ek ansh yahaaain prastut hai jismein Shiv ki vandana ki gayi hai :

roopan yasya navendumanditshikhan tray‌aaya: prateetan paran
beejan brahmahareeshvarodayakaran bhinnan kalaabhistridha.
saakshaaradaksharamaamananti munayo yogodhigmyan namas‌
sansiddhyai pranavaatmane bhagavate tasmai shivaayaastu vam‌..

puraane arab paryatakon ne kanboj ko hindu desh ke naam se theek hi abhihit kiya. kanbuj ki raajabhaasha praacheen kaal mein sanskrut thi, usaka sthaan dheere-dheere bauddh dharm ke prachaar ke kaaran paali ne le liya aur aaj bhi yeh dhaarmik kshetr mein yahaaain ki mukhya bhaasha bani hui hai. kanbuj bhaasha mein sanskrut ke hajaaron shabd apne kanbuji ya khmer roop mein aaj bhi paae jaate hain (jaise-tep‌aada = devata, shaats = shaasan, suor = svarg, feemean = vimaan). kh‌aamer lipi dakshini Bhaarat ki pallav aur poorvi chaalukya lipiyon ke mel se bani hai. kanboj ki vaastukala, moortikla tatha chitrakala par bhaarateeya prabhaav spasht hai. angkorathom ka beyon mandir dakshin Bhaarat ke mandiron se bahut milta-julata hai. iske shikhar mein bhi bhaarateeya mandiron ke shikharon ki spasht jhalak milti hai. is mandir aur ailora ke kailaas mandir ke kalaatatv, visheshat: moortikaari tatha aalekhya vishyon aur drushyon mein adbhut saamya hai.

kanboj ki saamaajik dasha ka sundar chitran, shoo-taan-kutaan ke varnan (13veen sadi ka ant) is prakaar hai-

vidvaanon ko yahaaain panki (pandit), bhikshuon ko shoo-koo (bhikshu) aur braahmanon ko pa-sho-vei (paashupat) kaha jaata hai. pandit apne kanth mein shvet dhaaga (yajnyaopaveet) daale rahate hain, jise ve kabhi naheen hataate. bhikshu log sir mudaate aur peet vastr pahanate hain. ve maans machhali khaate hain par madya naheen peete. unki pustakein taalapatron par likhi jaati hain. bauddh bhikshuniyaaain yahaaain naheen hai. paashupat apne keshon ko laal ya safed vastron se dhake rahate hain. kanboj ke saamaanya jan shyaam rang ke tatha hrushtapusht hain. raajaparivaar ki striyaaain gaur varn hain. sabhi log kati tak shareer vivstr rakhate hain aur nange paaainv ghoomate hain. raaja pataraani ke saath jharokhe mein baithakar praja ko darshan deta hai.
likhne ke liye Krishna mrug kaachamada bhi kaam mein aata hai. log snaan ke bahut premi hain. yahaaain striyaaain vyaapaar ka kaam bhi karti hain. gehooain, haldi, cheeni, resham ke kapde, raaainga, cheeni bartan kaagaj aadi yahaaain vyaapaar ki mukhya vastueain hain.
gaaainvon mein prabandh karne ke liye ek mukhiya ya mayichi rahata hai. sadkon par yaatriyon ke vishraam karne ke liye aavaas bane hue hain.

kanbodiya - kanboj ka arvaacheen (aadhunik) naam hai. yeh hind cheen praayadveep ka ek desh hai jo san‌ 1955 E. mein fraanseesi aadhiptya se mukt hua hai. 19veen shataabdi ke poorv yeh pradesh khmer raajya ka ang tha kintu 1863 E. mein fraanseesiyon ke aadhiptya mein aa gaya. dviteeya vishvayuddh mein kanbodiya par Japan ka adhikaar tha.

kanbodiya ka kshetrafal 1,81,000 varg meal hai. iski pashchimi aur uttari seema par syaam tatha laao aur poorvi seema par dakshini viytanaam desh hain. dakshin-pashchim bhaag syaam ki khaadi ka tat hai. kanbodiya tashtari ke aakar ki ek ghaati hai jise chaaron or se parvat ghere hue hain. ghaati mein uttar se dakshin ki or meekaang nadi bahti hai. ghaati ke pashchimi bhaag mein taangale naamak ek chhichhli aur vistrut jheel hai jo udaaaing nadi dvaara meekaang se judi hui hai.

kanbodiya ki upajaaoo mitti aur mausami jalavaayu mein chaaval prachur parimaan mein hota hai. ab bhi vistrut bhookshetr shramikon ke abhaav mein krushiviheen pade hain. yahaaain ki anya pramukh fasalein tubaakoo, kahava, neel aur rabar hain. pashupaalan ka vyavasaaya vikaasonmukh hai. paryaapt janasankhya machhali pakadkar apni jeevika arjit karti hai. chaaval aur machhali kanbodiya ki pramukh niryaat ki vastueain hain. is desh ka ek vistrut bhaag bahumoolya vanon se aachhaadit hai. meekaang aur tonalesaap ke sangam par sthit pnaum pen kanbodiya ki rajdhani hai. bade-bade jalayaan is nagar tak aate hain. yeh nagar kanbodiya ki vibhinn bhaagon se sadkon dvaara juda hai.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain